Presentation on theme: "Positivistic versus Naturalistic Inquiry: changing the way we think and investigate by Dennis Ondrejka, Ph.D. This is a 100 year old debate Is often correlated."— Presentation transcript:
Positivistic versus Naturalistic Inquiry: changing the way we think and investigate by Dennis Ondrejka, Ph.D. This is a 100 year old debate Is often correlated to research methodology Is a philosophy on the way we think about human phenomenon & research Can be integrated within methodology, but philosophically they are very different Is the foundation for how we design research
Assumptions of Positivistic Thinking page 1 Reality is singular, tangible, & and can be dissected The researcher and those being studied are independent Time and context-free generalizations are possible Inquiry is value-free value free singular reality Positivistic thinking generalizable independent variables
Assumptions of Positivistic Thinking page 2 There are real causes or at least high probability of a relationship. We believe we can have independent and dependent variables as separate entities Validity of a design is very critical to results value free singular reality validity Positivistic thinking generalizable cause & effect independent variables
Assumptions of Positivistic Thinking page 3 Reliability is based on how the design is reproducible Generalizability is related to good internal validity and reliability with comparable samples Hypothesis testing generalizable value-free Positivistic thinking validity singular reality hypothesis testing reliability cause & effect independent variable
Assumptions of Naturalistic Inquiry page 1 Realities are multiple, pluralistic, and holistic The researcher cannot really be separated from those being studied and relation- ships are explained hypotheses are time and context bound - they are only working statements researcher & subject connected hypothesis is a focus area multiple realities naturalistic inquiry
Assumptions of Naturalistic Inquiry page 2 All entities are in a state of mutual simul- taneous shaping Inquiry is value-bound Validity is designed into the process Reliability & general- izable are not concepts of value with this thinking researcher & subject connected hypothesis is a focus area Naturalistic inquiry thick description multiple realities inquiry is value bound
Defining Naturalistic Rigor Descriptive vividness –narratives are texturized, thick, and full of details –the writer shows connections and level of membership Methodological congruence –details of exactly how the data is gathered with ethical rigor Analytical preciseness –the data is transformed across several levels of abstraction –moving raw data to clusters, interpretations, or theory Theoretical connectedness –ensuring the theoretical schema is clear and related to the data being collected and a lens for analysis Heuristic relevance –readers must recognize the phenomenon as applicable, meaningful, & recognizable
Data Collection Difference positivisticnaturalistic Tools –surveys, questionnaires –objective assessment & identification Measure the dependent variable Convert to numeric symbols Apply statistical inferences to numbers Large sample sizes help with confidence levels Tool –it is the investigator by interview, focus groups, & observation Data is subjective and objective. It is collected & not measured Themes or clusters are identified and data is sorted in a theme analysis The themes are supported by participants or experts
Differences in Results positivisticnaturalistic Statistical significance for pre-post treatment Statistical correlations & relationships identified Probability of errors & confidence identified Causal relationships The exploration & description of a phenomenon Identification of linkages, relationships, or interpretations based on theory connections Results are themes, clusters of ideas, or theory constructs
The Results Desired, Influence Design positivistic naturalistic 250 nurses were surveyed with an 80% response rate or N=200. Questions were rated using the Likert 5 scale. Question 1 had a mean of 4.2 with a S.D. of 0.5 suggesting the nurses had favorable opinions about continuing education. Compared to a 1994 survey asking the same question, there was a statistical difference that was less favorable (mean 3.1, S.D. 0.7, p<.05) I sat in the classroom as a peripheral member staying as unobtrusive as possible. The instructor came out from behind her desk, sitting on the edge as she opened with a question that brought all eyes in the room to meet her own eyes. She paused - looked at the eyes of the students. The instructor displayed immediacy from the moment she started the class.
Importance of Knowing Positivistic versus Naturalistic Inquiry If you believe in the holistic view of human interaction and phenomenon, you will never satisfy the positivistic requirements. If you want to texturize hard data findings, you need another scientific rigor such as naturalistic data. Even the current science of quantum physics and chaos theory requires a revised thinking - an inquiry that addresses the subjective.