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The Ferment of Reform and Culture 1790 to 1860. Religious liberalism: Secular rationalism Deism – (Jefferson, Franklin, Paine) – relied on reason rather.

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Presentation on theme: "The Ferment of Reform and Culture 1790 to 1860. Religious liberalism: Secular rationalism Deism – (Jefferson, Franklin, Paine) – relied on reason rather."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Ferment of Reform and Culture 1790 to 1860

2 Religious liberalism: Secular rationalism Deism – (Jefferson, Franklin, Paine) – relied on reason rather than revelation – scientific – believes in the existence of a God or supreme being but denies revealed religion. Unitarian faith – stressed the essential goodness of human nature - free will and salvation through good works- appealed to intellectuals

3 Second Great Awakening Spectacular religious revivals – reversed the trend towards secular rationalism – fueled a spirit of social reform Attempt to improve Americans’ faith, morals, and character affected education, family, literature, and the arts – culminating in the abolitionist movement to end slavery

4 Peter Cartwright Born: Sept. 1,1785 Died: Sept. 25,1872 Early American "hellfire and brimstone" preacher. Helped start the Second Great Awakening

5 Charles Grandison Finney 1792 – 1875 Evangelist – spellbinding oratory style Often called one of "America's foremost revivalist“ Encouraged women to pray Opposed liquor and slavery

6 William Miller Born: February 15, 1782 Died: December 20, 1849 American Baptist preacher, whose followers were called Millerites - Adventists Millerites rose from the “Burned Over” District in the 1830’s. They expected Christ to return to earth on October 22, 1844.

7 Effect of Religious Diversity Second Great Awakening widened lines between classes and regions Prosperous regions in East – little effect Methodists and Baptists and new sects – swelled by fervor Baptist and Methodist churches split over slavery issue

8 Joseph Smith Born: 23-Dec-1805 Died: 27-Jun-1844 Founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormons) Cooperative sect Voted as a unit Polygamy Murdered

9 Brigham Young Born: 1-Jun-1801 Died: 29-Aug-1877 Second prophet of the Latter Day Saints. Led followers to Utah Utah grew and became prosperous Theocracy – cooperative commonwealth

10 Free Schools for a Free People “ Whenever the people are well-informed, they can be trusted with their own government.” – Thomas Jefferson Early republic – tax supported schools – rare – opposition to “free public education” Manhood suffrage  triumph of tax- supported school 1825-1850

11 Horace Mann Born: 4-May-1796 Died: 2-Aug-1859 Humanitarian Advocated for public education basis of quality education is good teachers Wanted longer school terms, higher pay for teachers, expanded curriculum Pushed for reform in mental institutions and called for the end of slavery. Known as "the father of the American common school“ - to serve individuals of all social classes and religions.

12 Noah Webster Born: 16-Oct-1758 Died: 28-May-1843 “Schoolmaster of the Republic” Lexicographer Standardized the American language

13 William H. McGuffey Born: Sept. 23,1800(in PA.) Died: 1873 McGuffey’s Reader Text for most schools from 1836-1900 Contained religious messages Sought to instill morality, patriotism, and idealism 122,000,000 copies sold

14 Emma Willard Born Feb. 23, 1787 Died April 15, 1870 Women's rights advocate 1821 founded the first women's school of higher education, the Troy Female Seminary. Troy became famous, offering collegiate education to women and new opportunity to women teachers.

15 An Age of Reform Promises of the Second Great Awakening led to a wave of reform Women were prominent in the reform movements Targets/goals? –Suffrage –Prison reform and criminal codes –Alcohol –Slavery

16 Dorothea Dix Born: 4-Apr-1802 Died: 17-Jul-1887 Activist for the insane Through a vigorous program of lobbying state legislatures and the United States Congress, created the first generation of American mental asylums.

17 Neal S. Dow “Father of Prohibition” Employer of labor – witnessed debauching effect of drink Sponsored 1 st prohibition law in Maine in 1851

18 Lucretia Mott Born: 3-Jan-1793 Died: 11-Nov-1880 Quaker, abolitionist, social reformer and proponent of women's rights. Co-organizer of Seneca Falls Convention Signatory of the Declaration of Sentiments.

19 Elizabeth Cady Stanton Born: 12-Nov-1815 Died: 26-Oct-1902 President of the National Woman Suffrage Association from 1865-90 Drafted the Declaration of Sentiments (Demanded the vote at Seneca Falls) Co–organized Seneca Falls Stanton (seated) with Susan B. Anthony

20 Susan B. Anthony Born: 15-Feb-1820 Died: 13-Mar-1906 Prominent women's rights advocate In 1869, she and Elizabeth Cady Stanton founded the National Woman's Suffrage Association (NWSA) Arrested and fined for trying to vote in the 1872 Presidential election Age 26

21 Elizabeth Blackwell Born: February 3, 1821 Died: May 31, 1910 Abolitionist and women's rights activist 1849 - she became the first woman to earn a medical degree in the United States. Barred from practice in most hospitals, she founded her own infirmary, the New York Infirmary for Indigent Women and Children, in 1857.

22 Margaret Fuller Born: 23-May-1810 Died: 19-Jul-1850 Friend of Ralph Waldo Emerson and associated with transcendentalism Edited the transcendentalist journal, The Dial from 1840 to 1842 Joined Horace Greeley's New York Tribune as literary critic First female journalist to work on the staff of a major newspaper. Fuller's major work, Woman in the Nineteenth Century (1845), argued for the independence of women.

23 Utopian Societies Reformers set up over 40 communities New Harmony, Indiana Brook Farm in Massachusetts – transcendentalist Oneida Community Shakers

24 Robert Owen Born: 14-May-1771 Died: 17-Nov-1858 Idealistic Scottish manufacturer Founder of the Cooperative Movement Began a communal society in 1825 in New Harmony, Indiana. It failed. New Moral World Owen's envisioned successor of New Harmony. Owenites fired bricks to build it, but construction never took place.

25 John Humphrey Noyes Born: Sept. 3, 1811 Died: April 13, 1886 American utopian socialist. He founded the Oneida Community in 1848. There were smaller communities in Wallingford, Conn.; Newark, NJ; Putney,Vt; and Cambridge, Vt. The Oneida Community dissolved in 1880,

26 Scientific Achievement Early Americans interested in practical science Louis Agassiz – biologist – insisted on original research Audubon – naturalist Sylvester Graham

27 Louis Agassiz Born: 28-May-1807 Died: 14-Dec-1873 Swiss-born American biologist, and geologist, the husband of educator Elizabeth Cabot Cary Agassiz, and one of the first world-class American scientists insisted on original research

28 John James Audubon Born: 26-Apr-1785 (in Haiti) Died: 27-Jan-1851 American naturalist He painted, catalogued, and described the birds of North America. Published Birds of America, in 1838.

29 Sylvester Graham Born: July 5, 1794 Died: September 11, 1851 American Presbyterian minister Early advocate of dietary reform Vegetarianism and temperance movement 1829 - invented Graham flour and Graham bread, made from unsifted and unbolted flour and free from chemical additives Used to make graham crackers and other products.

30 Artistic Achievement The Hudson River School of Art

31 The Hudson River School used a Romantic approach to depict scenes of America's wilderness, drawing inspiration from the Hudson River Valley, the Catskills, the Berkshires and the newly opened West. The Hudson River School of Art

32 Thomas Cole, Thomas Doughty and Asher B. Durand were among the early practitioners of this style and they had a significant influence on the artists that followed them. The Hudson River School of Art

33 Thomas Cole was a teenager when his family emigrated from England. He was a passionate devotee of the scenery of his adopted country. Cole is considered to be the finest American landscape artist of the 19th Century. The Hudson River School of Art

34 1825 to 1875 was a time of powerful national pride in the United States. The dramatic and uniquely American landscapes by Thomas Cole prompted a positive response from the American public. Inspiration and spectacular natural beauty are reflected in the famous paintings, Niagara by Frederic Edwin Church, and Yellowstone Falls by Albert Bierstadt. The Hudson River School of Art

35 NIAGARA FALLS by Frederic Edwin Church (American 1826-1900)

36 Albert Bierstadt, Yellowstone Falls, ca. 1881,

37 Thomas Doughty was one of the first American painters to restrict himself to landscape painting as his genre. Some consider him the catalyst for the Hudson River School given he was the one who recognized early on the magnificent subject matter offered within the American countryside. The Hudson River School of Art

38 Asher B. Durand's early career was as an engraver. When he began to paint it was as first a portraitist before turning his attention to nature. Cole was a major inspiration upon him. The Hudson River School of Art

39 The Hudson River School looked into the conflict between modernity and nature as well as the effects of increasing industrialization and westward expansion. The Hudson River School of Art

40 Title: View on the Schoharie, 1826 Artist: Thomas Cole (American 1801-1848)

41 Title: Otsego Lake Looking North from Two Mile Point, ca. 1883 Artist: Edward B. Gay (1837-1928)

42 Title: Cooperstown from Three Mile Point, ca. 1850 Artists: Louis Remy Mignot (1831-1870) & Julius Gollmann (-1898)

43 Title: Emporium of Indian Curiosities, 1856 Artist: Joachim Ferdinand Richardt (American 1819-1895)

44 Title: Cider Making in the Country, 1863 Artist: George Henry Durrie (American 1820-1863)

45 Gilbert Stuart One of the greatest portrait painters of his time Best known for his portraits of Washington

46 Gilbert Stuart Portrait of George Washington for the White House, 1797. This is the painting that Dolley Madison rescued when the White House was burned during the War of 1812 George Washington (a.k.a.: the "Athenaeum Head;" ca. 1798; Stuart copy of [unfinished] 1796 original),

47 John Singleton Copley Born: July 3, 1738 Died: September 9, 1815 American artist of the colonial period, famous for his portraits of important figures in colonial New England, particularly men and women of the middle class. His portraits were innovative in that they tended to portray their subjects with artifacts that were indicative of their lives. Portrait of Copley by Gilbert Stuart.

48 John Singleton Copley Portrait of the Copley family, 1776 Portrait of Samuel Adams Portrait of Paul Revere

49 National Literature After War of Independence and War of 1812 – new wave of nationalism Knickerbocker Group – New York – a group of writers who were intent on distancing themselves from European traditions.

50 Washington Irving Born: 3-Apr-1783 Died: 28-Nov-1859 "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" "Rip van Winkle" He and James Fenimore Cooper were the first American writers to earn acclaim in Europe. Noted for speaking against the mistreatment of Native American tribes by Europeans and Americans.

51 James Fenimore Cooper Born: 15-Sep-1789 Died: 14-Sep-1851 Leatherstocking Tales, a series of novels featuring the hero Natty Bumppo, known by European settlers as "Leatherstocking," and by the Native Americans as "Pathfinder," "Deerslayer," or "Hawkeye". Best known of the series is The Last of the Mohicans

52 Transcendentalism New ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy Emerged in New England Began as a protest against the general state of culture and society at the time Ideal spiritual state that ‘transcends’ the physical and empirical and is only realized through the individual’s intuition, rather than the senses Look within yourself, rather than outward with your senses, for meaning

53 Ralph Waldo Emerson Born: 25-May-1803 Died: 27-Apr-1882 Author, poet, philosopher 1836. Nature. 1837. "The American Scholar". 1841 The Transcendentalist 1844. Essays: Second Series. 1856. Representative Men; on Plato, Swedenborg, Montaigne, Shakespeare, Napoleon, and Goethe. '1856. English Traits. 1860. The Conduct of Life 1862. "Thoreau"; a eulogy for Henry David Thoreau.

54 Henry David Thoreau Born: 12-Jul-1817 Died: 6-May-1862 Author, critic, naturalist, transcendentalist, pacifist, abolitionist, tax resister and philosopher. Walden, a reflection upon simple living amongst nature Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance to civic government as moral opposition to an unjust law. Philosophy had tremendous influence on leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr.

55 Nathaniel Hawthorne Born: 4-Jul-1804 Died: 19-May-1864 19th century American novelist and short story writer. Key figure in the development of American literature. The Scarlet Letter and House of the Seven Gables Neighbors included Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau.

56 Herman Melville Born: 1-Aug-1819 Died: 28-Sep-1891 American novelist, essayist and poet. Moby-Dick is Melville's most famous work and is often considered one of the greatest American novels. It was dedicated to his friend Nathaniel Hawthorne.

57 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Born: 27-Feb-1807 Died: 24-Mar-1882 American poet The Song of Hiawatha, Paul Revere's Ride, A Psalm of Life and Evangeline. Member of a group of poets known as the Fireside Poets: Longfellow, William Cullen Bryant, John Greenleaf Whittier, James Russell Lowell, and Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., who were the first American poets whose popularity rivaled that of British poets

58 James Russell Lowell Born: 22-Feb-1819 Died: 12-Aug-1891 Romantic poet, critic, satirist, writer, diplomat, and abolitionist. Helped found a literary journal, The Pioneer. It opened the way to new ideals in literature and art, and to as yet unknown writers such as Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Whittier, Edgar Allan Poe.

59 Walt Whitman Born: 31-May-1819 Died: 26-Mar-1892 Poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist, and considered one of America's best and most influential poets. Leaves of Grass The book did not attract the attention of the reading public until a letter from Ralph Waldo Emerson to the poet, in which the volume was characterized as the "most extraordinary piece of wit and wisdom that America has yet contributed", was published in the New York Tribune.

60 Louisa May Alcott Born: 29-Nov-1832(in Germantown, PA) Died: 6-Mar-1888 American novelist. Best known for the novel Little Women, which she wrote in 1868. Moved to Boston with her family in 1844, where her father established an experimental school and joined the Transcendentalist Club with Emerson and Thoreau

61 Edgar Allan Poe Born: 19-Jan-1809 Died: 7-Oct-1849 Poet, short story writer, editor, and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. Best known for his tales of the macabre. Though born in Mass., was raised in Va. and is considered a “southern” writer. An early American practitioner of the short story and a progenitor of detective fiction and crime fiction. His poem "The Raven" became a popular sensation.

62 Stephen Foster Born: 4-Jul-1826 Died: 13-Jan-1864 Birthplace: Lawrenceville, PA Pre-eminent songwriter in the United States of the 19th century Sometimes known as the "father of American music.” "Oh! Susanna", "Camptown Races", "My Old Kentucky Home", "Old Black Joe", "Beautiful Dreamer" and "Old Folks at Home" ("Swanee River")

63 P. T. Barnum (Phineas T. Barnum) Born: 5-Jul-1810 Died: 7-Apr-1891 American showman Best remembered for founding the circus that eventually became Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus.


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