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Classification Chapter 18. Historical background Aristotle – first to classify living things. -two major groups... plants and animals. Plants separated.

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Presentation on theme: "Classification Chapter 18. Historical background Aristotle – first to classify living things. -two major groups... plants and animals. Plants separated."— Presentation transcript:

1 Classification Chapter 18

2 Historical background Aristotle – first to classify living things. -two major groups... plants and animals. Plants separated by size (structure)... herbs, shrubs, and trees. Animals grouped by where they lived...land, sea, or air. http://www.glencoe.com/sec/science/biology/bio2000/biomovies/e20_1int.html Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) a Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) a Swedish naturalist "Father of Taxonomy" developed the system we use to name organisms today. "Father of Taxonomy" developed the system we use to name organisms today.

3 History cont’ Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (1707-1836) established the major subdivisions of the plant kingdom. Georges Leoplod Cuvier (1769-1832) established major "embranchments" known as phyla, for the animal kingdom.

4 History cont’ Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) German introduced the monera kingdom. Herbert F. Copeland (1902-1968) an American reclassified microorganisms, introduced Kingdom protistica Robert H. Whitaker (1924-1980) the American founded the five kingdom system by elevating the fungi to kingdom statis.

5 Taxonomy  Branch in biology that names organisms according to their characteristics  Phylogeny – evolutionary history of organism

6 History  Aristotle – grouped into plant/animal  Linnaeus – grouped by morphology (form & structure) – features that are influenced by genes and clues to common ancestry

7 Levels of classifiation:  Kingdom  Phyla  Class  Order  Family  Genus  Species

8 Make your own mnemonic  “Kings Play Chess On Fine Green Silk"  "King Phillip Came Over For Good Spaghetti.“  “Keep Ponds Clean Or Fish Get Sick”  “Katie Peels California Oranges For Grandma's Supper”  King Philip (David) Called Out “For Goodness Sakes! “

9 To understand how the classification system works, let’s compare finding a species to mailing a letter from overseas. Classification HierarchyLetter Hierarchy KingdomAnimaliaCountryUnited States Phylum/Division*ChordataStatePennsylvania ClassMammalCity/TownDuBois OrderPrimateStreetOrient Avenue FamilyHomoidaeHouse Number1 GenusHomoLast NameHorse SpeciessapiensFirst NameCharlie

10 Species name has 2 parts:  System known as binomial nomenclature  Genus (capitalized & italicized)  identifier – descriptive word (italicized)  E.g. Homo sapiens  “homo” means man; “sapiens” means wise

11 Modern phylogenetic taxonomy 18.2

12 Phylogenetic tree  Represents hypothesis based on lines of evidence (i.e. fossils, homologous form)  Family tree shows evolutionary relationships

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15 Cladistics  Classified by shared derived characters – a feature that evolved within a group – inherited from common ancestor  E.g. feathers – a feature evolved in birds

16 Cladogram of the vertebrate chordates

17 cladogram of the phylogenetic relationships of dinosaurs and birds

18 Modern systems of classification 18.3

19 The Six Kingdoms  Archaebacteria  Eubacteria  Protists  Fungi  Plants  Animals

20 How are organism placed into their kingdoms?  Cell type, complex or simple  The number of cells in their body  Their ability to make food

21 KingdomCell typeNumber of cells Nutrition ArchaebacteriaProkaryoticUnicellularAuto/heterotrophy EubacteriaProkaryoticUnicellularAuto/heterotrophy ProtistaEukaryoticUni/multicellularAuto/heterotrophy FungiEukaryoticUni/multicellularHeterotrophy PlantaeEukaryoticMulticellularAuto (rarely) Heterotrophy AnimaliaEukaryoticMulticellularHeterotrophy

22 Plants  contains - flowering plants, mosses, and ferns.  all multicellular with complex cells.  Autotrophs  second largest kingdom.  Without plants, life on Earth would not exist! Plants feed almost all the heterotrophs on Earth. Wow!

23 Animals  largest kingdom  many complex cells  heterotrophs Sumatran Tiger Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Felidae Genus: Pathera Species: tigris

24 Archaebacteria  found in extreme environments such as hot boiling water and thermal vents on seafloor with no oxygen or highly acid environments (likes salty water) Mammoth Hot Springs at Yellowstone National Park Tubeworms living near a vent on floor in Pacific Ocean

25 Eubacteria  complex and single celled  found everywhere  classified in their own kingdom because their chemical makeup is different. Streptococci

26 Fungi  Mushrooms, mold and mildew  multicellular and many complex cells  cannot make their own food  obtain food from parts of plants that are decaying in the soil. that are decaying in the soil.

27 Protists  Slime molds and algae  Complex cells  Most are unicellular  members are so different from one another.  all microscopic organisms that are not bacteria, not animals, not plants and not fungi.  Not in the Archaebacteria or Eubacteria kingdoms. because, unlike bacteria, protists are complex cells. These delicate looking diatoms are classified in the protist kingdom.

28 3 domains  Domain Archaea  Domain Bacteria  Domain Eukarya EubacteriaArchaebacteriaProtistaPlantaeFungiAnimalia Bacteria (eubacteria) Archaea (archaebacteria) Eukarya (eukaryotes)

29 References  http://www.ric.edu/faculty/ptiskus/Six_Kingdoms/Index.htm http://www.ric.edu/faculty/ptiskus/Six_Kingdoms/Index.htm  http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/w/x/wxm15/Online/Taxonomy/ taxonomy_lec01.htm http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/w/x/wxm15/Online/Taxonomy/ taxonomy_lec01.htm http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/w/x/wxm15/Online/Taxonomy/ taxonomy_lec01.htm  http://darwin.nmsu.edu/~molb470/fall2005/projects/pan/images/Ph ylogeneticTreeOfLife.jpg http://darwin.nmsu.edu/~molb470/fall2005/projects/pan/images/Ph ylogeneticTreeOfLife.jpg http://darwin.nmsu.edu/~molb470/fall2005/projects/pan/images/Ph ylogeneticTreeOfLife.jpg  http://www.nbii.gov/portal/server.pt/gateway/PTARGS_0_2_3846_ 404_1617_43/http%3B/public- content%3B7087/publishedcontent/publish/ecological_issues/gen etic_biodiversity/phylogenetic_trees_intro/tree.gif http://www.nbii.gov/portal/server.pt/gateway/PTARGS_0_2_3846_ 404_1617_43/http%3B/public- content%3B7087/publishedcontent/publish/ecological_issues/gen etic_biodiversity/phylogenetic_trees_intro/tree.gif http://www.nbii.gov/portal/server.pt/gateway/PTARGS_0_2_3846_ 404_1617_43/http%3B/public- content%3B7087/publishedcontent/publish/ecological_issues/gen etic_biodiversity/phylogenetic_trees_intro/tree.gif  http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Sciences/Zoology/Biologicald iverstity/Classification/cladogram_1.gif http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Sciences/Zoology/Biologicald iverstity/Classification/cladogram_1.gif http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Sciences/Zoology/Biologicald iverstity/Classification/cladogram_1.gif  http://www.geocities.com/missneill/cyanobacteria.jpg http://www.geocities.com/missneill/cyanobacteria.jpg  http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/255/255hist/mcb1.1a.jpg http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/255/255hist/mcb1.1a.jpg  http://www.ucl.ac.uk/Pharmacology/dc-bits/fungi-pics1-04m.jpg http://www.ucl.ac.uk/Pharmacology/dc-bits/fungi-pics1-04m.jpg


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