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Nature of Assessment Gronlund, Chapters 1-2 Burke, Chapter 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Nature of Assessment Gronlund, Chapters 1-2 Burke, Chapter 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nature of Assessment Gronlund, Chapters 1-2 Burke, Chapter 3

2 Achievement Assessment Various methods for determining the extent to which students are achieving the intended learning outcomes of instruction

3 Planning Instruction Determine how instructional objectives will be met Determine if students have prerequisite skills needed for instruction Determine current level of knowledge and skill related to instructional objectives

4 During Instruction (formative) Monitor student progress –Measure outcomes –Use results to improve learning Diagnose learning difficulties –Error analysis –Task analysis Assess mastery of learning tasks

5 After Instruction (summative) Determine mastery of learning tasks Assign grades to students Provide feedback to students Determine effectiveness of instruction

6 Other Uses of Assessment Student motivation Retention and transfer of learning Student self-assessment Evaluating instructional effectiveness

7 Standards for Student Assessment Selecting assessment methods Developing assessment methods Administering and scoring assessments Interpreting and using assessment results Preparing valid grades Communicating assessment results Recognizing inappropriate methods and uses of assessment information

8 Categories of Assessment Testing –Selected response –Supply response Performance Assessment –Restricted performance –Extended performance

9 Assessment Characteristics Realism of Tasks Complexity of Tasks Assessment Time Needed Judgment in Scoring

10 Assessment Guidelines Clear idea of learning outcomes Variety of procedures used Relevance of procedures considered Adequate sample of student performance Fair procedures Specific criteria for judging performance Specific feedback to students Comprehensive grading/reporting system

11 Valid and Reliable Planning Clear learning outcomes Representative sample Relevant tasks Tasks at proper difficulty level Tasks that distinguish Sufficient number of tasks Efficient procedures

12 Norm-Referenced Testing Survey testing Individual differences in achievement Compares performance to others Broad area of achievement Table of specifications Items provide maximum discrimination Performance determined by relative position

13 Criterion-Referenced Testing Mastery testing Tasks students can perform Compares performance to specified domain Focuses on limited set of learning tasks Detailed domain specifications No attempt to specify difficulty level Performance determined by absolute standards

14 Bloom’s Taxonomy Remember (Knowledge) Understand (Comprehension) Apply (Application) Analyze (Analysis) Evaluate (Evaluation) Create (Synthesis)

15 Multiple Intelligences Visual/spatial Logical/mathematical Verbal/linguistic Musical/rhythmic Bodily/kinesthetic Interpersonal/social Intrapersonal/introspective Naturalist

16 Visual/Spatial Intelligence Images Graphics Drawings Sketches Maps Charts Doodles Pictures Spatial orientation Puzzles Designs Looks Appeal Mind’s eye Imagination Visualization Dreams Nightmares Films Videos

17 Logical/Mathematical Intelligence Reasoning Logic Facts Data Information Spreadsheets Databases Sequencing Ranking Organizing Analyzing Proofs Conclusions Judging Evaluations Assessments

18 Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence Words Wordsmiths Speaking Writing Listening Reading Papers Essays Poems Plays Narratives Lyrics Spelling Grammar Foreign languages Memos Bulletins Newsletters Newspapers E-mail Faxes Speeches Talks Dialogues Debates

19 Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence Music Rhythm Beat Melody Tunes Pacing Opera Symphony Choir Chorus Rock Rhythm and blues Jazz Classical Folk music Rap Ads and jingles

20 Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence Art Activity Action Hands-on experiments Perform Play Drama Sports Movement Assemble Disassemble Form/re-form Manipulate Touch Feel Immerse Participate

21 Interpersonal/Social Intelligence Interact Communicate Converse Share Understand Empathize Sympathize Reach out Care Gatherings Talk Laugh Cry Socialize Meet Greet Lead Follow Clubs Crowds

22 Intrapersonal/Introspec tive Intelligence Self Solitude Meditate Think Create Reflect Envision Journal Self-assess Set goals Plan Dream Write Fiction Nonfiction Poetry Affirmations Lyrics Songs Screenplays Commentaries Introspection Inspection

23 Naturalist Intelligence Nature Environment Listen Watch Observe Classify Categorize Discern patterns Appreciate Hike Climb Fish Hunt Snorkel Dive Photograph Trees, leaves Animals Flowers and plants Ecosystem Sky Mountains Lakes Rivers

24 Using Multiple Intelligences Planning units of instruction –Variety of instructional approaches –Different activities Assessing and evaluating student achievement Allowing children to show individual strengths

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