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Chapter 14 Creation and Evolution. Science and Faith Rejecting the Truth Biblical truths Biblical truths –The earth was created in a perfect state.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 Creation and Evolution. Science and Faith Rejecting the Truth Biblical truths Biblical truths –The earth was created in a perfect state."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 Creation and Evolution

2 Science and Faith Rejecting the Truth Biblical truths Biblical truths –The earth was created in a perfect state

3 –Because of man’s fall into sin the world plunged into imperfection and death

4 –Plant and animals all had to struggle to survive –A great variety of animals can develop from the limited number of animals on the ark

5 In the 1700’s people started to mix Biblical truths with false philosophies. In the 1700’s people started to mix Biblical truths with false philosophies.

6 This caused people to question the truth of scriptures. This caused people to question the truth of scriptures.

7 Naturalism – A belief that states that the universe consists of matter and energy and that there are no spiritual or supernatural aspects. Naturalism – A belief that states that the universe consists of matter and energy and that there are no spiritual or supernatural aspects.

8 Charles Darwin ( ) A British naturalist that has been given credit for the theory of macro evolution. Charles Darwin ( ) A British naturalist that has been given credit for the theory of macro evolution.

9 He went to school to become a doctor, but didn’t cut it. He then got his theology degree to become a minister. His real passion was nature and was a very good observer. He went to school to become a doctor, but didn’t cut it. He then got his theology degree to become a minister. His real passion was nature and was a very good observer.

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11 Charles Lyell ( ) Naturalist that wrote Principles of Geology and popularized the theory of uniformitarianism, Charles Lyell ( ) Naturalist that wrote Principles of Geology and popularized the theory of uniformitarianism,

12 which is the belief that the present is the only key to the past and all things continue by a natural process at the same rates as they have always done. Darwin applied this idea to the variety of different plants and animals he saw. which is the belief that the present is the only key to the past and all things continue by a natural process at the same rates as they have always done. Darwin applied this idea to the variety of different plants and animals he saw.

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14 The Origin of Species – The book Darwin wrote from the observations that he made on the voyage on the Beagle. The Origin of Species – The book Darwin wrote from the observations that he made on the voyage on the Beagle.

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17 Natural Selection – The idea that the fittest and the strongest of a species were more likely to survive and reproduce than the weaker animals. “Survival of the fittest” Natural Selection – The idea that the fittest and the strongest of a species were more likely to survive and reproduce than the weaker animals. “Survival of the fittest”

18 Variety within kinds has definite boundaries. Natural selection acts to preserve existing kinds not create new kinds. Variety within kinds has definite boundaries. Natural selection acts to preserve existing kinds not create new kinds.

19 Some people embraced Darwinism because they wanted to remove God from their world. Some people embraced Darwinism because they wanted to remove God from their world.

20 Science was doing wonderful things and some people would believe anything that came from science. Science was doing wonderful things and some people would believe anything that came from science.

21 There were many Scientists in Darwin’s day that rejected what he wrote, because it was based on speculation and not on science. There were many Scientists in Darwin’s day that rejected what he wrote, because it was based on speculation and not on science.

22 Effects of Darwinism Much of our world has a naturalist (secular) view. Much of our world has a naturalist (secular) view. Humans are no longer considered a special creation of God Humans are no longer considered a special creation of God

23 Right and wrong became relative. Right and wrong became relative. Some people wanted to improve the human species by selective breeding (eugenics) Some people wanted to improve the human species by selective breeding (eugenics)

24 Racism Racism Sanctity of life is no longer important Sanctity of life is no longer important

25 Darwin’s Origin of Species was a battle of chance verses purpose. Darwin’s Origin of Species was a battle of chance verses purpose.

26 Paleontology: Evidence against Evolution Fossils – The remains or impressions of plants, animals, and humans preserved in sedimentary rock. Fossils – The remains or impressions of plants, animals, and humans preserved in sedimentary rock. Paleontology – The study of fossils. Paleontology – The study of fossils.

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29 The fossil record, when viewed from a Biblical perspective, is actually one of the most powerful evidences against evolution. The fossil record, when viewed from a Biblical perspective, is actually one of the most powerful evidences against evolution.

30 Transitional Forms (“Missing Links”) – Fossils that connect one kind of organism with another kind by a series of tiny steps. Transitional Forms (“Missing Links”) – Fossils that connect one kind of organism with another kind by a series of tiny steps.

31 The lack of these transitional forms is great evidence against evolution. The lack of these transitional forms is great evidence against evolution.

32 No true “missing links” have ever been found to bridge the gaps between different kinds of organisms. No true “missing links” have ever been found to bridge the gaps between different kinds of organisms.

33 Punctuated Equilibrium Hypothesis – Evolution happened in sudden spurts followed by long period of no noticeable change. Punctuated Equilibrium Hypothesis – Evolution happened in sudden spurts followed by long period of no noticeable change.

34 Macromutations – Drastic genetic restructuring that changes one creature into another. Macromutations – Drastic genetic restructuring that changes one creature into another.

35 Geologic Column – The belief that the “primitive” organisms are deep in the earth’s crust and the more “modern” organisms are nearer to the surface. Geologic Column – The belief that the “primitive” organisms are deep in the earth’s crust and the more “modern” organisms are nearer to the surface.

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37 There is not a single place on earth that you can see the Geologic Column. There is not a single place on earth that you can see the Geologic Column.

38 The Geologic Column is based on assumptions made from evolution. The Geologic Column is based on assumptions made from evolution.

39 Circular Reasoning – An argument that is based on the very assumption that it attempts to prove. Circular Reasoning – An argument that is based on the very assumption that it attempts to prove.

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42 Fossils are aged by the rock layers, and rock layers are aged by the fossils that are in them. Fossils are aged by the rock layers, and rock layers are aged by the fossils that are in them.

43 Index Fossil – A specific fossil that are considered specific to a certain time period. Index Fossil – A specific fossil that are considered specific to a certain time period.

44 Radiometric Dating – Decay of radioactive elements is relatively constant, so to find out how many radioactive elements are in the organism ages that organism. Radiometric Dating – Decay of radioactive elements is relatively constant, so to find out how many radioactive elements are in the organism ages that organism.

45 The age of the object that has the radioactive element in it cannot be dated unless you know the starting and ending amount of that element. The age of the object that has the radioactive element in it cannot be dated unless you know the starting and ending amount of that element.

46 Cambrian Explosion – The large amounts of living things that have a great variety in Cambrian rocks. Cambrian Explosion – The large amounts of living things that have a great variety in Cambrian rocks.

47 “Missing Links” Unusual extinct animals have often been passed off as “transitional forms.” Unusual extinct animals have often been passed off as “transitional forms.”

48 Coelacanth – An unusual 6-foot-long fish. The fins are attached to the body by thick fleshy lobes. Coelacanth – An unusual 6-foot-long fish. The fins are attached to the body by thick fleshy lobes.

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50 Thought to be an ancestor of the first amphibians. When a live coelacanth was caught in the Indian Ocean, in very deep water, this theory was no longer valid. Thought to be an ancestor of the first amphibians. When a live coelacanth was caught in the Indian Ocean, in very deep water, this theory was no longer valid.

51 Archaeopteryx – A fossil bird that is often presented as a link between reptiles and birds. Archaeopteryx – A fossil bird that is often presented as a link between reptiles and birds.

52 Has the “modern” flight feather and hollow bones. However it also had a small breastbone, teeth, elongated tail, and claws on its wings. Has the “modern” flight feather and hollow bones. However it also had a small breastbone, teeth, elongated tail, and claws on its wings.

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55 Horse Series – The extinct animals that were thought to be ancestors of the horse have varying amounts of ribs. Horse Series – The extinct animals that were thought to be ancestors of the horse have varying amounts of ribs.

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57 Also the fossils that make up the series were found all over the world. Also the fossils that make up the series were found all over the world.

58 Hominid Fossils Most important difference between humans and apes is that man is created in the image of God (Gen 1:27) Most important difference between humans and apes is that man is created in the image of God (Gen 1:27)

59 Eoanthropus (Piltdown Man) – Fragmented bones of a humanlike skull and an apelike jaw found between 1908 and Eoanthropus (Piltdown Man) – Fragmented bones of a humanlike skull and an apelike jaw found between 1908 and 1911.

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61 This was a hoax of someone who tampered with some bones and left them to be easily found. This was a hoax of someone who tampered with some bones and left them to be easily found.

62 Hesperopithecus (Nebraska Man) – A man reconstructed from a single tooth in Nebraska found in The tooth was found out to have come from an extinct pig. Hesperopithecus (Nebraska Man) – A man reconstructed from a single tooth in Nebraska found in The tooth was found out to have come from an extinct pig.

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65 Ramapithicus (Rama’s Ape) – A medium sized ape that was reconstructed from a few teeth, a heavy jawbone, and fragments of facial bones. Ramapithicus (Rama’s Ape) – A medium sized ape that was reconstructed from a few teeth, a heavy jawbone, and fragments of facial bones.

66 The bones were assembled incorrectly to show that it looked like a human. No leg or hip bones were found. The bones were assembled incorrectly to show that it looked like a human. No leg or hip bones were found.

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68 Australopithecus (Southern Ape) – A skull found that was later found to be juvenile. In the early 1970s it was dismissed as an extinct ape. Australopithecus (Southern Ape) – A skull found that was later found to be juvenile. In the early 1970s it was dismissed as an extinct ape.

69 Astralopithecus afarensis (Lucy) – Had long toes that were used for grasping and a chimpanzee like skull. Astralopithecus afarensis (Lucy) – Had long toes that were used for grasping and a chimpanzee like skull.

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72 Homo habilis (Handy Man) – Actually a mixture of ape and human fossils found at different locations. Homo habilis (Handy Man) – Actually a mixture of ape and human fossils found at different locations.

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74 Homo erectus (Upright Man/Java Man) – Skull cap and femur found 50 feet apart. A human skull was found in the same rock layer. Homo erectus (Upright Man/Java Man) – Skull cap and femur found 50 feet apart. A human skull was found in the same rock layer.

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76 Other fossils classified as Homo erectus are found in Africa and Asia, and are fully human. Other fossils classified as Homo erectus are found in Africa and Asia, and are fully human.

77 Sinanthropus pekinenses (Peking Man) – Fossils lost in WWII, but were very similar to Homo erectus. Sinanthropus pekinenses (Peking Man) – Fossils lost in WWII, but were very similar to Homo erectus.

78 Homo neannderthalensis (Neanderthal man) – Fossils that had “apelike” features that were found in Western Europe. Homo neannderthalensis (Neanderthal man) – Fossils that had “apelike” features that were found in Western Europe.

79 They were fully human and were actually bigger and stronger than today’s humans. They were fully human and were actually bigger and stronger than today’s humans.

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82 Cro-Magnon Man – Discovered in France in Evolutionists now admit that they were identical to modern humans. Cro-Magnon Man – Discovered in France in Evolutionists now admit that they were identical to modern humans.

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84 There is controversy in the evolutionary community about the different ancestry of humans. However, from a Biblical perspective, There is controversy in the evolutionary community about the different ancestry of humans. However, from a Biblical perspective,

85 … man has always been man, and all of the “missing links” are fully ape or fully human. … man has always been man, and all of the “missing links” are fully ape or fully human.

86 Biology: Evidence against Evolution Impossibility of Transitional Forms According to the theory of evolution, structures had to develop one step at a time and remain fully functional at each step. According to the theory of evolution, structures had to develop one step at a time and remain fully functional at each step.

87 Evolution states that bats evolved from shrew like rodents. As the bat’s fingers are getting longer and skin grows between them, Evolution states that bats evolved from shrew like rodents. As the bat’s fingers are getting longer and skin grows between them,

88 … it makes them useless to run, walk, hold food, or fly. This is not an advantage at all. … it makes them useless to run, walk, hold food, or fly. This is not an advantage at all.

89 Evolution states that amphibians evolved into reptiles. The egg of an amphibian is made of a jelly substance, has the yolk attached to the embryo, and is in water. Evolution states that amphibians evolved into reptiles. The egg of an amphibian is made of a jelly substance, has the yolk attached to the embryo, and is in water.

90 The reptile egg has a shell, a yolk separate from the embryo, and is on land. The organism would have to develop these characteristics simultaneously to survive. The reptile egg has a shell, a yolk separate from the embryo, and is on land. The organism would have to develop these characteristics simultaneously to survive.

91 Evolution states that reptiles evolved into birds. For this to happen air sacs would have to be created in the body cavity, muscles would have to be redesigned, Evolution states that reptiles evolved into birds. For this to happen air sacs would have to be created in the body cavity, muscles would have to be redesigned,

92 and the attachment of the lungs to the chest wall would have to be changed. All of this would have to happen simultaneously for the creature to survive. and the attachment of the lungs to the chest wall would have to be changed. All of this would have to happen simultaneously for the creature to survive.

93 Comparative Anatomy – The study of similarities and differences in the body structure of organisms. Comparative Anatomy – The study of similarities and differences in the body structure of organisms.

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96 Georges Cuvier came up with this science and believed it showed the bodies of man and animals have certain basic similarities in their overall designs. Georges Cuvier came up with this science and believed it showed the bodies of man and animals have certain basic similarities in their overall designs.

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98 Evolutionists use comparative anatomy to say that one organism evolved from another because they are similar. Evolutionists use comparative anatomy to say that one organism evolved from another because they are similar.

99 There are some parts of organisms that are very similar but are not evolutionarily close. There are some parts of organisms that are very similar but are not evolutionarily close.

100 Molecular Biology – The science which seeks to discover how the mechanisms of a living cell work Molecular Biology – The science which seeks to discover how the mechanisms of a living cell work

101 The recent explosion of information of cellular components and activities have caused problems for the theory of evolution. The recent explosion of information of cellular components and activities have caused problems for the theory of evolution.

102 In Darwin’s day the understanding of cells was very simple. They thought that each cell was filled with In Darwin’s day the understanding of cells was very simple. They thought that each cell was filled with

103 protoplasm that had a “vital force,” which mysteriously powered the cell. protoplasm that had a “vital force,” which mysteriously powered the cell.

104 It is now obvious that these intricately designed mechanisms could not have been constructed by chance. It is now obvious that these intricately designed mechanisms could not have been constructed by chance.

105 Genetics Very little about heredity and genetics was known in the time of Darwin. He knew that parents passed on traits to their offspring, but he did not know how. Very little about heredity and genetics was known in the time of Darwin. He knew that parents passed on traits to their offspring, but he did not know how.

106 In this ignorance he thought that there was not limit to the variability of traits. In this ignorance he thought that there was not limit to the variability of traits.

107 Variety within kinds generally results from preexisting genetic variety. Variety within kinds generally results from preexisting genetic variety.

108 It was then thought that mutations would cause a change of genetic variety. It was then thought that mutations would cause a change of genetic variety.

109 However, mutations cause genetic information to be lost, not gained. However, mutations cause genetic information to be lost, not gained.

110 Natural Selection and Genetic Variety Natural selection does not produce new characteristics; it just reveals hidden characteristics. Natural selection does not produce new characteristics; it just reveals hidden characteristics.

111 Examples: Examples: Finches on the Galapagos Islands Finches on the Galapagos Islands

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113 The Peppered Moth The Peppered Moth

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115 Insects that are resistant to pesticide Insects that are resistant to pesticide

116 Bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics. Bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics. –Bacteria DNA is almost identical to that of the bacteria fossilized in amber.

117 New life forms were not created; there was just a shift in population. New life forms were not created; there was just a shift in population.

118 Embryonic Recapitulation – An unborn baby goes through various stages of development that resemble other animals Embryonic Recapitulation – An unborn baby goes through various stages of development that resemble other animals

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121 Ernst Haeckel deliberately falsified the pictures he published of certain embryos. The findings were published in Ernst Haeckel deliberately falsified the pictures he published of certain embryos. The findings were published in 1868.

122 They were found to be false 6 years later. They still appear in textbooks today. They were found to be false 6 years later. They still appear in textbooks today.

123 Evolution is Not Science Evolutionists admit that evolution is based on assumptions. Evolutionists admit that evolution is based on assumptions.

124 Nonliving things gave rise to living material; that is, spontaneous generation occurred. Nonliving things gave rise to living material; that is, spontaneous generation occurred.

125 Spontaneous generation occurred only once. Spontaneous generation occurred only once.

126 Viruses, bacteria, plants, and animals are all interrelated. Viruses, bacteria, plants, and animals are all interrelated.

127 The Protozoa [one-celled animals] gave rise to Metazoa [multicellular animals]. The Protozoa [one-celled animals] gave rise to Metazoa [multicellular animals].

128 The various invertebrate phyla are interrelated. The various invertebrate phyla are interrelated. The invertebrates gave rise to vertebrates. The invertebrates gave rise to vertebrates.

129 Within the vertebrates the fish gave rise to the amphibia, the amphibia to the reptiles, the reptiles to the birds and mammals… Within the vertebrates the fish gave rise to the amphibia, the amphibia to the reptiles, the reptiles to the birds and mammals…

130 These seven assumptions are not able to be verified by experiment. Any evidence is limited and circumstantial. These seven assumptions are not able to be verified by experiment. Any evidence is limited and circumstantial.

131 What makes Science? Theoretical Speculation – Coming up with general principals to explain what happens in the universe. Theoretical Speculation – Coming up with general principals to explain what happens in the universe.

132 Observation – Looking very close at the universe to gain knowledge from it. Observation – Looking very close at the universe to gain knowledge from it.

133 Experimentation – Testing of a theoretical speculation in a controlled systematic way. Experimentation – Testing of a theoretical speculation in a controlled systematic way.

134 Testing is needed to confirm theories. If testing fails to confirm the theory, the theory must be discarded or modified. Testing is needed to confirm theories. If testing fails to confirm the theory, the theory must be discarded or modified.

135 Testing ensures that over the long run scientific theories that contain errors will be eliminated. Testing ensures that over the long run scientific theories that contain errors will be eliminated.

136 Direct observation – Being able to observe using your senses. Direct observation – Being able to observe using your senses.

137 Indirect observation – Using scientific tools to make an observation. Indirect observation – Using scientific tools to make an observation. A scientific observation must be both repeatable and free from bias. A scientific observation must be both repeatable and free from bias.

138 A variety of experiments have been attempted to try to show evolution is possible. A few examples: A variety of experiments have been attempted to try to show evolution is possible. A few examples:

139 –Synthesis of amino acids –Synthesis of sugars, nucleotides, and other simple molecules

140 –Linking of amino acids –Synthesizing Cells

141 Evolution is not observable or able to be proven by experiment. Evolution is not observable or able to be proven by experiment.

142 Evolution is a Threat to Modern Science Scientific integrity is declining. Because scientists present evolution without proof, Scientific integrity is declining. Because scientists present evolution without proof,

143 … other scientists are putting forth “theories” without proof to back them up. … other scientists are putting forth “theories” without proof to back them up.

144 Gaia hypothesis – A hypothesis that states that the earth and the living things that are on it make one living thing. Gaia hypothesis – A hypothesis that states that the earth and the living things that are on it make one living thing.

145 The Earth’s Prayer Our mother, who art in earth, Hallowed be thy heart. Thy healing come, Wholeness be done, In us, as it is beyond. Our mother, who art in earth, Hallowed be thy heart. Thy healing come, Wholeness be done, In us, as it is beyond.

146 Today we give our daily joy, And forgive ourselves as we accept you. We kneel to thee, earth Mother, To thy higher self, my other Today we give our daily joy, And forgive ourselves as we accept you. We kneel to thee, earth Mother, To thy higher self, my other

147 For ours is the freedom, And the wonder, And the love. Now, now, Now, now, now. A le lu ya. For ours is the freedom, And the wonder, And the love. Now, now, Now, now, now. A le lu ya.

148 Evolution has to be accepted by faith just like creation. We have no human witness to tell us what happened. Evolution has to be accepted by faith just like creation. We have no human witness to tell us what happened.


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