Presentation on theme: "Classification Chapter 18. Historical background Aristotle – first to classify living things. -two major groups... plants and animals. Plants separated."— Presentation transcript:
Historical background Aristotle – first to classify living things. -two major groups... plants and animals. Plants separated by size (structure)... herbs, shrubs, and trees. Animals grouped by where they lived...land, sea, or air. http://www.glencoe.com/sec/science/biology/bio2000/biomovies/e20_1int.html Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) a Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) a Swedish naturalist "Father of Taxonomy" developed the system we use to name organisms today. "Father of Taxonomy" developed the system we use to name organisms today.
History cont’ Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (1707-1836) established the major subdivisions of the plant kingdom. Georges Leoplod Cuvier (1769-1832) established major "embranchments" known as phyla, for the animal kingdom.
History cont’ Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) German introduced the monera kingdom. Herbert F. Copeland (1902-1968) an American reclassified microorganisms, introduced Kingdom protistica Robert H. Whitaker (1924-1980) the American founded the five kingdom system by elevating the fungi to kingdom statis.
Taxonomy Branch in biology that names organisms according to their characteristics Phylogeny – evolutionary history of organism
History Aristotle – grouped into plant/animal Linnaeus – grouped by morphology (form & structure) – features that are influenced by genes and clues to common ancestry
Levels of classifiation: Kingdom Phyla Class Order Family Genus Species
Make your own mnemonic “Kings Play Chess On Fine Green Silk" "King Phillip Came Over For Good Spaghetti.“ “Keep Ponds Clean Or Fish Get Sick” “Katie Peels California Oranges For Grandma's Supper” King Philip (David) Called Out “For Goodness Sakes! “
To understand how the classification system works, let’s compare finding a species to mailing a letter from overseas. Classification HierarchyLetter Hierarchy KingdomAnimaliaCountryUnited States Phylum/Division*ChordataStatePennsylvania ClassMammalCity/TownDuBois OrderPrimateStreetOrient Avenue FamilyHomoidaeHouse Number1 GenusHomoLast NameHorse SpeciessapiensFirst NameCharlie
Species name has 2 parts: System known as binomial nomenclature Genus (capitalized & italicized) identifier – descriptive word (italicized) E.g. Homo sapiens “homo” means man; “sapiens” means wise
Plants contains - flowering plants, mosses, and ferns. all multicellular with complex cells. Autotrophs second largest kingdom. Without plants, life on Earth would not exist! Plants feed almost all the heterotrophs on Earth. Wow!
Animals largest kingdom many complex cells heterotrophs Sumatran Tiger Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Felidae Genus: Pathera Species: tigris
Archaebacteria found in extreme environments such as hot boiling water and thermal vents on seafloor with no oxygen or highly acid environments (likes salty water) Mammoth Hot Springs at Yellowstone National Park Tubeworms living near a vent on floor in Pacific Ocean
Eubacteria complex and single celled found everywhere classified in their own kingdom because their chemical makeup is different. Streptococci
Fungi Mushrooms, mold and mildew multicellular and many complex cells cannot make their own food obtain food from parts of plants that are decaying in the soil. that are decaying in the soil.
Protists Slime molds and algae Complex cells Most are unicellular members are so different from one another. all microscopic organisms that are not bacteria, not animals, not plants and not fungi. Not in the Archaebacteria or Eubacteria kingdoms. because, unlike bacteria, protists are complex cells. These delicate looking diatoms are classified in the protist kingdom.