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CHRISTIANITY-- True or False? The Case for God, the Bible and Jesus John Stewart, B.A., M.A., J.D. International Director, Ratio Christi The Case for God,

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1 CHRISTIANITY-- True or False? The Case for God, the Bible and Jesus John Stewart, B.A., M.A., J.D. International Director, Ratio Christi The Case for God, the Bible and Jesus John Stewart, B.A., M.A., J.D. International Director, Ratio Christi

2 Questions Where did the universe come from? Does God exist? Why are we here? What is the purpose of humanity? What is the future of humanity? Can we find out the answers? Where did the universe come from? Does God exist? Why are we here? What is the purpose of humanity? What is the future of humanity? Can we find out the answers?

3 Why Has God become a Threat? Erin Shead, a 10-year old student in Tennessee, was told by her teacher to write about an idol she looked up to as part of a class assignment. Erin decided to write about God. She drew a diagram explaining why she "looked up to God," writing "He is the reason I am on this earth. I love [God] and Jesus, and Jesus is His earthly son.” When Erin's teacher received her written assignment, she told the young girl that she was prohibited from picking God as her idol, and demanded that she start the class assignment all over again and choose a new idol. She was also told that her assignment with God as her idol must be taken home and was not allowed to remain on school property. September 2013 Erin Shead, a 10-year old student in Tennessee, was told by her teacher to write about an idol she looked up to as part of a class assignment. Erin decided to write about God. She drew a diagram explaining why she "looked up to God," writing "He is the reason I am on this earth. I love [God] and Jesus, and Jesus is His earthly son.” When Erin's teacher received her written assignment, she told the young girl that she was prohibited from picking God as her idol, and demanded that she start the class assignment all over again and choose a new idol. She was also told that her assignment with God as her idol must be taken home and was not allowed to remain on school property. September 2013

4 Why Would God Be a Threat? If there is a God, there will be accountability and justice (in this life or the next) according to what God requires If there is a God, He becomes the measure of truth and right and wrong If there is a God, morality is absolute, and is what He says it is If there is a God, there will be accountability and justice (in this life or the next) according to what God requires If there is a God, He becomes the measure of truth and right and wrong If there is a God, morality is absolute, and is what He says it is

5 If there is a God and Christianity is true, why so much doubt? America has been changing from a theistic (“God-believing”) culture to a secular culture Our universities are no longer a marketplace for ideas (atheistic, agnostic and secular assumptions have created a hostile environment toward those who believe in God in general, and Christians in particular) America has been changing from a theistic (“God-believing”) culture to a secular culture Our universities are no longer a marketplace for ideas (atheistic, agnostic and secular assumptions have created a hostile environment toward those who believe in God in general, and Christians in particular)

6 Richard Rorty, late professor of Philosophy, Princeton University “...we try to arrange things so that students who enter as bigoted, homophobic, religious fundamentalists will leave college with views more like our own...

7 So we are going to go right on trying to discredit you in the eyes of your children, trying to strip your fundamentalist religious community of dignity, trying to make your views seem silly rather than discussable..” 1

8 What Christianity Teaches There is a God, who created the universe out of nothing God has revealed Himself and His plan through inspired writings called the “Bible” God’s plan involved sending His Son, Jesus, to earth to die for the sins of humanity that separate us from God (the “gospel”) Jesus rose from the dead as proof that by believing in Him a person is forgiven of sins and given eternal life in heaven There is a God, who created the universe out of nothing God has revealed Himself and His plan through inspired writings called the “Bible” God’s plan involved sending His Son, Jesus, to earth to die for the sins of humanity that separate us from God (the “gospel”) Jesus rose from the dead as proof that by believing in Him a person is forgiven of sins and given eternal life in heaven

9 What’s the Big Deal? Christianity, if false, is of no importance, and if true, of infinite importance, the only thing it cannot be is moderately important. C.S. Lewis, Cambridge Professor, former atheist Christianity, if false, is of no importance, and if true, of infinite importance, the only thing it cannot be is moderately important. C.S. Lewis, Cambridge Professor, former atheist

10 Three Questions Is there a God (i.e., an “Intelligent Designer” that created the universe)? Is the Bible a reliable source of truth about God and Jesus? Is Jesus the Savior sent from God? (i.e., is Christianity true?) Is there a God (i.e., an “Intelligent Designer” that created the universe)? Is the Bible a reliable source of truth about God and Jesus? Is Jesus the Savior sent from God? (i.e., is Christianity true?)

11 Truth is sometimes denied because of a closed mind The existence of the platypus (‘duckbill”) was initially denied in England because it did not fit into scientists’ world view A resurrection is often dismissed as being impossible before considering the evidence because of anti-supernatural bias. The existence of the platypus (‘duckbill”) was initially denied in England because it did not fit into scientists’ world view A resurrection is often dismissed as being impossible before considering the evidence because of anti-supernatural bias.

12 Nietzsche, Darwin, etc. assume naturalism or atheism Atheists, materialists and naturalists assume there is no supernatural. Thus, regardless of the evidence, they will never believe God exists.

13 Carl Sagan’s view “The Cosmos is all that is or was or ever will be.” Cosmos (notice this is not a scientific statement, but is a metaphysical, i.e., religious, statement) “The Cosmos is all that is or was or ever will be.” Cosmos (notice this is not a scientific statement, but is a metaphysical, i.e., religious, statement)

14 How Do We Find Answers to the Questions? 1. Consider the Evidence 2. Weigh the Evidence 1. Consider the Evidence 2. Weigh the Evidence

15 Sequence of Presenting the Evidence Part I--Does God exist? (If there is no God, we can reject the Bible and Jesus) Part II--Is the Bible reliable? (If there is a God but the Bible is not reliable, then the story of Jesus is suspect, at best, and false, at worst) Part III--Did Jesus live, die on a cross and rise from the dead? (If Jesus is not an historical person, then we can reject the teachings of Christianity) Part I--Does God exist? (If there is no God, we can reject the Bible and Jesus) Part II--Is the Bible reliable? (If there is a God but the Bible is not reliable, then the story of Jesus is suspect, at best, and false, at worst) Part III--Did Jesus live, die on a cross and rise from the dead? (If Jesus is not an historical person, then we can reject the teachings of Christianity)

16 What is “Evidence?” Anything that supports an assertion Forms of Evidence: 1. Testimony (tells) 2. Physical evidence (shows) Anything that supports an assertion Forms of Evidence: 1. Testimony (tells) 2. Physical evidence (shows)

17 Direct Evidence Direct Evidence--where a witness testifies directly about the fact that is to be proved, based on what he claims to have seen or heard or felt with his own senses, and the only question is whether you believe the witness (“percipient witness”) Example: Assertion- “The mailman came today.” Testimony: “I saw the mailman drop off mail” Observation (“eyewitness testimony”) Documents (record of eyewitness testimony) Direct Evidence--where a witness testifies directly about the fact that is to be proved, based on what he claims to have seen or heard or felt with his own senses, and the only question is whether you believe the witness (“percipient witness”) Example: Assertion- “The mailman came today.” Testimony: “I saw the mailman drop off mail” Observation (“eyewitness testimony”) Documents (record of eyewitness testimony)

18 Circumstantial Evidence Circumstantial Evidence (relies on an inference to connect the evidence to an assertion of fact) Example: Assertion- “The mailman came today.” Testimony: “I saw mail in the mail box” (an inference that the mailman had been there) DNA, fingerprints, empty tomb Circumstantial Evidence (relies on an inference to connect the evidence to an assertion of fact) Example: Assertion- “The mailman came today.” Testimony: “I saw mail in the mail box” (an inference that the mailman had been there) DNA, fingerprints, empty tomb

19 What About “Scientific Proof?” “Contrary to popular belief, there is no such thing as a scientific proof. Proofs exist only in mathematics and logic, not in science. The primary criterion and standard of evaluation of scientific theory is evidence, not proof.” Satoshi Kanazawa, Evolutionary Psychologist 2

20 Limitations on Scientific Evidence Scientific Method: (1) form hypothesis; (2) repeat experiment; (3) draw data; (4) empirically verify hypothesis (e.g. “Ivory soap floats”) "The scientific method, however it is defined, is related to measurement of phenomena and experimentation or repeated observation" (The New Encyclopedia Britannica) Thus, history is outside the scope of the scientific method Scientific Method: (1) form hypothesis; (2) repeat experiment; (3) draw data; (4) empirically verify hypothesis (e.g. “Ivory soap floats”) "The scientific method, however it is defined, is related to measurement of phenomena and experimentation or repeated observation" (The New Encyclopedia Britannica) Thus, history is outside the scope of the scientific method

21 Legal/Historical Method “History”-- “A record of the past based upon testimony” “Testimony” includes oral testimony, documents, artifacts The Legal/Historical Method is used to determine events of the past (i.e., did Jesus exist) based on quality of evidence “History”-- “A record of the past based upon testimony” “Testimony” includes oral testimony, documents, artifacts The Legal/Historical Method is used to determine events of the past (i.e., did Jesus exist) based on quality of evidence

22 In making the case for God’s existence: I will be using expert witnesses to testify These experts are qualified as a experts by knowledge, skill, experience, training, or education Their testimony will be in the form of quotations from their writings and speeches I will be using expert witnesses to testify These experts are qualified as a experts by knowledge, skill, experience, training, or education Their testimony will be in the form of quotations from their writings and speeches

23 Expert Testimony ”A witness qualified as an expert by knowledge, skill, experience, training, or education" may testify and offer opinions if (a) the expert’s scientific, technical, or other specialized knowledge will assist the trier of fact to understand the evidence or to determine a fact in issue…" Rule 702(a) of the Federal Rules of Evidence

24 Dueling Experts What if both sides of an issue (e.g., whether God exists) have experts testifying in support of their side--how do you decide who to believe?

25 Weight of Evidence Evidence can be weak or strong Testimony can be reliable or unreliable (determine the quality of testimony by considering the character of the witnesses, biases, corroborating testimony, and the quality of contrary testimony) Once you’ve weighed the evidence, it is time for a verdict (Latin veredictim “to say the truth ” ) Evidence can be weak or strong Testimony can be reliable or unreliable (determine the quality of testimony by considering the character of the witnesses, biases, corroborating testimony, and the quality of contrary testimony) Once you’ve weighed the evidence, it is time for a verdict (Latin veredictim “to say the truth ” )

26 Our Goal--Arrive at Truth “What is truth?” Pontius Pilate, Gov. of Judea, AD “You can’t handle the truth” Col. Jessup, A Few Good Men “I am the truth” Jesus of Nazareth, John 14:6 “truth” is that which comports with reality “truth” is not dependent on feelings or preferences “What is truth?” Pontius Pilate, Gov. of Judea, AD “You can’t handle the truth” Col. Jessup, A Few Good Men “I am the truth” Jesus of Nazareth, John 14:6 “truth” is that which comports with reality “truth” is not dependent on feelings or preferences

27 Attempts to Escape from Truth (“Post-Modern Double-Talk”) “that’s your truth” (“true for you, not for me”) All truth is relative There is no absolute truth Truth cannot be known You can’t know anything for sure “that’s your truth” (“true for you, not for me”) All truth is relative There is no absolute truth Truth cannot be known You can’t know anything for sure

28 Apply the Law of Non- Contradiction Everything I say is a lie I can’t speak a word of English All truth is relative There is no absolute truth Truth cannot be known It is true for you but not for me You can’t know anything for sure Everything I say is a lie I can’t speak a word of English All truth is relative There is no absolute truth Truth cannot be known It is true for you but not for me You can’t know anything for sure

29 No One Believes and Lives as if there is No Objective Truth If a person says “there is no truth,” it doesn’t matter whether he eat Wheaties or rat poison--there is no truth, so bon appetite! Only a fool would deny there is such a thing as poison.

30 Basic Assumptions There is such a thing as “true” and “false” “Truth” can be known We have the ability to weigh evidence to determine what is true and what is false There is such a thing as “true” and “false” “Truth” can be known We have the ability to weigh evidence to determine what is true and what is false

31 Since we have both truth and lies, who is lying? “By means of shrewd lies, unremittingly repeated, it is possible to make people believe that heaven is hell and hell heaven. The greater the lie, the more readily it will be believed.”

32 Beware of Attractively- Presented Lies “By means of shrewd lies, unremittingly repeated, it is possible to make people believe that heaven is hell and hell heaven. The greater the lie, the more readily it will be believed.” Adoph Hitler, Mein Kampf “By means of shrewd lies, unremittingly repeated, it is possible to make people believe that heaven is hell and hell heaven. The greater the lie, the more readily it will be believed.” Adoph Hitler, Mein Kampf

33 Christianity--True or False? Part I, the Case for God What is the evidence for an intelligent designer of the universe (“God”)? Based upon the evidence, does it take more “faith” to be an atheist than to believe in God? What is the evidence for an intelligent designer of the universe (“God”)? Based upon the evidence, does it take more “faith” to be an atheist than to believe in God?

34 Clarifying what “faith” is and is not “faith” is not credulity (“believing in spite of the evidence) “faith” is not some mysterious ability “faith” is the gap between what we know is true and what can’t be proved (what we do when we sit on a chair or enter a building, e.g., no guaranty they won’t collapse) “faith” is not credulity (“believing in spite of the evidence) “faith” is not some mysterious ability “faith” is the gap between what we know is true and what can’t be proved (what we do when we sit on a chair or enter a building, e.g., no guaranty they won’t collapse)

35 Demonstrating that God exists is not the end of the journey If the evidence supports that there is an Intelligent Designer of the universe, we still need to find out who this God is (e.g., the God of Hinduism, Islam or Christianity) The Bible never tries to prove there is a God--it assumes there is a God (and says those who say there is no God are fools) If the evidence supports that there is an Intelligent Designer of the universe, we still need to find out who this God is (e.g., the God of Hinduism, Islam or Christianity) The Bible never tries to prove there is a God--it assumes there is a God (and says those who say there is no God are fools)

36 Three Conclusions About God Theism (from Greek word theos meaning “God”)--God exists Atheism--there is no God (“agnostic” means one who does not know whether God exists) Pantheism-everything is God Theism (from Greek word theos meaning “God”)--God exists Atheism--there is no God (“agnostic” means one who does not know whether God exists) Pantheism-everything is God

37 The View of Atheists (It Takes Faith to be an Atheist) Quentin Smith: “The most reasonable belief is that we came from nothing, by nothing and for nothing.” 3 Isaac Asimov: “Emotionally I am an atheist. I don't have the evidence to prove that God doesn't exist, but I so strongly suspect he doesn't that I don't want to waste my time.” 4 Quentin Smith: “The most reasonable belief is that we came from nothing, by nothing and for nothing.” 3 Isaac Asimov: “Emotionally I am an atheist. I don't have the evidence to prove that God doesn't exist, but I so strongly suspect he doesn't that I don't want to waste my time.” 4

38 Arguments Supporting God’s Existence (Be CALM) 1. Cosmos (“universe”) had a beginning 2.Anthropic Principle is strong evidence of a designer of the universe 3.Life’s very existence is strong evidence of a life-giver 4.Morality requires the existence of a moral law giver 1. Cosmos (“universe”) had a beginning 2.Anthropic Principle is strong evidence of a designer of the universe 3.Life’s very existence is strong evidence of a life-giver 4.Morality requires the existence of a moral law giver

39 Evidence for God’s Existence: (1) Cosmos had a beginning Law of Causality: Everything that begins to exist has a cause The cosmos began to exist Therefore, the universe has a cause (God, by definition, is uncaused and eternal) Law of Causality: Everything that begins to exist has a cause The cosmos began to exist Therefore, the universe has a cause (God, by definition, is uncaused and eternal)

40 Evidence that the Cosmos Had a Beginning (GEARS) 1.Gas tank is not empty yet 2Expanding universe 3.Albert Einstein’s General Relativity Theory 4.Radiation in cosmic background 5.Seeds of galaxies 1.Gas tank is not empty yet 2Expanding universe 3.Albert Einstein’s General Relativity Theory 4.Radiation in cosmic background 5.Seeds of galaxies

41 G: Gas Tank Not Empty Yet (Second Law of Thermodynamics) 1st Law of Thermodynamics--the amount of usable energy in the universe is finite (example- 20 gallons of gas in a car) 2nd Law of Thermodynamics (“Entropy”) the universe is running out of usable energy (the car engine is running, so the amount of gas is decreasing) (If the universe was eternal, it would have already run out of usable energy, like a car parked with the engine running--it will eventually run out of gas) 1st Law of Thermodynamics--the amount of usable energy in the universe is finite (example- 20 gallons of gas in a car) 2nd Law of Thermodynamics (“Entropy”) the universe is running out of usable energy (the car engine is running, so the amount of gas is decreasing) (If the universe was eternal, it would have already run out of usable energy, like a car parked with the engine running--it will eventually run out of gas)

42 E: Expanding Universe Confirmed by astronomer Edwin Hubble in the 1920s that the universe is expanding from a single point Astronomers today conclude the rate of expansion of the universe is increasing An expanding universe from a single point is strong evidence the cosmos had a beginning Confirmed by astronomer Edwin Hubble in the 1920s that the universe is expanding from a single point Astronomers today conclude the rate of expansion of the universe is increasing An expanding universe from a single point is strong evidence the cosmos had a beginning

43 A: Albert Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity Demands an absolute beginning for time, space and matter Demonstrates that time, space and matter are inter-dependent--one cannot exist without the other From Einstein’s theory scientists predicted and then discovered the expanding universe, radiation afterglow and galaxy seeds. Demands an absolute beginning for time, space and matter Demonstrates that time, space and matter are inter-dependent--one cannot exist without the other From Einstein’s theory scientists predicted and then discovered the expanding universe, radiation afterglow and galaxy seeds.

44 Albert Einstein would have rather had an eternal universe

45 Why prefer an eternal universe? The implications (i.e., God exists) “Philosophically, the notion of a beginning of the present order of nature is repugnant to me…I should like to find a genuine loophole.” 5 Albert Einstein Einstein, when he later could not longer support his wish for an eternal universe, he said he wanted “to know how God created the world.” 6 “Philosophically, the notion of a beginning of the present order of nature is repugnant to me…I should like to find a genuine loophole.” 5 Albert Einstein Einstein, when he later could not longer support his wish for an eternal universe, he said he wanted “to know how God created the world.” 6

46 R: Radiation in Cosmic Background 1965, Arnold Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered the afterglow (light and heat) from the creative event (“Big Bang”) that had been predicted to exist if the explosive creative event had actually occurred. Their discovery confirmed the Big Bang (i.e., that the universe began from nothing in a fireball explosion of matter) 1965, Arnold Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered the afterglow (light and heat) from the creative event (“Big Bang”) that had been predicted to exist if the explosive creative event had actually occurred. Their discovery confirmed the Big Bang (i.e., that the universe began from nothing in a fireball explosion of matter)

47 S: Seeds of Galaxies “Seeds of Galaxies” refers to variations in the temperature of background radiation that allowed gravity to form galaxies from matter. Discovered in 1989, the variations show the Big Bang and expansion of the universe were perfectly calibrated to cause the right amount of matter to combine to form galaxies, but not enough to cause the universe to collapse back onto itself. “Seeds of Galaxies” refers to variations in the temperature of background radiation that allowed gravity to form galaxies from matter. Discovered in 1989, the variations show the Big Bang and expansion of the universe were perfectly calibrated to cause the right amount of matter to combine to form galaxies, but not enough to cause the universe to collapse back onto itself.

48 How significant was the discovery of seeds of galaxies? “If you’re religious, its like looking at God.” 7 Astronomer George Smoot, Cosmic Background Explorer (“COBE”) project leader Smoot calls the variations in temperature, “machining marks from the creation of the universe” and “fingerprints of the maker.” 8 “If you’re religious, its like looking at God.” 7 Astronomer George Smoot, Cosmic Background Explorer (“COBE”) project leader Smoot calls the variations in temperature, “machining marks from the creation of the universe” and “fingerprints of the maker.” 8

49 How Precise did the Creation of Matter Have to Be? Physicist P.C.W. Davies: Changes in either gravity or the weak force of one part in would have prevented a life-permitting universe. 9 Physicist Brandon Carter: The odds against the original condition of the universe being suitable for later star formation (without which planets, such as Earth, could not exist) is 1 chance in 10 10(20) (one followed by a thousand billion billion zeros) 10 Physicist P.C.W. Davies: Changes in either gravity or the weak force of one part in would have prevented a life-permitting universe. 9 Physicist Brandon Carter: The odds against the original condition of the universe being suitable for later star formation (without which planets, such as Earth, could not exist) is 1 chance in 10 10(20) (one followed by a thousand billion billion zeros) 10

50 Fine Tuning of the Universe Steven Hawking: Decrease in the expansion rate in one part in a hundred thousand million million one second after the Big Bang would have caused the universe to collapse on itself. 11 Sir Roger Penrose: The Creator’s aim had to be accurate to 1 part in 10 to the power of (illustrate to understand) 12 Steven Hawking: Decrease in the expansion rate in one part in a hundred thousand million million one second after the Big Bang would have caused the universe to collapse on itself. 11 Sir Roger Penrose: The Creator’s aim had to be accurate to 1 part in 10 to the power of (illustrate to understand) 12

51 Attempts to Deny the Obvious (that the cosmos had a beginning) There are other universes (parallel universes) There are an infinite number of universes (“multiverses”) Cosmic Rebound There are other universes (parallel universes) There are an infinite number of universes (“multiverses”) Cosmic Rebound

52 Observations about the “Multiverse Theory” “To postulate a trillion-trillion other universes, rather than one God, in order to explain the orderliness of our universe, seems the height of irrationality.” 13 John Polkinghorne, Quantum Theorist “Let us recognize these speculations for what they are. They are not physics, but in the strictest sense, metaphysics. There is no purely scientific reason to believe in an ensemble of universes.” 14 John Swinburne, Philosopher “To postulate a trillion-trillion other universes, rather than one God, in order to explain the orderliness of our universe, seems the height of irrationality.” 13 John Polkinghorne, Quantum Theorist “Let us recognize these speculations for what they are. They are not physics, but in the strictest sense, metaphysics. There is no purely scientific reason to believe in an ensemble of universes.” 14 John Swinburne, Philosopher

53 Without Evidence, it’s the same as “My Dog Ate My Homework” Or, in the case of “multiverses,” “an infinite number of dogs ate my homework”

54 The Evidence Upsets Scientists “Theologians are generally delighted with the proof that the Universe had a beginning, but astronomers are curiously upset…when evidence uncovered by science itself leads to a conflict with the articles of faith of our profession.” 15 Robert Jastrow, Astronomer, former head of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, agnostic “Theologians are generally delighted with the proof that the Universe had a beginning, but astronomers are curiously upset…when evidence uncovered by science itself leads to a conflict with the articles of faith of our profession.” 15 Robert Jastrow, Astronomer, former head of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, agnostic

55 There is “Religion in Science” “There is a kind of religion in science…every effect must have its cause; there is no First Cause…This religious faith of the scientist is violated by the discovery that the world had a beginning under conditions in which the known laws of physics are not valid…When that happens, the scientist has lost control.” 16 Robert Jastrow, Astronomer “There is a kind of religion in science…every effect must have its cause; there is no First Cause…This religious faith of the scientist is violated by the discovery that the world had a beginning under conditions in which the known laws of physics are not valid…When that happens, the scientist has lost control.” 16 Robert Jastrow, Astronomer

56 When Scientists’ Beliefs Conflict with the Evidence “It turns out that the scientist behaves the way the rest of us do when our beliefs are in conflict with the evidence. We become irritated, we pretend the conflict does not exist, or we paper it over with meaningless phrases.” 17 Robert Jastrow, Astronomer (punctuated equilibrium, anyone?) “It turns out that the scientist behaves the way the rest of us do when our beliefs are in conflict with the evidence. We become irritated, we pretend the conflict does not exist, or we paper it over with meaningless phrases.” 17 Robert Jastrow, Astronomer (punctuated equilibrium, anyone?)

57 Evidence for God’s Existence (2) Anthropic Principle Watchmaker argument (William Paley)-- The universe is so finely tuned that there must be an intelligent designer behind it. Anthropic Principle--(from Greek word anthropos “man”) means the universe is finely tuned to support life on Earth Watchmaker argument (William Paley)-- The universe is so finely tuned that there must be an intelligent designer behind it. Anthropic Principle--(from Greek word anthropos “man”) means the universe is finely tuned to support life on Earth

58 Evidence for an Intelligent Designer (Anthropic Constants) 1. Oxygen levels 2. Atmospheric transparency 3. Moon-Earth gravitational interaction 4. Carbon Dioxide levels 5. Gravity 6. Tilt of the Earth’s axis 7. Rate of expansion of universe (plus over 100 more) 1. Oxygen levels 2. Atmospheric transparency 3. Moon-Earth gravitational interaction 4. Carbon Dioxide levels 5. Gravity 6. Tilt of the Earth’s axis 7. Rate of expansion of universe (plus over 100 more)

59 Evidence Points to a Universe Prepared for Humanity “As we look into the universe and identify the many accidents of physics and astronomy that have worked together to our benefit, it almost seems as if the universe must in some sense have known we were coming.” 18 Freeman Dyson, Physicist “As we look into the universe and identify the many accidents of physics and astronomy that have worked together to our benefit, it almost seems as if the universe must in some sense have known we were coming.” 18 Freeman Dyson, Physicist

60 Could it be luck or coincidence (that we are here)? Odds that the anthropic constants (“life- permitting conditions”) would exist today for any planet in the universe by chance: (1 followed by 138 zeros) 19 (There are only atoms in the entire universe) Odds that the anthropic constants (“life- permitting conditions”) would exist today for any planet in the universe by chance: (1 followed by 138 zeros) 19 (There are only atoms in the entire universe)

61 “Dark Energy” (self-stretching property of cosmic surface) If Dark Energy, which makes up 72% of the density of the universe were changed in as little as one part in the universe could not support life. 20 A number that small, if compared to the mass of the entire universe, would be a billionth of a trillionth of a trillionth of an electron’s mass. 21 If Dark Energy, which makes up 72% of the density of the universe were changed in as little as one part in the universe could not support life. 20 A number that small, if compared to the mass of the entire universe, would be a billionth of a trillionth of a trillionth of an electron’s mass. 21

62 Conclusion of Open-Minded Scientists “Astronomy leads us to a unique event, a universe which was created out of nothing and delicately balanced to provide exactly the conditions required to support life. In the absence of an absurdly-improbable accident, the observations of modern science seem to suggest an underlying, one might say supernatural, plan.” 22 Arno Penzias, Nobel Prize winner, co-discoverer of radiation afterglow “Astronomy leads us to a unique event, a universe which was created out of nothing and delicately balanced to provide exactly the conditions required to support life. In the absence of an absurdly-improbable accident, the observations of modern science seem to suggest an underlying, one might say supernatural, plan.” 22 Arno Penzias, Nobel Prize winner, co-discoverer of radiation afterglow

63 The Anthropic Principle as Proof of God’s Existence “Here is the cosmological proof of the existence of God--the design argument of Paley--updated and refurbished. The fine- tuning of the universe provides prima facie evidence of deistic design.” 23 Ed Harrison, Cosmologist “Here is the cosmological proof of the existence of God--the design argument of Paley--updated and refurbished. The fine- tuning of the universe provides prima facie evidence of deistic design.” 23 Ed Harrison, Cosmologist

64 Atheists, Beware! A young man who wishes to remain a sound atheist cannot be too careful of his reading. ” C.S. Lewis, former atheist A young man who wishes to remain a sound atheist cannot be too careful of his reading. ” C.S. Lewis, former atheist

65 Evidence for God’s Existence (3) Life’s Very Existence “Biology is the study of complicated things that give the appearance of having been designed for a purpose.” Richard Dawkins, Biologist The Blind Watchmaker, 1996, p. 1 “Biology is the study of complicated things that give the appearance of having been designed for a purpose.” Richard Dawkins, Biologist The Blind Watchmaker, 1996, p. 1

66 Where did life come from? Problems with the atheist/naturalist view (spontaneous generation, life from non-life) 1. Atheism (and naturalism) cannot explain how the first life got here. 2. Atheism (and naturalism) cannot explain how information gets into every cell Problems with the atheist/naturalist view (spontaneous generation, life from non-life) 1. Atheism (and naturalism) cannot explain how the first life got here. 2. Atheism (and naturalism) cannot explain how information gets into every cell

67 Information requires intelligence S.E.T.I. (movie Contact, prime numbers) Mount Rushmore--natural phenomenon? Dictionary--from explosion in print shop? “Wash this car” on rear window of car Examples of natural forces (swirling winds, earthquakes) at work, or intelligence? S.E.T.I. (movie Contact, prime numbers) Mount Rushmore--natural phenomenon? Dictionary--from explosion in print shop? “Wash this car” on rear window of car Examples of natural forces (swirling winds, earthquakes) at work, or intelligence?

68 DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid) DNA is a long molecule with a double helix structure. Information-bearing DNA is stored in the nucleus of the cell and stores information needed to build proteins Every cell in the human body ( trillion) contains a data base larger than the Encyclopedia Britannica DNA is a long molecule with a double helix structure. Information-bearing DNA is stored in the nucleus of the cell and stores information needed to build proteins Every cell in the human body ( trillion) contains a data base larger than the Encyclopedia Britannica

69 DNA DNA molecule is made up of a long chain of simpler molecules (“nucleotides”) The base of each nucleotide is made up of four chemicals (A,G,C,T) A gene is a long string of these letters carrying instructions for making a protein A genome is a complete set of genes encoded by DNA (30-40,000 genes) DNA molecule is made up of a long chain of simpler molecules (“nucleotides”) The base of each nucleotide is made up of four chemicals (A,G,C,T) A gene is a long string of these letters carrying instructions for making a protein A genome is a complete set of genes encoded by DNA (30-40,000 genes)

70 Complexity of DNA DNA in the E. coli bacterium is 4 million letters (nucleotides) long (would fill 1,000 pages in a book) Human genome is over 3.5 billion letters (nucleotides) long and would fill an entire library Conclusion-the information in DNA is too complex to be created by “natural forces” DNA in the E. coli bacterium is 4 million letters (nucleotides) long (would fill 1,000 pages in a book) Human genome is over 3.5 billion letters (nucleotides) long and would fill an entire library Conclusion-the information in DNA is too complex to be created by “natural forces”

71 Life coming from non-life is an article of faith, lacking evidence Chandra Wickramasinghe, “The emergence of life from a primordial soup on the Earth is merely an article of faith that scientists are finding difficult to shed.” 24

72 Even Darwinists/Naturalists admit origin of life requires intelligence Fred Hoyle, “panspermia” Chandra Wickramasinghe, “panspermia” Richard Dawkins, possibly panspermia (see movie Expelled) Problem: who created the aliens that seeded the universe? Fred Hoyle, “panspermia” Chandra Wickramasinghe, “panspermia” Richard Dawkins, possibly panspermia (see movie Expelled) Problem: who created the aliens that seeded the universe?

73 Odds that Life Arose Spontaneously “The likelihood of the spontaneous formation of life from inanimate matter is one to a number with 40,000 noughts after it…It is big enough to bury Darwin and the whole theory of evolution. There was no primeval soup, neither on this planet nor on any other, and if the beginnings of life were not random, they must therefore have been the product of purposeful intelligence.” 25 Sir Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe “The likelihood of the spontaneous formation of life from inanimate matter is one to a number with 40,000 noughts after it…It is big enough to bury Darwin and the whole theory of evolution. There was no primeval soup, neither on this planet nor on any other, and if the beginnings of life were not random, they must therefore have been the product of purposeful intelligence.” 25 Sir Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe

74 Darwinists/Naturalists Need A Miracle to Explain Life Michel Denton, Microbiologist: “The complexity of the simplest known type of cell is so great that it is impossible to accept that such an object could have been thrown together suddenly by some kind of freakish, vastly improbable event. Such an occurrence would be indistinguishable from a miracle.” 26 Michel Denton, Microbiologist: “The complexity of the simplest known type of cell is so great that it is impossible to accept that such an object could have been thrown together suddenly by some kind of freakish, vastly improbable event. Such an occurrence would be indistinguishable from a miracle.” 26

75 Confession of a Darwinist (Naturalist/Materialist) Our willingness to accept scientific claims that are against common sense is the key to an understanding of the real struggle between science and the supernatural. We take the side of science in spite of the patent absurdity of some of its constructs…because we have a prior commitment to materialism…materialism is absolute for we cannot let a divine foot in the door.” 27 Richard Lewontin, Harvard University Our willingness to accept scientific claims that are against common sense is the key to an understanding of the real struggle between science and the supernatural. We take the side of science in spite of the patent absurdity of some of its constructs…because we have a prior commitment to materialism…materialism is absolute for we cannot let a divine foot in the door.” 27 Richard Lewontin, Harvard University

76 Unbiased Science Should Admit Intelligent Design “If science is based on experience, then science tells us that the message encoded in DNA must have originated from an intelligent cause. What kind of intelligent agent was it? On its own, science cannot answer this question; it must leave it to religion and philosophy. But that should not prevent science from acknowledging evidences for an intelligent cause origin….” 28 Dean Kenyon, Biophysicist “If science is based on experience, then science tells us that the message encoded in DNA must have originated from an intelligent cause. What kind of intelligent agent was it? On its own, science cannot answer this question; it must leave it to religion and philosophy. But that should not prevent science from acknowledging evidences for an intelligent cause origin….” 28 Dean Kenyon, Biophysicist

77 A Physicist Summarizes the Evidence for Life from Non-life “The belief that life on earth arose spontaneously from nonliving matter, is simply a matter of faith in strict reductionism and is based entirely on ideology.” 29 Hubert Yockey, Physicist and Information Scientist “The belief that life on earth arose spontaneously from nonliving matter, is simply a matter of faith in strict reductionism and is based entirely on ideology.” 29 Hubert Yockey, Physicist and Information Scientist

78 What did one chimpanzee say to the other chimpanzee?

79 Evidence for God’s Existence (4) Morality Every law has a lawgiver There is a moral law Therefore there is a moral lawgiver Every law has a lawgiver There is a moral law Therefore there is a moral lawgiver

80 Atheists Claim to be Moral, but what is their basis for Morality? I'm not saying that atheists can't act morally or have moral knowledge. But when I ascribe virtue to an atheist, it's as a theist who sees the atheist as conforming to objective moral values. The atheist, by contrast, has no such basis for morality. And yet all moral judgments require a basis for morality, some standard of right and wrong. 30 William A. Dembski, Philosopher I'm not saying that atheists can't act morally or have moral knowledge. But when I ascribe virtue to an atheist, it's as a theist who sees the atheist as conforming to objective moral values. The atheist, by contrast, has no such basis for morality. And yet all moral judgments require a basis for morality, some standard of right and wrong. 30 William A. Dembski, Philosopher

81 Morality Without God (the Consequences) Hindu practice of suttee The “right” to kill babies until 30 days after birth Holocaust Use of poison gas Child abuse Ethnic cleansing Hindu practice of suttee The “right” to kill babies until 30 days after birth Holocaust Use of poison gas Child abuse Ethnic cleansing

82 “Atheist Morality?” Now, I'm an atheist. I really don't believe for a moment that our moral sense comes from a god. 31 Ian Mcewan, novelist Some people love their neighbors, others eat them--what is your preference? Ravi Zacharias, Christian Apologist The atheist is cheating whenever he makes a moral judgment, acting as though it has an objective reference, when his philosophy in fact precludes it. 32 William A. Dembski, Philosopher Now, I'm an atheist. I really don't believe for a moment that our moral sense comes from a god. 31 Ian Mcewan, novelist Some people love their neighbors, others eat them--what is your preference? Ravi Zacharias, Christian Apologist The atheist is cheating whenever he makes a moral judgment, acting as though it has an objective reference, when his philosophy in fact precludes it. 32 William A. Dembski, Philosopher

83 Judgment at Nuremberg How could you convict Nazis of crimes against humanity? Double standard? Ex post facto laws? Victor’s justice? Violation of Germany’s sovereignty? Justice Robert Jackson: A law above the law (assumptions of civilizations) How could you convict Nazis of crimes against humanity? Double standard? Ex post facto laws? Victor’s justice? Violation of Germany’s sovereignty? Justice Robert Jackson: A law above the law (assumptions of civilizations)

84 Morality Without moral law there would be no human rights (Declaration of Independence, “endowed by our Creator with certain unalienable rights) Without moral law we would not know right or wrong, justice or injustice Without moral law, we could not measure moral differences (e.g, Hitler, Mother Teresa) Without moral law there would be no human rights (Declaration of Independence, “endowed by our Creator with certain unalienable rights) Without moral law we would not know right or wrong, justice or injustice Without moral law, we could not measure moral differences (e.g, Hitler, Mother Teresa)

85 Conclusion on Morality “Ethics is transcendental.” Wittgenstein Objective morality requires a Moral Lawgiver outside of the human predicament Even atheists live as if there is objective morality. The existence of objective morality is evidence that God exists “Ethics is transcendental.” Wittgenstein Objective morality requires a Moral Lawgiver outside of the human predicament Even atheists live as if there is objective morality. The existence of objective morality is evidence that God exists

86 Summarizing the Case for God (1)Cosmos had a beginning (from a supernatural source) (2) Anthropic Principle is strong evidence that the universe and earth were designed (3) Life’s very existence is best explained by an Intelligent Designer than chance (4) Morality’s existence requires a transcendent Moral Lawgiver The shallowness, irrationality and bias of the atheist speaks louder than the voice of the theist (1)Cosmos had a beginning (from a supernatural source) (2) Anthropic Principle is strong evidence that the universe and earth were designed (3) Life’s very existence is best explained by an Intelligent Designer than chance (4) Morality’s existence requires a transcendent Moral Lawgiver The shallowness, irrationality and bias of the atheist speaks louder than the voice of the theist

87 Unbiased Science is Making a Case for God “Only a rookie who knows nothing about science would say science takes away from faith. If you really study science, it will bring you closer to God.” 33 James Tour, Nanoscientist “Only a rookie who knows nothing about science would say science takes away from faith. If you really study science, it will bring you closer to God.” 33 James Tour, Nanoscientist

88 If there is no God, why is there something rather than nothing? Two options: (1)no one created something out of nothing (2) someone created something out of nothing Which is more reasonable? Two options: (1)no one created something out of nothing (2) someone created something out of nothing Which is more reasonable?

89 Haven’t atheists and naturalists watched The Sound of Music? “Nothing comes from nothing, nothing ever could” (Rogers and Hammerstein, sung by Julie Andrews) Ex nihilo, nihil fit “Nothing comes from nothing, nothing ever could” (Rogers and Hammerstein, sung by Julie Andrews) Ex nihilo, nihil fit

90 God is the Most Reasonable Answer to Why Anything Exists “For the scientist who has live by his faith in the power of reason, the story ends like a bad dream. He has scaled the mountains of ignorance; he is about to conquer the highest peak; as he pulls himself over the final rock, he is greeted by a band of theologians who have been sitting there for centuries.” 36 Robert Jastrow

91 The Verdict: God exists There is substantial evidence for the existence of God (the Intelligent Designer) It takes more faith to be an atheist than to believe in God (theist) “To be an atheist requires an indefinitely greater measure of faith than to receive all the great truths which atheism would deny.” 37 Joseph Addison There is substantial evidence for the existence of God (the Intelligent Designer) It takes more faith to be an atheist than to believe in God (theist) “To be an atheist requires an indefinitely greater measure of faith than to receive all the great truths which atheism would deny.” 37 Joseph Addison

92

93 Bibliography I Don’t Have Enough Faith to Be an Atheist (Norman Geisler, Frank Turek, 2004) God’s Undertaker--Has Science Buried God? (John Lennox, 2009) Why the Universe is the Way it Is (Hugh Ross, 2008) Reasonable Faith (William Lane Craig, 2008) Darwin's Doubt: The Explosive Origin of Animal Life and the Case for Intelligent Design (Stephen Meyer, 2013) Icons of Evolution--Science or Myth? (Jonathan Wells, 2000) I Don’t Have Enough Faith to Be an Atheist (Norman Geisler, Frank Turek, 2004) God’s Undertaker--Has Science Buried God? (John Lennox, 2009) Why the Universe is the Way it Is (Hugh Ross, 2008) Reasonable Faith (William Lane Craig, 2008) Darwin's Doubt: The Explosive Origin of Animal Life and the Case for Intelligent Design (Stephen Meyer, 2013) Icons of Evolution--Science or Myth? (Jonathan Wells, 2000)

94 On-Line Resources –audio archive for apologetics – The VERITAS Forum – Leadership University – Oxford Center for Christian Apologetics – Ravi Zacharias International Ministries – William Lane Craig’s Site – Access Research Network – William Dembski’s I.D. weblog and –audio archive for apologetics – The VERITAS Forum – Leadership University – Oxford Center for Christian Apologetics – Ravi Zacharias International Ministries – William Lane Craig’s Site – Access Research Network – William Dembski’s I.D. weblog and

95 Footnotes 1 ‘Universality and Truth,’ in Robert B. Brandom (ed.), Rorty and his Critics, 2000, pp Psychology Today, November 16, Theism, Atheism and the Big Bang Cosmology. p Free Inquiry, Spring, Quoted in Hugh Ross, The Creator and the Cosmos, 1995, p Quoted in Fred Heeren, Show Me God, 2000, p ‘Universality and Truth,’ in Robert B. Brandom (ed.), Rorty and his Critics, 2000, pp Psychology Today, November 16, Theism, Atheism and the Big Bang Cosmology. p Free Inquiry, Spring, Quoted in Hugh Ross, The Creator and the Cosmos, 1995, p Quoted in Fred Heeren, Show Me God, 2000, p. 35.

96 Footnotes, continued 7 Thomas H. Maugh, II (April 24, 1992). "Relics of Big Bang, Seen for First Time". Los Angeles Times. pp. A1, A30. 8 Heeren, Show Me God, p “William Lane Craig vs. Peter Atkins 1998 Debate. Online video clip. YouTube. Accessed 24 March Craig vs Atkins 1998 Debate. 11 Craig vs Atkins 1998 Debate. 12 The Emperor’s New Mind, 1989, p Thomas H. Maugh, II (April 24, 1992). "Relics of Big Bang, Seen for First Time". Los Angeles Times. pp. A1, A30. 8 Heeren, Show Me God, p “William Lane Craig vs. Peter Atkins 1998 Debate. Online video clip. YouTube. Accessed 24 March Craig vs Atkins 1998 Debate. 11 Craig vs Atkins 1998 Debate. 12 The Emperor’s New Mind, 1989, p. 344

97 Footnotes, Continued 13 One World, 1986, p Is There A God? 1995, p God and the Astronomers, 1978, p God and the Astronomers, pp God and the Astronomers, p Energy in the Universe, Scientific American, 224, 1971, p One World, 1986, p Is There A God? 1995, p God and the Astronomers, 1978, p God and the Astronomers, pp God and the Astronomers, p Energy in the Universe, Scientific American, 224, 1971, p. 50.

98 Footnotes, Continued 19 Why I Believe in Divine Creation,” in Why I am a Christian: Leading Thinkers Explain Why They Believe, Geisler & Hoffman, eds., 2001, pp Lawrence M. Krauss, Quintessence: The Mystery of the Missing Mass, 2000, pp Hugh Ross, Why the Universe is the Way it Is, 2008, pp Quoted in Walter Bradley, “The Just-so Universe: The Fine-Tuning of Constants and Conditions in the Cosmos,” in Signs of Intelligence, Dembski & Kushiner, eds, 2001, p Why I Believe in Divine Creation,” in Why I am a Christian: Leading Thinkers Explain Why They Believe, Geisler & Hoffman, eds., 2001, pp Lawrence M. Krauss, Quintessence: The Mystery of the Missing Mass, 2000, pp Hugh Ross, Why the Universe is the Way it Is, 2008, pp Quoted in Walter Bradley, “The Just-so Universe: The Fine-Tuning of Constants and Conditions in the Cosmos,” in Signs of Intelligence, Dembski & Kushiner, eds, 2001, p. 168.

99 Footnotes, Continued 23 Quoted in Geisler & Hoffman, eds, Why I am a Christian, p Quoted in Geisler & Turek, I Don’t Have Enough Faith to be an Atheist, 2004, p Evolution from Space, 1984, p Evolution: A Theory in Crisis, 1985, p ” Billions and Billions of Demons,” The New York Review of Books, January 9, 1997, p Quoted in Geisler & Hoffman, eds, Why I am a Christian, p Quoted in Geisler & Turek, I Don’t Have Enough Faith to be an Atheist, 2004, p Evolution from Space, 1984, p Evolution: A Theory in Crisis, 1985, p ” Billions and Billions of Demons,” The New York Review of Books, January 9, 1997, p. 31.

100 Footnotes, Continued 28 Of Pandas and People: The Central Question of Biological Origins, Davis & Kenyon, 1989, p Information Theory and Molecular Biology, 1992, p mad html. 31 mcewan.html 32 mad html 28 Of Pandas and People: The Central Question of Biological Origins, Davis & Kenyon, 1989, p Information Theory and Molecular Biology, 1992, p mad html. 31 mcewan.html 32 mad html

101 Footnotes, Continued 35 Quoted in Geisler & Turek, I Don’t Have Enough Faith to be an Atheist, p God and the Astronomers, p j/joseph_addison.html 35 Quoted in Geisler & Turek, I Don’t Have Enough Faith to be an Atheist, p God and the Astronomers, p j/joseph_addison.html


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