215–1 The Puzzle of Life’s Diversity 1. Patterns of Diversity Section OutlineSection 15-115–1 The Puzzle of Life’s DiversityA. Voyage of the BeagleB. Darwin’s Observations1. Patterns of Diversity2. Living Organisms and Fossils3. The Galápagos IslandsC. The Journey Home
3Definitions EVOLUTION: THEORY:FOSSIL:change over time; the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organismsa well-supported testable explanation of phenomena that have occurred in the natural worldthe preserved remains of ancient organisms
4evolution theory fossil ________ is a The _______ that Darwin found caused him to ask questions that led to his proposal of the theory of_________._______ provide evidence to support the theory offossils________ is a______; a testable explanation of naturally-occurring phenomenaEvolutiontheoryevolutionFossilsevolutiontheoryfossilThe _____ record provides for some of the evidence that supports the ______ of evolutionfossiltheory
6Charles Darwin English naturalist (1831) Set sail on the Beagle for a voyage around the worldDuring his travels, Darwin made many observations & collected a great deal of evidence, leading him to propose the theory of evolution
7Cont. Charles DarwinCollected fossils preserved remains of ancient organismsNoticed that many plants & animals were very suited to their environments.Spent much time in Galapagos Islands in Pacific Ocean near South America
8DARWIN WONDERED? Why do Argentina and Australia have ________ ______ even though they have ______________________?Why are there no ______ in Australia andno ________ in England?Why have so many speciesdisappeared?How are these ______ species_______ to living species?differentsimilar grasslandanimalsecosystemsrabbitskangaroosextinctrelated
10Giant Tortoises of the Galápagos Islands Section 15-1and on Pinta Island, tortoise neckswere somewhere in betweenPintaTowerPinta Island Intermediate shellMarchenaJamesFernandinaSanta CruzIsabelaSanta FeHood IslandSaddle-backed shellFloreanaHoodOn the desert-like Hood Island,tortoises had long necks…Isabela IslandDome-shaped shell…while on the lush rainforest of Isabela Island,tortoises had short necks…
141. Hutton and Geological Change 2. Lyell’s Principles of Geology Section OutlineSection 15-215–2 Ideas That Shaped Darwin’s ThinkingA. An Ancient, Changing Earth1. Hutton and Geological Change2. Lyell’s Principles of GeologyB. Lamarck’s Evolution Hypotheses1. Tendency Toward Perfection2. Use and Disuse3. Inheritance of Acquired Traits4. Evaluating Lamarck’s HypothesesC. Population Growth
15Ideas that shaped Darwin’s thinking: In 1785 ______________ proposes that the______________ by_________________occurring over__________ periods oftime, and is_______________ old. Rocks can be pushed from the ocean floor to form __________.James HuttonEarth was shapedgeological forcesvery longmillions of yearsmountains
16Ideas that shaped Darwin’s thinking: In 1833 ___________ explains that the geologicalprocesses still ___________have shaped Earth’sfeatures over________________Charles Lyelloccurring nowlong periods of time
17Ideas that shaped Darwin’s thinking: Theory of Pangaea…and continentaldrift
18insufficient space & food Ideas that shaped Darwin’s thinking:_____________________He observed that babies were being bornfaster than people were dying. Hereasoned that if the human populationcontinued to grow, sooner or later therewould be _______________________Thomas Malthus (1798)insufficient space & food
19Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1809) Ideas that shaped Darwin’s thinking:___________________________was one of first scientiststo recognize living things_______________ and thatall species were ________ fromother species.Lamarck published his hypothesis of________________________the year Darwin was born.Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1809)changed over timedescendedInheritance of Acquired traits
20The male fiddler crab uses its front claw to attract mates andward off predators.Through repeated use, the frontclaw becomes larger.Lamarck’s Hypothesis:The fiddler passes on this acquired characteristic to its offspringTrue or false?
21What’s wrong with Lamarck’s hypothesis? What’s wrong with Lamarck’s hypothesis?Lamarck didn’t know aboutgenes and how traits are _______.If you lifted weights yourwhole young adult life, andthen you had children, wouldyour kids be more muscular?inheritedNO! Acquired traits may help an organism, but they won’t be passed on to offspring.
22What’s right with Lamarck’s hypothesis? Lamarck was first todevelop a scientifichypothesis about_______and recognize thatorganisms are________________________evolutionadapted to their environments
23Match the letter of the idea with the man or men who proposed it: HuttonLyellMalthusLamarckMatch the letter of the idea withthe man or men who proposed it:The earth is really old, and slowly changesLiving things pass changes on to their offspring, leading to species changesSooner or later growing populations run out of resourcesLiving things change slowly over time because of competition for resources, and pass those changes on to their offspring
24c.MalthusHuttona.LamarckLyellb.d.The earth is really old, and slowly changesLiving things pass changes on to their offspring, leading to species changesSooner or later growing populations run out of resourcesLiving things change slowly over time because of competition for resources, and pass those changes on to their offspring
25Concept Map Section 15-3 Evidence of Evolution includes The fossil recordGeographic distribution of living speciesHomologous body structuresSimilarities in early developmentwhich is composed ofwhich indicateswhich implieswhich impliesPhysical remains of organismsCommon ancestral speciesSimilar genes
26Section 15.3 Darwin Presents His Case The beaks of four species of Galapagos finches,from Darwin's Journal of Researches, 1839.
27Darwin’s Theory Darwin didn’t publish his ideas for 20 years! Darwin published On the Origins of Species in 1859.It provides evidence that evolution has occurred by NATURAL SELECTION.
28Basis of Darwin’s Theory His theory was based on artificial selection: Animal breeders breed animals only with desired traits. Those desired traits are passed down to the next generation.
29Darwin’s Theory: Natural Selection In nature, this is called NATURAL SELECTION. Individuals best suited to their environment survive & reproduce most successfully. AKA “Survival Of The Fittest” (sometimes called “Reproduction of the Fittest”) Struggle For Existence: is there an unlimited food supply?
30Darwin’s Theory continued Fitness ability to survive & reproduce in a specific environmentResults from adaptations, or inherited characteristics that increase the organism’s chances of survival.Only the fittest organisms pass on their traits to offspringThus, the species changes over time.
31How can you get an adaptation? Can you “get” one at all?Adaptations are inherited characteristics… you are born with them!Adaptations are mutations that are beneficial in a particular environment!
32Evidence of EvolutionA) Homologous structures structures that have different mature forms but develop from the same embryonic tissuesB) Similarities in early development, or embryologyC) Fossil recordD) Geographical distribution of living organisms (where the organisms are)32