2 Historical background Aristotle – first to classify living things.-two major groups... plants and animals.Plants separated by size (structure)... herbs, shrubs, and trees.Animals grouped by where they lived...land, sea, or air.Carolus Linnaeus ( ) a Swedish naturalist"Father of Taxonomy" developed the system we use to name organisms today.
3 History cont’Antoine Laurent de Jussieu ( ) established the major subdivisions of the plant kingdom.Georges Leoplod Cuvier ( ) established major "embranchments" known as phyla, for the animal kingdom.
4 History cont’Ernst Haeckel ( ) German introduced the monera kingdom.Herbert F. Copeland ( ) an American reclassified microorganisms, introduced Kingdom protisticaRobert H. Whitaker ( ) the American founded the five kingdom system by elevating the fungi to kingdom statis.
5 TaxonomyBranch in biology that names organisms according to their characteristicsPhylogeny – evolutionary history of organism
6 History Aristotle – grouped into plant/animal Linnaeus – grouped by morphology (form & structure) – features that are influenced by genes and clues to common ancestry
7 Levels of classifiation: KingdomPhylaClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies
8 Make your own mnemonic “Kings Play Chess On Fine Green Silk" "King Phillip Came Over For Good Spaghetti.““Keep Ponds Clean Or Fish Get Sick”“Katie Peels California Oranges For Grandma's Supper”King Philip (David) Called Out “For Goodness Sakes! “
9 Classification Hierarchy To understand how the classification system works, let’s compare finding a species to mailing a letter from overseas.Classification HierarchyLetter HierarchyKingdomAnimaliaCountryUnited StatesPhylum/Division*ChordataStatePennsylvaniaClassMammalCity/TownDuBoisOrderPrimateStreetOrient AvenueFamilyHomoidaeHouse Number1GenusHomoLast NameHorseSpeciessapiensFirst NameCharlie
10 Species name has 2 parts: System known as binomial nomenclatureGenus (capitalized & italicized)identifier – descriptive word (italicized)E.g. Homo sapiens“homo” means man; “sapiens” means wise
19 The Six Kingdoms Archaebacteria Eubacteria Protists Fungi Plants Animals
20 How are organism placed into their kingdoms? Cell type, complex or simpleThe number of cells in their bodyTheir ability to make food
21 KingdomCell typeNumber of cellsNutritionArchaebacteriaProkaryoticUnicellularAuto/heterotrophyEubacteriaProtistaEukaryoticUni/multicellularFungiHeterotrophyPlantaeMulticellularAuto (rarely) HeterotrophyAnimalia
22 Plants contains - flowering plants, mosses, and ferns. all multicellular with complex cells.Autotrophssecond largest kingdom.Without plants, life on Earth would not exist! Plants feed almost all the heterotrophs on Earth. Wow!
23 Animals largest kingdom many complex cells heterotrophs Sumatran Tiger Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: MammaliaOrder: CarnivoraFamily: FelidaeGenus: PatheraSpecies: tigris
24 Archaebacteriafound in extreme environments such as hot boiling water and thermal vents on seafloor with no oxygen or highly acid environments (likes salty water)Mammoth Hot Springs at Yellowstone National ParkTubeworms living near a vent on floor in Pacific Ocean
25 Eubacteria complex and single celled found everywhere classified in their own kingdom because their chemical makeup is different.Streptococci
26 Fungi Mushrooms, mold and mildew multicellular and many complex cells cannot make their own foodobtain food from parts of plantsthat are decaying in the soil.
27 Protists Slime molds and algae Complex cells Most are unicellular members are so different from one another.all microscopic organisms that are not bacteria, not animals, not plants and not fungi.Not in the Archaebacteria or Eubacteria kingdoms. because, unlike bacteria, protists are complex cells. These delicate looking diatoms are classified in the protist kingdom.