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Survey of Birds and the Feeding Observations By: Rachel Jacobs and Laura Yost.

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Presentation on theme: "Survey of Birds and the Feeding Observations By: Rachel Jacobs and Laura Yost."— Presentation transcript:

1 Survey of Birds and the Feeding Observations By: Rachel Jacobs and Laura Yost

2 Hypothesis/Purpose Birds have food preferences Birds have food preferences Commonalities among people feeding birds Commonalities among people feeding birds Explain different types of feed and feeders Explain different types of feed and feeders

3 Survey How often to you feed birds? How often to you feed birds? How long have you been feeding birds? How long have you been feeding birds? What do you feed them (brands/types)? What do you feed them (brands/types)? What kinds of birds do you want to attract? What kinds of birds do you want to attract? What types of birds do you see most often? What types of birds do you see most often?

4 How many different species of birds do you see at the feeder? How many different species of birds do you see at the feeder? Does anything other birds eat the food? Does anything other birds eat the food? Do you use conventional feeding methods? (feeders/scraps) If both which brings more diversity? Do you use conventional feeding methods? (feeders/scraps) If both which brings more diversity? Any unique, funny, interesting stories you want to share when feeding/observing? Any unique, funny, interesting stories you want to share when feeding/observing?

5 Results 11 fed everyday, 9 refilled when empty, the remaining fed either weekly, seasonally monthly or whenever they had scraps. 11 fed everyday, 9 refilled when empty, the remaining fed either weekly, seasonally monthly or whenever they had scraps. 18 have been feeding for greater than 10years, only a few starting recently 18 have been feeding for greater than 10years, only a few starting recently

6 Results Only brand mentioned was Agway, others were generic brands, a variety of mixed seeds, bread or scraps Only brand mentioned was Agway, others were generic brands, a variety of mixed seeds, bread or scraps Specific types used: suet cake, sugar/water mixture Specific types used: suet cake, sugar/water mixture Most had no preference as to what birds they were trying to attract Most had no preference as to what birds they were trying to attract

7 Results Types of birds seen were pigeons, house finches, blackbirds, and chickadees Types of birds seen were pigeons, house finches, blackbirds, and chickadees 4 most popular seen were robins, cardinals, blue jays, and sparrows 4 most popular seen were robins, cardinals, blue jays, and sparrows Most reported (17) seeing > 6 species at feeders, several 6 species at feeders, several < 6 and a few never counted or couldn’t identify

8 Results 28 reported having squirrels and/or chipmunks eating the feed, some said raccoons, dogs and cats 28 reported having squirrels and/or chipmunks eating the feed, some said raccoons, dogs and cats Most used feeders and scraps, all of which said that feeders brought more diversity Most used feeders and scraps, all of which said that feeders brought more diversity Stories: mating, fighting, broken antique sink as a feeder and watching other animals eating the food Stories: mating, fighting, broken antique sink as a feeder and watching other animals eating the food

9 Feeding Tips New types of food New types of food Birds wary Birds wary Familiar place Familiar place Seed in bulk Seed in bulk Cool, dry Cool, dry Mold Mold No chocolate No chocolate Theobromine Theobromine

10 Types of Feed Seeds Seeds Many varieties and mixtures Many varieties and mixtures Black oil Sunflower seed Black oil Sunflower seed Most common Most common A lot of fat A lot of fat Small birds Small birds Niger Seed Niger Seed Grains of rice Grains of rice Goldfinches Goldfinches

11 Types of Feed Suet Suet Insect eating birds Insect eating birds Beef kidney fat Beef kidney fat Processed cake Processed cake Seeds and berries Seeds and berries Nuthatches and Woodpeckers Nuthatches and Woodpeckers

12 Types of Feed Nectar Nectar Hummingbirds and Orioles Hummingbirds and Orioles Sugar water Sugar water Food coloring Food coloring Toxic Toxic Red Portals Red Portals Red Ribbon Red Ribbon Keep clean Keep clean Bacteria Bacteria Mold Mold

13 Types of Feed Grit Grit Many types of birds Many types of birds Gizzard Gizzard Sand Sand Pebbles Pebbles Broken Eggshells Broken Eggshells Dry asphalt or Wood ashes Dry asphalt or Wood ashes Minerals Minerals

14 Types of Feed Water Water Drinking Drinking Bathing Bathing Dripping Dripping Very appealing Very appealing Location Location Close to ground Close to ground

15 Feeders Three main types Three main types Tray (platform) feeders Tray (platform) feeders Hopper feeders Hopper feeders Tube feeders Tube feeders Three specialty types Three specialty types Suet feeders Suet feeders Hummingbird feeders Hummingbird feeders Peanut feeders Peanut feeders

16 Feeders Tray Feeder Tray Feeder Raised surface Raised surface Spread out food Spread out food Disadvantage Disadvantage No protection No protection Without roof = wet food Without roof = wet food Species Species Cardinal Cardinal Juncos Juncos Doves Doves Sparrows Sparrows

17 Feeders Hopper Feeder Hopper Feeder Tray feeder with roof and walls Tray feeder with roof and walls Seeds spill out of bottom Seeds spill out of bottom Hold food Hold food Several Days Several Days Continuous supply Continuous supply Disadvantage Disadvantage Becomes wet and moldy Becomes wet and moldy Species Species Large variety Large variety Chickadees up to Blue Jays Chickadees up to Blue Jays

18 Feeders Hollow Cylinders Hollow Cylinders Many feeding ports Many feeding ports Perches underneath Perches underneath Keep away mammals Keep away mammals Not accessible to large birds Not accessible to large birds Perch too small Perch too small Speices Speices Finches Finches If large enough perch – grackles and jays If large enough perch – grackles and jays

19 Feeders Suet Feeders Suet Feeders Wire mesh cage or bag Wire mesh cage or bag Only open at bottom Only open at bottom Species Species Nuthatches Nuthatches Woodpeckers Woodpeckers Chickadees Chickadees Cling to cage or bag upside down Cling to cage or bag upside down

20 Feeders Hummingbird Feeder Hummingbird Feeder Bottle or tube Bottle or tube Small holes Small holes Hold liquid Hold liquid Narrow openings Narrow openings Species Species Hummingbirds Hummingbirds

21 Feeders Peanut Feeder Peanut Feeder Wire mesh cage Wire mesh cage Cylidrical Cylidrical Species Species Jays Jays Nuthatches Nuthatches Woodpeckers Woodpeckers

22 Feeders Placement of Feeder Placement of Feeder Natural area Natural area Trees or Shrubs Trees or Shrubs Sit and wait Sit and wait Not too close Not too close Other mammals Other mammals Scare birds away Scare birds away Quiet and visible area Quiet and visible area

23 Feeders Unwanted Visitors Unwanted Visitors Squirrels Squirrels Most common Most common Distract with other food Distract with other food Attach cone or tent to block Attach cone or tent to block Damage feeder Damage feeder Raccoons, Deer, Moose Raccoons, Deer, Moose Build fence Build fence Remove feeder Remove feeder Few days Few days

24 Feeders Must be kept clean Must be kept clean Mold and Bird droppings Mold and Bird droppings Birds become ill Birds become ill Clean when refilling Clean when refilling Harmful substances Harmful substances Mild bleach solution Mild bleach solution Air dry Air dry

25 Fun Feeding Popped corn Popped corn Raisins Raisins Fruit Fruit Fruit seeds Fruit seeds Pine cones Pine cones Peanut hearts Peanut hearts

26 Literature What affects birds eating habits?? What affects birds eating habits?? G.M. Tucker: agriculture, increased manure use, aerated soil, therefore increasing earthworms and ultimately increasing bird densities. G.M. Tucker: agriculture, increased manure use, aerated soil, therefore increasing earthworms and ultimately increasing bird densities. Choose particular area to forage, posibly for camouflage and decreased competition, i.e blackbirds (Turdus merula) in small fields with tall hedgerow Choose particular area to forage, posibly for camouflage and decreased competition, i.e blackbirds (Turdus merula) in small fields with tall hedgerow

27 Literature Feinsinger & Colwell; Wolf and Chown: nectar feeding birds form assemblages based in availability of resources and take roles in foraging Feinsinger & Colwell; Wolf and Chown: nectar feeding birds form assemblages based in availability of resources and take roles in foraging Feeding is very important to hummingbirds because of the high metabolic requirements Feeding is very important to hummingbirds because of the high metabolic requirements More diversity of food resources has increased bird diversity More diversity of food resources has increased bird diversity

28 Literature T. E. Martin: reproductive effects having specific costs to parents and the young T. E. Martin: reproductive effects having specific costs to parents and the young Morton: Food intake depends not only on availability and diversity of birds in the area but on temperature and the time of day Morton: Food intake depends not only on availability and diversity of birds in the area but on temperature and the time of day

29 Literature Stiles: frugivores prevalent in Eastern deciduous forests, not necessarily strictly frugivores, some feed insects to young Stiles: frugivores prevalent in Eastern deciduous forests, not necessarily strictly frugivores, some feed insects to young Nutrients in fruits are carbs, proteins and lipids Nutrients in fruits are carbs, proteins and lipids Willson and Comet: Color preferences in berries exhibited in crows. Preferred fruits with high glucose and lipid concentrations, more pronounced in adults. Willson and Comet: Color preferences in berries exhibited in crows. Preferred fruits with high glucose and lipid concentrations, more pronounced in adults. Order of preference R>B>Y>G Order of preference R>B>Y>G

30 Literature Willson also looked at robins and found findings consistent with the previous study on crows. Willson also looked at robins and found findings consistent with the previous study on crows. Main finding was that frugivores may have a search image for fruits Main finding was that frugivores may have a search image for fruits

31 References Project Feeder Watch “About Birds and Bird Feeding” 29 April Project Feeder Watch “About Birds and Bird Feeding” 29 April 2006.http://www.birds.cornell.edu/pfw/AboutBirdsa ndFeeding/abtbirds_index.htmlhttp://www.birds.cornell.edu/pfw/AboutBirdsa ndFeeding/abtbirds_index.html “Feeding Wild Birds” 29 April “Feeding Wild Birds” 29 April Hinterland Who’s Who. “Bird Feeding.” 29 April Hinterland Who’s Who. “Bird Feeding.” 29 April 2006.http://www.hww.ca/hww2.asp?id=224 Tucker G. M. (1992). Effects of agricultural practices on field use by invertebrate-feeding birds in winter. Journal of Applied Ecology. 29, Tucker G. M. (1992). Effects of agricultural practices on field use by invertebrate-feeding birds in winter. Journal of Applied Ecology. 29,

32 References Feinsinger P. & R. K. Colwell. (1978). Community organization among neotropical nectar-feeding birds. American Zoologist. 18, Feinsinger P. & R. K. Colwell. (1978). Community organization among neotropical nectar-feeding birds. American Zoologist. 18, Wolf L. L., F.R. Hainsworth, & F. B. Gill. (1975). Foraging efficiencies and time budgets in nectar-feeding birds. Ecology. 56, Wolf L. L., F.R. Hainsworth, & F. B. Gill. (1975). Foraging efficiencies and time budgets in nectar-feeding birds. Ecology. 56, Chown S. L., N. J. M. Gremmen & K. J. Gaston. (1998). Ecological biogeography of couthern ocean islands: species area relationships, human impacts, and conservation. The American Naturalist. 152, Chown S. L., N. J. M. Gremmen & K. J. Gaston. (1998). Ecological biogeography of couthern ocean islands: species area relationships, human impacts, and conservation. The American Naturalist. 152, Martin T. E. (1987). Food as a limit on breeding birds: a life history perspective. Annual Review of Ecological Systems. 18, Martin T. E. (1987). Food as a limit on breeding birds: a life history perspective. Annual Review of Ecological Systems. 18,

33 References Stiles E. W. (1980). Patterns of fruit presentation and seed dispersal in bird-desseminated woody plants in the estern deciduous forest. The American Naturalist. 116, Stiles E. W. (1980). Patterns of fruit presentation and seed dispersal in bird-desseminated woody plants in the estern deciduous forest. The American Naturalist. 116, Morton M. L. (1967). Diurnal feeding patterns in white0crowned sparrows, zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii. The condor. 69, Morton M. L. (1967). Diurnal feeding patterns in white0crowned sparrows, zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii. The condor. 69, Levey D. J, T. C. Moermond, & J. S. Denslow. (1984). Fruit choices in neotropical birds: the effect of distance between fruits on preference patterns. Ecology, Levey D. J, T. C. Moermond, & J. S. Denslow. (1984). Fruit choices in neotropical birds: the effect of distance between fruits on preference patterns. Ecology, Willson M. F. & T. A. Comet.(1993).Food choices by northwestern crows: experiments with captive, free-ranging and hand-raised birds. The Condor. 95, Willson M. F. & T. A. Comet.(1993).Food choices by northwestern crows: experiments with captive, free-ranging and hand-raised birds. The Condor. 95, Willson M. F. (1994). Fruit choices by captive American robins. The condor. 96, Willson M. F. (1994). Fruit choices by captive American robins. The condor. 96,


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