Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Classification Chapter 18.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Classification Chapter 18."— Presentation transcript:

1 Classification Chapter 18

2 Historical background
Aristotle – first to classify living things. -two major groups... plants and animals. Plants separated by size (structure) ... herbs, shrubs, and trees. Animals grouped by where they lived, sea, or air. Carolus Linnaeus ( ) a Swedish naturalist "Father of Taxonomy" developed the system we use to name organisms today. 

3 History cont’ Antoine Laurent de Jussieu ( ) established the major subdivisions of the plant kingdom. Georges Leoplod Cuvier ( ) established major "embranchments" known as phyla, for the animal kingdom.

4 History cont’ Ernst Haeckel ( ) German introduced the monera kingdom. Herbert F. Copeland ( ) an American reclassified microorganisms, introduced Kingdom protistica Robert H. Whitaker ( ) the American founded the five kingdom system by elevating the fungi to kingdom statis.

5 Taxonomy Branch in biology that names organisms according to their characteristics Phylogeny – evolutionary history of organism

6 History Aristotle – grouped into plant/animal
Linnaeus – grouped by morphology (form & structure) – features that are influenced by genes and clues to common ancestry

7 Levels of classifiation:
Kingdom Phyla Class Order Family Genus Species

8 Make your own mnemonic “Kings Play Chess On Fine Green Silk"
"King Phillip Came Over For Good Spaghetti.“ “Keep Ponds Clean Or Fish Get Sick” “Katie Peels California Oranges For Grandma's Supper” King Philip (David) Called Out “For Goodness Sakes! “

9 Classification Hierarchy
To understand how the classification system works, let’s compare finding a species to mailing a letter from overseas. Classification Hierarchy Letter Hierarchy Kingdom Animalia Country United States Phylum/Division* Chordata State Pennsylvania Class Mammal City/Town DuBois Order Primate Street Orient Avenue Family Homoidae House Number 1 Genus Homo Last Name Horse Species sapiens First Name Charlie

10 Species name has 2 parts:
System known as binomial nomenclature Genus (capitalized & italicized) identifier – descriptive word (italicized) E.g. Homo sapiens “homo” means man; “sapiens” means wise

11 Modern phylogenetic taxonomy

12 Phylogenetic tree Represents hypothesis based on lines of evidence (i.e. fossils, homologous form) Family tree shows evolutionary relationships



15 Cladistics Classified by shared derived characters – a feature that evolved within a group – inherited from common ancestor E.g. feathers – a feature evolved in birds

16 Cladogram of the vertebrate chordates

17 cladogram of the phylogenetic relationships of dinosaurs and birds

18 Modern systems of classification

19 The Six Kingdoms Archaebacteria Eubacteria Protists Fungi Plants

20 How are organism placed into their kingdoms?
Cell type, complex or simple The number of cells in their body Their ability to make food

21 Kingdom Cell type Number of cells Nutrition Archaebacteria Prokaryotic Unicellular Auto/heterotrophy Eubacteria Protista Eukaryotic Uni/multicellular Fungi Heterotrophy Plantae Multicellular Auto (rarely) Heterotrophy Animalia

22 Plants contains - flowering plants, mosses, and ferns.
all multicellular with complex cells. Autotrophs second largest kingdom. Without plants, life on Earth would not exist! Plants feed almost all the heterotrophs on Earth. Wow!

23 Animals largest kingdom many complex cells heterotrophs Sumatran Tiger
Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Felidae Genus: Pathera Species: tigris

24 Archaebacteria found in extreme environments such as hot boiling water and thermal vents on seafloor with no oxygen or highly acid environments (likes salty water) Mammoth Hot Springs at Yellowstone National Park Tubeworms living near a vent on floor in Pacific Ocean

25 Eubacteria complex and single celled found everywhere
classified in their own kingdom because their chemical makeup is different. Streptococci

26 Fungi Mushrooms, mold and mildew multicellular and many complex cells
cannot make their own food obtain food from parts of plants that are decaying in the soil.

27 Protists Slime molds and algae Complex cells Most are unicellular
members are so different from one another. all microscopic organisms that are not bacteria, not animals, not plants and not fungi. Not in the Archaebacteria or Eubacteria kingdoms. because, unlike bacteria, protists are complex cells. These delicate looking diatoms are classified in the protist kingdom.

28 3 domains Domain Archaea Domain Bacteria Domain Eukarya Eubacteria
Archaebacteria Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia Bacteria (eubacteria) Archaea (archaebacteria) Eukarya (eukaryotes)

29 References

Download ppt "Classification Chapter 18."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google