(9-1-1) Marxism: the political,economic and social system, advocated by Marx and Engels and their followers.Its philosophical bases are dialectical materialism and historical materialism.
Karl Marx(1818-1883) 马克思 (9-1-2) German economist and social philosopher. With Engels, his friend and collaborator, he published the “ Communist Manifesto ” (1848). He founded (1864) the First International and published (1867)the first volume of “ Das Kapital ”.
Friedrich Engels (1820-95) 恩格斯 (9-1-3) German socialist and political philosopher. He spent most of his adult life in England as a manager of cotton mills. He met(1844) Marx,and collaborated with him on many works. After Marx ’ s death he edited (1885-94) volumes Ⅱ and Ⅲ of “ Das Kapital ”. His own works include “ The Condition of the Working Classes in England in 1844 ” (1845) and “ The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State ” (1884).
Chartist Movement 宪章运动 (9-2-1) A working class movement in (19c.) to achiece the political reform contained in the “ People ’ s Charter ” (1838). The movement led to riots (1839-42) and organized petitions to parliament (1840,42,48). It collapsed (1848), but most of its aims have been wholly or partly achieved.
The Six Points of the People ’ s Charter 人民宪章的六点要求 (9-2-2) 1. manhood suffrage; 2. vote by ballot; 3. payment of M.P.s; 4. equal to electoral districts; 5. The abolition of property qualification for M.P.s; 6. Annul parliaments;
Georg Wihelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) 黑格尔 (9-3-1) German philosopher. His main works include “ Phenomenology of mind ” (1870, 《精神现象 学》 ), “ Logic ” (1812-16, 《逻辑学》 ), “ philosophy of History ” ( 《历史哲学》）， “ philosophy of Law ” ( 《法哲学》）， “ Aesthetics ” ( 《美学》）.
Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach (1804-72) 费尔巴哈 (9-3-2) A German philosopher, who defected （背叛、批判） from Hegelian idealism ( 黑格尔唯心主义） to a materialist view of man and history. His “ Essence of Christianity ” ( 《基督教的本 质》） had a strong influence on Marx and Engels.
Adam Smith (1723-90) 亚当 · 斯密 (9-4-1) Scottish economist. His “ Wealth of Nations ” (1776) founded modern classical economics, substituting economic liberalism for mercantilist protection. He condemned unwarranted state control and monopoly and upheld private enterprise, competition, free trade and laissez-faire as the right and efficient way of producing maximum wealth and happiness. His ideas dominated the whole of industrial Europe and America until the revival of opposing theories of state control and protection.
David Ricardo (1772-1823) 大卫 · 李嘉图 (9-4-2) British economist. In “ Principles of Political Economy and Taxation ” (1817, 《政治经济学及赋税原理》 ) ， he elaborated the labor theory of value. He was the founder of classical school of economics, and his philosophy influenced Marx and many others.
Utopian Socialism 空想社会主义 （ 9-5-1 ） Historically, modern socialism is divided into pre-Marxian and Post-Marxian socialism or, in Marxist terms, into “ Utopian ” and “ scientific ” socialism. The Utopian socialists earned their epithet ( 称号 ) because of unrealistic nature of their schemes. Most of the Utopians were French, and they all came from the middle or upper classes. They had schemes for social change, but they scarcely thought at all how their elaborate ( 精心设计的） blueprints might be put into practice.
Saint Simon (1760-1825) 圣西门 (9-5-2) French nobleman, political economist and prominent Utopian socialist. He urged that the state should lend capital to societies which should function on the principle of “ from each according his capacity; to each according his services. ”
Charles Fourier (1772-1837) 傅立叶 (9-5-3) French philosopher, economist, and Utopian socialist. He advocated reorganization of society into small cooperative communities or phalanges, each with about 1600 people and 5000acrea of land.
Robert Owen (1771-1858) 欧文 (9-5-4) British social reformer and socialist. He won wide attention by transforming New Lanark, in which his factory was located, into a model community, and by founding the short-lived communistic colony of New Harmony in Indiana.
Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882) 达尔文 (9-6-1) English naturalist. As official naturalist on the survey vessel H.M.S. “ Beagle ” he sailed around the world (1831- 36). This started his work of observation, investigation and correlation that lead to his theory of evolution by natural selection. His work “ On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection ” was published in 1859. ”
Communist Manifesto 共产党宣言 （ 9-7-1 ） a statement of principles of communism, written(1848) by Marx and Engels. It marks the birth of Marxism.