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Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Lesson 1Lesson 1Fossil Evidence of Evolution Lesson 2Lesson 2The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection Lesson 3Lesson.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Lesson 1Lesson 1Fossil Evidence of Evolution Lesson 2Lesson 2The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection Lesson 3Lesson."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Lesson 1Lesson 1Fossil Evidence of Evolution Lesson 2Lesson 2The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection Lesson 3Lesson 3Biological Evidence of Evolution Chapter Wrap-Up

3 Chapter Introduction How do species adapt to changing environments over time?

4 Chapter Introduction What do you think? Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree with each of these statements. As you view this presentation, see if you change your mind about any of the statements.

5 Chapter Introduction 1.Original tissues can be preserved as fossils. 2.Organisms become extinct only in mass extinction events. 3.Environmental change causes variations in populations. Do you agree or disagree?

6 Chapter Introduction 4.Variations can lead to adaptations. 5.Living species contain no evidence that they are related to each other. 6.Plants and animals share similar genes. Do you agree or disagree?

7 Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC How do fossils form? How do scientists date fossils? How are fossils evidence of biological evolution? Fossil Evidence of Evolution

8 Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab fossil record mold cast trace fossil Fossil Evidence of Evolution geologic time scalegeologic time scale extinction biological evolutionbiological evolution

9 Lesson 1-1 A. The fossil record- A record of all the fossils ever discovered on Earth.fossil record 1. Arranged by date 2. Provides evidence that species have changed over time. 3. Fossil evidence allows scientists to recreate the physical appearance of species that are extinct I. The Fossil Record

10 Lesson 1-2 A. After an animal dies, any soft tissues animals do not eat break down by decomposers in the air and soil. II.Fossil Formation tissue Science Use similar cells that work together and perform a function Common Use a piece of soft, absorbent paper

11 Lesson Only hard parts, such as bones, shells, and teeth, remain. B. Under rare conditions, these parts become fossils. Fossil Formation (cont.)

12 Lesson 1-2 A.Mold- The impression of an organism in a rock is left behind (empty space) after the organism deaysMold B. Cast- A 3-D model of the hard parts of the organismast 1. Forms when a mold is filled with water and sediments 2. Minerals harden to form the cast fossil a) Let’s make a fossil! III. Types of Fossils

13 Lesson 1-2 C. Trace fossil- Evidence left behind showing the activity of an organism. 1. Ex: Footprint, Feather, Etc Types of Fossils (cont.) fossil from Latin fossilis, means “to obtain by digging”

14 Lesson 1-2 D. In rare cases, the original tissues of an organism can be preserved. 1. Amber (Tree Sap) 2. Ice (Wooly Mammoths) Types of fossils (cont.) List the different ways fossils can form.

15 Lesson 1-3 A. Scientists find the age of the rock containing the fossil. 1. Relative-Age Dating- scientists determine the relative order in which rock layers were deposited. a) Oldest layers on the bottom, youngest on top b) Layers can be disrupted by earthquakes, mudslides, etc. IV. Determining a Fossil’s Age

16 Lesson 1-3 Determining a Fossil’s Age (cont.) How does relative-age dating help scientists learn about fossils?

17 Lesson Radiometric Dating (Absolute)- Using radioactive decay, a natural clocklike process in rocks, to learn a rock’s absolute age, or its age in years. a) Looks at igneous/volcanic layers above and below the rock of interest. b) Uses the steady rate of radioactive decay (and how many original atoms are left) to determine the age Determining a Fossil’s Age (cont.)

18 Lesson 1-3 c) Half-Life- The amount of time it takes for half of the original atoms to decay 1) Ex: Carbon 14 is 5730 years, up to 60,000 years old 2) Ex: Potassium 40 is 1.25 billion years, up to 4 billion d) Rock Box Demonstration 1) Pennies & Nickels Determining a Fossil’s Age (cont.)

19 Lesson Scientists use the age of the layers to estimate the age of the fossils in between.

20 Lesson 1-4 A.The geologic time scale is a chart that divides Earth’s history into different time units.geologic time scale 1. Eons—the longest time units in the geologic time scale. a) Hadean b) Archaean c) Proterozoic d) Phanerozoic V. Fossils over Time

21 Lesson Eras a) Precambrian (microorganisms) b) Paleozoic (plants & small reptiles) c) Mesozoic (dinosaurs) d) Cenozoic (mammals) V. Fossils over Time

22 Lesson Periods (Don’t Write) a) Cambrian b) Ordovician c) Silurian d) Devonian e) Carboniferous f) Permian g) Triassic h) Jurassic i) Cretaceous j) Tertiary K) Quaternary V. Fossils over Time

23 Lesson 1-4

24 Lesson 1-5 A. ExtinctionA. Extinction occurs when the last individual organism of a species dies. 1. Extinctions can occur when environments change. 2. Mass extinctions often mark the end of an era VI. Extinctions

25 Lesson 1-5 B. The fossil record contains evidence of 5 mass extinctions in the Phanerozoic eon. Extinctions (cont.)

26 Lesson 1-5 C. The fossil record contains evidence of the appearance of many new species over time. 1. Biological evolution1. Biological evolution- is the change of inherited traits in populations over time. Extinctions (cont.)

27 Lesson 1-5 The fossil record is evidence that horses descended from organisms for which only fossils exist today.

28 Lesson 1-6 Extinctions (cont.) How are fossils evidence of biological evolution?

29 Lesson 1 - VS Fossils can consist of the hard parts or soft parts of organisms. Fossils can be an impression of an organism or consist of original tissues. Scientists determine the age of a fossil through relative-age dating or absolute- age dating.

30 Lesson 1 - VS Scientists use fossils as evidence that species have changed over time.

31 Lesson 1 – LR1 A.fossil record B.geologic time scale C.relative-age dating D.trace fossil Which refers to a chart that divides Earth’s history into different time units?

32 Lesson 1 – LR2 A.cast B.fossil record C.mold D.trace fossil Which is the preserved evidence of the activity of an organism?

33 Lesson 1 – LR3 A.cast B.fossil C.mold D.trace fossil Which refers to the impression of an organism in a rock?

34 Lesson 1 - Now 1.Original tissues can be preserved as fossils. 2.Organisms become extinct only in mass extinction events. Do you agree or disagree?

35 Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC Who was Charles Darwin? How does Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection explain how species change over time? How are adaptations evidence of natural selection? Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection

36 Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab naturalist variation natural selection adaptation Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection camouflage mimicry selective breedingselective breeding

37 Lesson 2-1 A. NaturalistA. Naturalist- A person who studies plants and animals by observing them. 1. Charles Darwin was an English naturalist who, in the mid-1800s, developed a theory of organisms evolve. a) Remember “evolution” refers to how the inherited characteristics of organisms CHANGE over time I. Charles Darwin

38 Lesson 2-1 B. Darwin found that each island in the Galápagos had a different environment. 1. Tortoises looked different depending on which island they inhabited

39 Lesson 2-1 Charles Darwin (cont.) Who was Charles Darwin?

40 Lesson 2-2 Natural Selection

41 Lesson 2-2 A. A variation is a slight difference in an inherited trait of individual members of a species.variation B. Variations arise naturally in populations, occurring in offspring as a result of sexual reproduction. C. Genetic changes to phenotype can be passed on to future generations. II. Darwin’s Theory

42 Lesson 2-2 D. Natural selectionD. Natural selection- Process in which organisms with helpful variations survive longer, compete better, and reproduce more than those that do not have the variations. 1. “Survival of the Fittest” (to the environment) E. Natural selection explains how populations change as their environments change. II. Darwin’s Theory (cont.)

43 Lesson 2-2 Darwin’s Theory (cont.) What role do variations have in the theory of evolution by natural selection?

44 Lesson 2-3 A.Through natural selection, a helpful variation in one individual can spread to all members of a population. B. AdaptationB. Adaptation- An inherited trait that increases an organism’s chance of surviving and reproducing in its environment. 1. “A helpful variation” III. Adaptations

45 Lesson 2-3 Adaptations (cont.) adaptation from Latin adaptare, means “to fit”

46 Lesson 2-3 Adaptations (cont.) How do variations lead to adaptations?

47 Lesson 2-3 C. Structural adaptations include color, shape, and other physical characteristics. 1. Ex: Camouflage enables a species to blend in with its environment.Camouflage 2. Ex: Mimicry- One species “copies” anotherimicry III. Adaptations (cont.)

48 Lesson 2-3 D. Behavioral adaptations involve the way an organism behaves or acts. 1. Ex: A vulnerable organism “mimics” the sound of a predator to keep other predators away E. Functional adaptations involve internal body systems that affect biochemistry. 1. Salamander’s tail falls off (and regenerates) if grabbed by a predator III. Adaptations (cont.)

49 Lesson 2-4 A. Selective breedingA. Selective breeding- The breeding of organisms for desired characteristics 1. Humans decide 2. Darwin’s pigeons B. Darwin realized that changes caused by selective breeding (humans) were much like changes caused by natural selection (environment). IV. Artificial Selection

50 Lesson 2-4 A. Gradualism- Slow, steady change over extremely long periods of time. B. Punctuated Equilibrium- Short time periods when many genetic variations occur. 1. Often following mass extinctions due to drastically different environment 2. Long periods of “genetic equilibrium” (no change) in between V. Speed of Evolution Models

51 Lesson 3-2

52 Lesson 2 - VS Charles Darwin developed his theory of evolution partly by observing organisms in their natural environment. Natural selection occurs when organisms with certain variations live longer, compete better, and reproduce more often than organisms that do not have the variations.

53 Lesson 2 - VS Adaptations occur when a beneficial variation is eventually inherited by all members of a population.

54 Lesson 2 – LR1 A.adaptation B.mimicry C.natural selection D.selective breeding Which refers the process by which populations of organisms with variations that help them survive in their environments live longer, compete better, and reproduce more than those that do not have the variations?

55 Lesson 2 – LR2 A.adaptation B.camouflage C.natural selection D.variation Which is an inherited trait that increases an organism’s chance of surviving and reproducing in its environment?

56 Lesson 2 – LR3 A.adaptation B.variation C.natural selection D.selective breeding What term refers to the breeding of organisms for desired characteristics?

57 Lesson 2 - Now 3.Environmental change causes variations in populations. 4.Variations can lead to adaptations. Do you agree or disagree?

58 Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC What evidence from living species supports the theory that species descended from other species over time? How are Earth’s organisms related? Biological Evidence of Evolution

59 Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab comparative anatomy homologous structure analogous structure vestigial structure embryology Biological Evidence of Evolution

60 Lesson 3-1 A.The degree to which species are related depends on how closely in time they diverged, or split, from their common ancestor. 1. The fossil record contains many examples of fossil sequences showing close ancestral relationships. I. Evidence for Evolution

61 Lesson Different species of horses often overlapped with each other.

62 Lesson 3-1 A. Comparative anatomyA. Comparative anatomy- The study of similarities and differences among structures of living species. B. Homologous structuresB. Homologous structures- Body parts of organisms that are similar in structure and position but may be different in function. 1. Remember, “homo” means “same/similar” II. Comparative Anatomy Evidence

63 Lesson Forelimb comparison: these species are different sizes, but their placement and structure suggest common ancestry. a. How else do you explain such different creatures having such similar anatomy?

64 Lesson 3-1 II. Comparative Anatomy Evidence How do homologous structures provide evidence for evolution?

65 Lesson 3-1 C. Analogous structuresC. Analogous structures- Body parts that perform a similar function but differ in structure 1. Ex: Bird and Insect wings

66 Lesson 3-1 D. Vestigial structuresD. Vestigial structures are body parts that have lost their original function through evolution.

67 Lesson 3-1 Evidence for Evolution (cont.) How are vestigial structures evidence of descent from ancestral species?

68 Lesson 3-1 A. EmbryologyA. Embryology- The science of the development of embryos from fertilization to birth III. Developmental Evidence embryology from Greek embryon, means “to swell” and from Greek logia, means “study of”

69 Lesson 3-1 B. ALL vertebrate embryos look very similar! 1. Suggests they have a common ancestor in their evolutionary history

70 Lesson 3-1 Evidence for Evolution (cont.) How do pharyngeal pouches provide evidence of relationships among species?

71 Lesson 3-1 A. Molecular biology is the study of gene structure and function. 1. Discoveries in molecular biology have confirmed much of the theory of evolution. B. The more genes in common, the more closely related the two species 1. Ex: Humans & Chimps share 97% of the same DNA VI. Molecular Biology (DNA) Evidence

72 Lesson Molecular data indicate that whales are more closely related to hippopotamuses than they are to any other living species.

73 Lesson 3-1 C. Scientists have found that some sections of shared DNA mutate at predictable rates. 1. This “molecular clock” is used to estimate at what time in the past living species diverged from common ancestors. VI. Molecular Biology (DNA) Evidence

74 Lesson 3-1 VI. Molecular Biology (DNA) Evidence How is molecular biology used to determine relationships among species?

75 Lesson 3-2 New evidence supporting the theory of evolution by natural selection is discovered nearly every day, but scientists debate some of the details. New fossils that have features of species that lived both before them and after them help scientists study more details about the origin of new species. The Study of Evolution Today

76 Lesson 3 - VS By comparing the anatomy of organisms and looking for homologous or analogous structures, scientists can determine if organisms had a common ancestor.

77 Lesson 3 - VS Some organisms have vestigial structures, suggesting that they descended from a species that used the structure for a purpose.

78 Lesson 3 - VS Scientists use evidence from developmental and molecular biology to help determine if organisms are related.

79 Lesson 3 – LR1 A.analogous structures B.homologous structures C.pharyngeal pouches D.vestigial pelvis What term refers to body parts that perform a similar function but differ in structure?

80 Lesson 3 – LR2 A.adaptation B.embryology C.comparative anatomy D.molecular biology What is the name for the science of the development of embryos from fertilization to birth?

81 Lesson 3 – LR3 A.adaptation B.embryology C.comparative anatomy D.molecular biology Which describes the study of similarities and differences among structures of living species?

82 Lesson 3 - Now 5.Living species contain no evidence that they are related to each other. 6.Plants and animals share similar genes. Do you agree or disagree?

83 Chapter Review Menu Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice

84 The BIG Idea Through natural selection, species evolve as they adapt to Earth’s changing environments.

85 Key Concepts 1 Fossils form in many ways, including mineral replacement, carbonization, and impressions in sediment. Scientists can learn the ages of fossils by techniques of relative-age dating and absolute-age dating. Though incomplete, the fossil record contains patterns suggesting the biological evolution of related species. Lesson 1: Fossil Evidence of Evolution

86 Key Concepts 2 Lesson 2: Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection The 19th century naturalist Charles Darwin developed a theory of evolution that is still studied today. Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection is the process by which populations with variations that help them survive in their environments live longer and reproduce more than those without beneficial variations. Over time, beneficial variations spread through populations, and new species that are adapted to their environments evolve. Camouflage, mimicry, and other adaptations are evidence of the close relationships between species and their changing environments.

87 Key Concepts 3 Fossils provide only one source of evidence of evolution. Additional evidence comes from living species, including studies in comparative anatomy, embryology, and molecular biology. Through evolution by natural selection, all of Earth’s organisms are related. The more recently they share a common ancestor, the more closely they are related. Lesson 3: Biological Evidence of Evolution

88 Chapter Review – MC1 A.cast B.mold C.fossil record D.trace fossil Which term describes the collection of all the fossils ever discovered on Earth?

89 Chapter Review – MC2 A.cast B.mold C.fossil record D.trace fossil Which is a fossil copy of an organism in a rock?

90 Chapter Review – MC3 A.camouflage B.mimicry C.behavioral adaptation D.functional adaptation What kind of adaptation enables a species to blend in with its environment?

91 Chapter Review – MC4 A.mimicry B.variation C.behavioral adaptations D.functional adaptations What kind of adaptations involve internal body systems that affect biochemistry?

92 Chapter Review – MC5 A.embryology B.variation C.comparative anatomy D.molecular biology Which of these is the study of gene structure and function?

93 Chapter Review – STP1 A.adaptation B.extinction C.biological evolution D.mass extinction Which term describes what happens when the last individual organism of a species dies?

94 Chapter Review – STP2 How many eons is Earth’s history divided into? A.2 B.4 C.10 D.25

95 Chapter Review – STP3 A.adaptation B.camouflage C.mimicry D.variation What describes one species’ resemblance to another species?

96 Chapter Review – STP4 A.mimicry B.variation C.behavioral adaptation D.structural adaptation What type of adaptation involves the way an organism behaves or acts?

97 Chapter Review – STP5 A.camouflage B.mimicry C.analogous structures D.homologous structures What term refers to body parts of organisms that are similar in structure and position but different in function?


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