Presentation on theme: "The Father of Evolution"— Presentation transcript:
1The Father of Evolution Charles DarwinThe Father of Evolution
2Charles Darwin Born in 1809, Shrewsbury, England Naturalist Studied MedicineDegree in TheologyBuried in Westminster Abbey
3Darwin sailed aboard the Beagle for 5 years, working as a naturalist. After Cambridge, Charles was recommended for a surveying trip on the HMS Beagle.The mission of the voyage was to chart stretches of the South American coast.Darwin sailed aboard the Beagle for 5 years, working as a naturalist.
4Row, row, row your boat! Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle 5 year unpaid voyage Darwin studied plants, animals, collected fossilsFound fossils of extinct animals that were similar to modern species. On the Galapagos Islands in the Pacific Ocean he noticed many variations among plants and animals of the same general type as those in South America.
6Many of Darwin’s conclusions were based on observations of wildlife in the Galapagos Islands. The Galapagos Islands lie 500 miles west of Ecuador in the Pacific Ocean, directly on the equator.“Galapagos” means turtle.
7Darwin was influenced by : GeologistContribution:Earth is very old (much older than thought)Earth has changed over time (constantly changing)Sir Charles Lyell
8Another influential person EconomistContribution:Populations have the potential to increase faster than the available food supplyThomas Malthus
9Another influential scientist Alfred Russel WallaceMenuAnother influential scientistBotanistContribution:Essay described evolution by natural selectionAlfred Russel WallaceMenuenuSpice Islands Home Page
10Darwin noticed there were several types of finches on these islands. Galapagos finchesDarwin noticed there were several types of finches on these islands.In particular, Darwin observed something odd about the finches: they all looked like a bird he had seen on the South American continent.
11In all, there were 13 types of finches, some species being confined to only one island.
12The most distinct difference among finch species is their beaks, which are adapted for the specific diets available on the islands.
13Darwin wondered if the birds and other animals had been created to match their environment, why didn’t these birds look like the birds of the African continent, since the environments of both the Galapagos and Africa were similar.
14Once on the islands, the birds must have changed over the years. Darwin guessed that some of the birds from South America migrated to the Galapagos.Once on the islands, the birds must have changed over the years.
15This would explain the numerous species of birds present. large ground finchwoodpecker finchcactus finchThis would explain the numerous species of birds present.
16This tree has how many major branches? Warbler FinchTree FinchGround FinchCerthidea olivacea& C. FuscaGeospiza difficilisG. conirostrisG. scandensCacts Finch(nectar,eeds, blood)G. magnirostrisSeed-eating FinchG. fuliginosaG. fortisPlatyspiza crassitrostrisC. heliobatesCactospiza pallidaWoodpecker-like FinchVegetarian FinchInsect-eating FinchCamarhynchus pauperC. psittaculaC. pauper(seeds & insects)PHYLOGENIC TREE:A diagram showing the evolutionary history of a species of an animal.This tree has how many major branches?
17TWO TYPES OF EVOLUTION: Convergent Evolution: process by which unrelated species become similar as they adapt to similar environments.Divergent Evolution: formation of new species from an existing species adapting to new environments.What type of evolution is a phylogenic tree?
18After returning from the Galapagos and studying all the different types of plants & animals. Darwin concluded new concepts of change….
19evolution Natural Selection Darwin called this… which means (change in species over time)Darwin extended these principles to biology, which helped him form his theory of…Natural Selection…or Survival of the Fittest.
211. All species have genetic variation. Every species is different, even within itself.Look around you…are you all the same?
222. The environment presents challenges to survival. There is a constant struggle for survival. Examples are:DroughtFiresFloodsSnowstormsHurricanesTornadoesOther natural disasters
233. Organisms produce more offspring than can survive 3. Organisms produce more offspring than can survive. Competition exists WITHIN and AMONG species.Within a SpeciesAmong a Speciesfoodfoodspacespacemates
24Darwin’s definition of fitness: 4. Individuals that are fit to their environment leave more offspring than those who aren’t.Darwin’s definition of fitness:an organism which has successfully adapted to its environmentOrganisms who possess favorable traits will leave more offspring.In other words, he who spreads the most genes wins!1st
255. Characteristics of fit individuals increase in a population over time. Over time, genes for less favored characteristics will be eliminated from the gene pool.Example: giraffes and their long necks.
26Therefore Darwin’s contributions: Provided evidence that species evolveIn 1859, he proposed the Theory of Natural Selection to explain evolution (Survival of the fittest)Over time, change within species leads to the replacement of old species by new species as less successful species become extinct.Some evidence from fossils may prove that species on Earth have evolved from ancestral forms that are extinct. (species that have disappeared permanently.)
27What is a species?One or more populations of individuals that can interbreed, producing fertile offspring.Speciation is the process by which new species are formed over time.
28Equus, the modern horse, evolved from the dog-sized Hyracotherium Equus, the modern horse, evolved from the dog-sized Hyracotherium. Notice it evolved from a four-toed front foot to the one-toed front foot of the modern horse.
30Fossil Record In order for fossils to form: Calcium must be replaced Burial must occur by sedimentUsually occurs in swamps, mud, ocean floors, tar pits, etc.
31COMPARATIVE ANATOMY:Homologous structures are characteristics which are shared by related species because they have been inherited in some way from a common ancestor..TurtleAlligatorBirdMammalFor example, the bones on the front fins of a whale are homologous to the bones in a human arm and both are homologous to the bones in a chimpanzee arm.
32Analogous Structuressimilar in function but not in origin and structureIn convergent evolution, organisms evolve similar features independently, often because they live in similar habitats.
33VESTIGIAL STRUCTURES: structures that serve no useful purpose organs so reduced in size that they are nonfunctioning remnants of similar organs in other speciesex: human tailbone, appendix, whale pelvis
34EMBRYOLOGYEmbryos of different species may appear similar in early stages of developmentEmbryo drawings by cbrayex: vertebrate development
353 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY Comparison of similarities in embryos can show: Embryo drawings by cbrayRelationship to a common ancestor