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Descent With Modification: a Darwinian View of Life Chapter 22 BCOR 012 A January 21, 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Descent With Modification: a Darwinian View of Life Chapter 22 BCOR 012 A January 21, 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Descent With Modification: a Darwinian View of Life Chapter 22 BCOR 012 A January 21, 2011

2 In 1645, Bishop Ussher of Ireland stated that the Earth must have been created on October 26th, 4004 BC.

3 Jean Baptiste Lamarck Curator at the Natural History Museum in Paris “… Nature has in favorable times, places, and climates multiplied her first germs of animality, given place to developments of their organizations,... and increased and diversified their organs. Then... aided by much time and by a slow but constant diversity of circumstances, she has gradually brought about in this respect the state of things which we now observe. Text of a lecture given by Lamarck at the Musée National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, May 1803

4 SEA CLIFF WITH STRATA AT JOGGINS, NOVA SCOTIA

5 SCALE TREE TRUNK FOSSIL IN PLACE IN THE STRATA AT JOGGINS, NOVA SCOTIA DIAMETER OF TRUNK: 60 cm

6 COAL MEASURE SEQUENCE AT POINT ACONI, CAPE BRETON ISLAND. COA L SHALE (MUD STONE) with scattered leaf fossils SHALE with rootbearing Fossils in place

7 Leaf, Stem, and Cone Fossils of the Scaletrees One inch

8 Rootbearing Fossil of the Scaletrees One inch

9 WILLIAM SMITH ( ) and his map.

10 William Smith’s map - inferring a vertical sequence upward from older to younger rocks. Jurassic beds near Lyme Regis on the south coast of Dorset, England, and ammonites from one of the beds. While studying these beds and others about 1800, William Smith developed the concept of "guide fossils."

11 Georges Cuvier ( ) and Alexandre Brongniart ( ) early recognized the phenomena of restriction of distinctive fossils to particular zones, formations or series — guide fossils — and applied this tool in their stratigraphical studies. Moreover, they observed a pattern or trend in the change from level to level. Of the shells found in the upper, more recent levels, he states that the "eye of the most expert naturalist cannot distinguish from those which at present inhabit the ocean." Forms of life recovered from successively more ancient strata were observed to become progressively more strange and "peculiar" (Cuvier 1817:13, ).

12 Charles Darwin,

13 Reverend John Henslow, clergyman and naturalist Henslow’s sparrow

14 Robert FitzRoy, Captain of the H.M.S. Beagle

15 The Voyage of the H.M.S. Beagle

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18 Blue-black Grassquit, Volatinia jacarina

19 Genetic Analysis and Phylogeny of the Galapagos Finches

20 Darwin’s Beagle Voyage Observations: Geographic regions have distinctive floras and faunas Islands are centers of endemism Organisms are adapted to the conditions under which they live Geographically neighboring regions have related species.

21 Charles Lyell, UNIFORMITARIANISM Hutton and Lyell’s influence on Darwin: The idea that slow processes operating over vast periods of time could produce great changes.

22

23 Darwin’s 1837 phylogeny

24 Alfred Russell Wallace

25 Charles Lyell, a geologist, presented the work of both men at a meeting of the Linnaean Society in 1858.

26 Darwin in st printing sold out in a single day!

27 Five premises underlying Darwin’s theory: Variability: Populations of organisms are variable Heritability: Some of the variable traits are passed from generation to generation Overproduction: More individuals are produced in a population than will survive to reproduce Competition: Individuals compete for limited resources Differential Survival: Those individuals better suited to their environment will leave more descendents than less well suited individuals.

28 Evidence Supporting Darwin’s Views...

29 The equivalency of structures serving quite different functions provides evidence of common ancestry. Homology

30 Variation under domestication: an entire array of dogs have been bred from a wolf-like common ancestor.

31 Fig Kale Kohlrabi Brussels sprouts Leaves Stem Wild mustard Flowers and stems Broccoli Cauliflower Flower clusters Cabbage Terminal bud Lateral buds

32 Darwin reasoned that if, under artificial selection, so much change could be produced in a relatively short time, than what a great amount of change should be possible over hundreds of thousands of generations!

33 Two main features of the Darwinian view of life: The diverse forms of life have arisen by descent with modification from ancestral species The mechanism of modification has been natural selection operating over immense spans of time

34 Evolution Explains Three Key Observations About Life: The good “fit” of organisms to their environment (adaptation) The unity ( shared characteristics ) of life The diversity of life

35 Charles Darwin,

36 On the Shoulders of Giants - Scientists Who Influenced Darwin

37 JAMES HUTTON Geologist, chemist, naturalist, father of modern geology GRADUALISM Hadrian’s wall Hadrian wished to consolidate his boundaries. He visited Britain in 122 AD, and ordered a wall to be built from west to east "to separate Romans from Barbarians".

38 Charles Lyell, UNIFORMITARIANISM Hutton and Lyell’s influence on Darwin: The idea that slow processes operating over vast periods of time could produce great changes.

39 Georges Cuvier ( ) recognized the restriction of distinctive fossils to particular geological series. Moreover, he observed a pattern in the change from level to level. Of the shells in the upper, more recent levels, he states, " the eye of the most expert naturalist cannot distinguish from those which at present inhabit the ocean." Forms of life recovered from successively more ancient strata were observed to become progressively more strange and "peculiar" (Cuvier 1817:13, ).


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