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MBMC Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve. MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices,

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Presentation on theme: "MBMC Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve. MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices,"— Presentation transcript:

1 MBMC Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve

2 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 2 Introduction Money Any asset that can be used in making purchases Examples  Currency  Coins  Checks

3 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 3 Money and Its Uses Medium of Exchange An asset used in purchasing goods and services Unit of Account A basic measure of economic value Store of Value An asset that serves as a means of holding wealth

4 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 4 Money and Its Uses Economic Naturalist Private money: Ithaca Hours and LETS

5 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 5 Components of M1 and M2, July 2002 (billions of dollars) M1 Currency Demand deposits Other checkable deposits Travelers’ checks M2 M1 Savings deposits Small-denomination time deposits Money market mutual funds 1, , , ,

6 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 6 Money and Its Uses M1 Sum of currency outstanding and balances held in checking accounts M2 All the assets in M1 plus some additional assets that are usable in making payments but at greater cost or inconvenience than currency or checks

7 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 7 Commercial Banks and the Creation of Money Assume Republic of Gorgonzola  No banking system  Government issues 1 million guilders  People want to place their 1 million guilders in a bank

8 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 8 Consolidated Balance Sheet of Gorgonzolan Commercial Banks (Initial) Assets Currency1,000,000 guilders Liabilities Deposits1,000,000 guilders Citizens open accounts and deposit 1 million guilders Deposits are liabilities for the bank The guilders are an asset for the bank Guilders are the bank’s reserves Reserves = deposits: 100 percent reserve banking Reserves are not part of the money supply Deposits are part of the money supply

9 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 9 Commercial Banks and the Creation of Money Bank Reserves Cash or similar assets held by commercial banks for the purpose of meeting depositor withdrawals and payments

10 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 10 Consolidated Balance Sheet of Gorgonzolan Commercial Banks After One Round of Loans Assets Currency (= reserves) 100,000 guilders Loans to farmers900,000 guilders Liabilities Deposits1,000,000 guilders Fractional Reserve Banking System Bankers agree they only need a reserve to deposit ratio of 10% Required reserves = 100,000 guilders, 10% of deposits Loan out the excess reserves of 900,000 guilders

11 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 11 Consolidated Balance Sheet of Gorgonzolan Commercial Banks after Guilders Are Redeposited Assets Currency (= reserves) 100,000 guilders + New reserves 900,000 guilders Loans to farmers 900,000 guilders Liabilities Deposits1,000,000 guilders + New deposits 900,000 guilders Loan proceeds are deposited Reserves = 1,000,000 guilders New Deposits = 900,000 guilders Total Deposits = 1,900,000 guilders Money supply = 1,900,000 guilders Reserve to deposit ratio = 1/1.9 = 52.6% For 1.9 m. deposits, only need 190 k. reserves => excess reserves = 810 k. Banks can loan the 810 k. guilders

12 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 12 Consolidated Balance Sheet of Gorgonizolan Commercial Banks After Two Rounds of Loans and Redeposits Assets Currency (= reserves)1,000,000 guilders Loans to farmers1,710,000 guilders Liabilities Deposits2,710,000 guilders Loan proceeds are deposited Reserves = 1,000,000 guilders Deposits = 2,710,000 guilders Money supply = 2,710,000 guilders Reserve to deposit ratio = 1/2.71 = 36.9% => Excess reserves = 729 k. guilders, should loan out

13 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 13 Final Consolidated Balance Sheet of Gorgonzolan Commercial Banks Assets Currency (= reserves)1,000,000 guilders Loans to farmers9,000,000 guilders Liabilities Deposits10,000,000 guilders Observations Lending will continue until the reserve to deposit ratio = 10% When loans = 9,000,000 guilders Deposits = 10,000,000 guilders Reserves = 1,000,000 guilders Reserve to deposit ratio = 10% No excess reserves The money supply = 10,000,000 guilders

14 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 14 Commercial Banks and the Creation of Money Observations The use of a fractional-reserve banking system allows the money supply to grow as a multiple of the reserves In Gorgonzola, with a 10% reserve-deposit ratio, 1 guilder in reserve can support 10 guilders in deposit.

15 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 15 Commercial Banks and the Creation of Money Summary Bank reserves/bank deposits = desired reserve-deposit ratio Bank deposits = bank reserves/desired reserve-deposit ratio

16 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 16 Commercial Banks and the Creation of Money The Money Supply with Both Currency and Deposits Gorgonzola residents choose to hold 500,000 guilders as currency Deposit 500,000 in the banks Reserve-deposit ratio = 10% Bank deposits = 500,000/.10 = 5,000,000

17 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 17 Commercial Banks and the Creation of Money The Money Supply with Both Currency and Deposits Money supply = currency + bank deposits 5,500,000 = 500, ,000,000 Money is reduced by 4,500,000 guilders when the residents hold 500,000 guilders in currency

18 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 18 Commercial Banks and the Creation of Money The Money Supply at Christmas Currency = 500 Bank reserves = 500 Reserve-deposit ratio = 0.20 Money supply = /.20 = ,500 = 3,000

19 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 19 Commercial Banks and the Creation of Money The Money Supply at Christmas If Xmas shoppers withdraw 100 Money supply = /.20 = ,000 = 2,600

20 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 20 Commercial Banks and the Creation of Money The Money Supply at Christmas Observation  When the reserve-deposit ratio = 0.20, every $1 reduction in reserves may reduce the money supply by $5.  In general, when people make withdraws, the money supply contracts by a multiple of the withdrawal.

21 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 21 The Federal Reserve System Two Main Responsibilities Monetary policy Oversight and regulation of financial markets

22 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 22 The Federal Reserve System The History and Structure of the Federal Reserve System Founded by the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 The primary mission of the Fed is to promote economic growth, low inflation, and stable financial markets.

23 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 23 The Federal Reserve System The Structure 12 regional Federal Reserve banks  Assess economic conditions in their regions to assist in national policymaking  Provide service to the commercial banks in their districts

24 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 24 The Federal Reserve System The Structure Board of Governors  Seven governors oAppointed by the president to 14 year staggered terms  Chairman of the Board of Governors oSelected by the president from the governors oServes a four year term

25 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 25 The Federal Reserve System The Structure Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC)  Members include: oThe seven Fed governors oPresident of the New York Fed oFour presidents, chosen on a rotating basis, from the remaining Federal Reserve Banks  Determines monetary policy

26 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 26 The Federal Reserve System Controlling the Money Supply: Open- Market Operations The primary function of the Fed is monetary policy. The Fed controls the money supply by changing the supply of bank reserves.

27 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 27 The Federal Reserve System Controlling the Money Supply: Open- Market Operations Open-market operations are the most important method of changing the supply of bank reserves.

28 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 28 The Federal Reserve System Increasing The Money Supply The Fed purchases government bonds from the public. The people deposit the funds they get from their sale of bonds to the Fed. The increase in deposits increase bank reserves.

29 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 29 The Federal Reserve System Increasing The Money Supply The increase in reserves will lead to an expansion of the money supply as banks make more loans. Recall  The change in the money supply is a multiple of the change in reserves.

30 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 30 The Federal Reserve System Reducing The Money Supply The Fed sells government bonds to the public. The Fed presents the checks from the sale of the bonds to the banks for payment.

31 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 31 The Federal Reserve System Reducing The Money Supply The bank’s reserves will fall when they clear the checks. The money supply will fall by a multiple of the decrease in reserves.

32 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 32 The Federal Reserve System Open-Market Purchase The purchase of government bonds from the public by the Fed for the purpose of increasing the supply of bank reserves and the money supply

33 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 33 The Federal Reserve System Open-Market Sale The sale by the Fed of government bonds to the public for the purpose of reducing bank reserves and the money supply

34 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 34 The Federal Reserve System Open-Market Operations Open-market purchases and open-market sales

35 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 35 The Federal Reserve System Example Increasing the money supply by open- market operations  Currency = 1,000 shekels  Reserves = 200  Reserve-deposit ratio = 0.2

36 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 36 The Federal Reserve System Example Increasing the money supply by open- market operations  Money supply = 1, /0.2 = 2,000 shekels  Open market purchase = 100  Reserves increase to 300  Money supply = 1, /0.2 = 2,500 shekels

37 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 37 The Federal Reserve System Controlling the Money Supply: Discount Window Lending Banks can borrow reserves from the Fed. Discount window lending  The lending of reserves to commercial banks

38 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 38 The Federal Reserve System Controlling the Money Supply: Discount Window Lending The discount rate  The interest rate charged on these loans Discount lending will increase reserves and the money supply.

39 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 39 The Federal Reserve System Controlling the Money Supply: Changing Reserve Requirements The Fed sets the reserve-deposit ratio  Called the reserve requirement A reduction in the reserve requirement would allow the money supply to increase. An increase in the reserve requirement may reduce the money supply.

40 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 40 The Federal Reserve System The Fed’s Role in Stabilizing Financial Markets: Banking Panics Suppose:  Depositors lose confidence in their bank.  They attempt to withdraw their funds.  Bank may not have enough reserves (fractional) to meet the depositors demand.  The bank fails and further erodes depositor confidence which triggers additional failures.

41 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 41 The Federal Reserve System The Fed’s Role in Stabilizing Financial Markets: Banking Panics The Fed to the rescue:  Instill confidence  Discount lending  Open Market Operations

42 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 42 The Federal Reserve System Economic Naturalist The banking panics of and the money supply  One-third of U.S. banks closed  Depositors withdrew their funds  Banks raised the reserve-deposit ratio

43 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 43 Key U.S. Monetary Statistics, CurrencyReserve-depositBankMoney held by publicratioreservessupply December December December December December

44 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 44 The Federal Reserve System Economic Naturalist In response to the panics of , deposit insurance was established in Deposit insurance gives depositors an incentive to keep their money in the banks. Deposit insurance reduces the incentive for depositors to pay attention to the financial strength of their bank.

45 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 45 The Federal Reserve System What Do You Think? Why worry about the money supply?

46 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 46 Money and Prices Velocity The speed at which money circulates

47 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 47 Money and Prices Velocity The speed at which money circulates

48 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 48 Money and Prices Velocity in 2001 M1 = $1,177.9 billion M2 = $5,449.1 billion Nominal GDP = $10,082.2 billion

49 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 49 Money and Prices Money and Inflation in the Long Run Recall

50 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 50 Money and Prices Money and Inflation in the Long Run Quantity equation  M x V = P x Y Assume V & Y are constant over the time period

51 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 51 Money and Prices Money and Inflation in the Long Run If the Fed increases M by 10%, then prices must increase by 10%. High rates of money growth are associated with high rates of inflation (too much money chasing too few goods).

52 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 52 Inflation and Money Growth in Latin America,

53 MBMC Copyright c 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Money, Prices, and the Federal Reserve Slide 53 Money and Prices What Do You Think? If high rates of money growth lead to inflation, why do countries allow their money supplies to rise quickly?

54 MBMC End of Chapter End of Chapter


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