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By: Leigh Anne Tuck, Emily Fox, and Julia McMath..

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1 By: Leigh Anne Tuck, Emily Fox, and Julia McMath.

2 History During this time period President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated. He was part of the realism time period, as being a “larger-than-life” hero. The civil war went on during this time period, and Ambrose Bierce was in the union army. He was wounded near the end of the war. The telephone was invented during this time period and came into use. Railroads were being built all across the United States during this time period. Labor unions were changing the lives of workers across the nation by getting them better wages, hours, and working conditions. Labor unions were brought about by work reform movements that would work with employers to get workers better welfare and wages. In the early 1900’s the NAACP was founded. It worked to help end violence and discrimination against African-Americans.

3 Themes Realism- Used the language of ordinary people. Life how it was really lived No “larger than life” heroes in perfect settings.

4 Realism (continued) Examined the problems and conditions around them. Feared that success= greed, materialism, corruption Questioned “rags to riches” success Explored new economic conditions

5 Regionalism/ Local Color- Focused on: the dialect customs characters of particular regions, often humorous, as social commentary.

6 Naturalism- Most extreme, pessimistic of realists Believed that people couldn’t make moral choices. Characters were controlled by their economic, social, or geological forces Heredity, environment, and economics determine a person’s destiny. Humans are at the mercy of forces beyond their control.

7 Naturalism (continued) Heredity, environment, and economics determine a person’s destiny. Humans are at the mercy of forces beyond their control.

8 Types of Literature Short stories- A short piece of fiction. Like a novel, only shorter and usually has a simpler plot and setting. Novels- A work of fiction Usually has a complex plot, lots of major and minor characters, a significant theme, and several varied settings.

9 Types of literature (continued) Poetry- One of the three major types of Literature. Often divided into lines and stanzas and often have regular rhythmical patterns or meters. Most have imagery, figurative language, and rhyme. Travel books- A book about a persons travel.

10 Characteristics of Writing Irony a difference between what is written and what really happens Symbolism Realistic details used to express emotions by using a pattern of symbols. Anticlimax- Thinking the book or writing is going to lead to something really good, but doesn’t end up good.

11 Characteristics of writing (continued) Regional dialect- Writing how a certain region talks. ex: “ ‘Rev. Leonidas W. H’m, Reverend Le- well there was a feller here once by the name of Jim Smiley…’” From “The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras Country” by Mark Twain. Humor- Funny Comic Relief- Similar to humor. ex: slipping on a banana peal.

12 Mark Twain ( ) Born in Hannibal, Missouri Born-Samuel Langhorne Clemens Little to no formal education- didn’t attend high school or college Father died Left family in great debt. Worked in print shop with brother. Famous Works- The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, The Innocents Abroad, Roughing It, Life On the Mississippi, Pudd’nhead Wilson

13 Kate Chopin ( ) Born Kate O’Flaherty in St. Louis, Missouri Daughter of wealthy businessman- dies in 1855 Home schooled by mother, grandmother, and great grandmother Sacred Heart Academy in 1868 Marries Oscar Chopin at twenty years old Famous Works- At Fault, Bayou Folk, A Night In Acadie, The Awakening

14 Stephen Crane ( ) Born in Newark, New Jersey Youngest son of Methodist minister-died when Crane was 8 Attended Lafayette College and Syracuse University Worked as newspaper columnist in New York City Famous works: Maggie: A Girl of the Streets, The Red Badge of Courage: An Episode of the American Civil War, War Is Kind, The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky

15 Bret Harte ( ) Born in Albany, New York 1858-Traveled to California, various jobs Became editor of Overland Monthly Later Years-Diplomat Famous Works: Outcroppings, The Lost Galleon, The Luck of Roaring Camp and Other Sketches

16 Jack London ( ) Born in San Francisco, California Born into poverty-illegitimate child-adopted step- fathers name As a teen, never went to high school, completed it in one year when he was older Attended one semester of University of California First American writer to earn more then $1,000,000 dollars Famous Works: The Call of the Wild, The Sea Wolf, White Fang

17 Ambrose Bierce ( ?) Born into poverty in Ohio; raised on farm in Indiana Learned from reading father’s books Attended Military Academy in Kentucky Served in Union Army during the Civil War Famous Works: Tales of Soldiers and Civilians, Can Such Things Be?, The Devil’s Dictionary

18 The gold rush happened in During this period a lot of people went to California in search of gold. Because of this the population increased.

19 The civil war happened from This was a major event during our time period. During this time period the country was split in two (north and south).

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21 The railroad changed the way people moved across the country. They could get from place to place much quicker. This happened during our time period.

22 The telephone was invented during this time period. It changed the way people communicate. It allowed quick communication compared to letters.

23 Works cited: "English Courses". Richmond Hill High School. August 24, "Kate Chopin". Soylent Communications. August 24, Dag, O. "Jack London". August 24, "Ambrose Bierce". Chrysoma Associates Limited. August 24, Guelzo, Allen C. "Civil War, American." World Book Online Reference Center [Place of access.] 25 Aug Phelps, Robert. "Gold rush." World Book Online Reference Center [Place of access.] 25 Aug Prentice Hall Literature: Timeless Voices, Timeless Themes: The American Experience. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc., , 474, 632, 506, 606, R11, R13, R14, R10, R15, 632, 472, 560, 561, 562 Thalmann, S. "Stephen Crane's Use of Leterary Naturalism." 24 Aug Association for diplomatic studies. 24 Aug Notz, Dan. "Gold Rush Still Haunts San Francisco Bay." Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. 24 Aug 2008.


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