Presentation on theme: "Naturalistic Curriculum Model Goal: to increase the infant/young child’s control, participation, and interaction in natural social and physical environments."— Presentation transcript:
Naturalistic Curriculum Model Goal: to increase the infant/young child’s control, participation, and interaction in natural social and physical environments. This is a process model with content and instructional techniques derived through environmental analysis. Content of instruction: goals are developed on an individual basis, reflecting the sill demands of natural, age-appropriate environments. The content is responsive to the requirements of the increasing number of environments that children will participate in. - Noonan & McCormick p. 134
Naturalistic Curriculum Models Reference curriculum to the unique needs and lifestyles of the child, family, peers, and community. Plan instruction that can be implemented naturally in daily family routines. Emphasize skills that are functional now and in the future. - McDonnel & Hardman (1988)
Content of Instruction Age-appropriate skills Skills for participating in present and future environments: Ecological inventory Survival skills
Instructional Focus Newborns: parent-child interaction Procedures: observation and specific descriptive feedback Infants: parent-child and broader social experiences (including objects) Procedures (Dunst, et al. 1987), : Sensitivity to child behavior Interpretation of “intent” Responsiveness Encouraging initiations Supporting and encouraging competence
Instructional Focus Focus: appropriate social-communication interactions in natural environments, self- help skills, cognitive development Procedures: Promoting socialization within and outside of family context Responsiveness to child’s interests and communicative attempts Developing routines around everyday tasks Promoting problem solving abilities
Instructional Methods Environmental arrangement Guided learning Violating expectations Responsiveness to child initiations Encouraging ongoing activities Supporting and encouraging competence
Approaches to Naturalistic Teaching Milieu : focuses on bridging the gap between the training environment and the natural environment Nurturant-naturalistic: moves from direct instruction to education in which the child takes the interactive lead and to naturalistic contexts. Joint-action: establishes structured interaction routines through which to teach skills Transactional intervention program: focuses on the quality of the interactive behavioral match between children and their primary caregivers Natural language teaching: developed for children with autism
Environmental Adaptations Design: amount and arrangement of space Materials: smaller manipulative items Equipment: furniture and large items Grouping Scheduling
1. Physical setting 2. Temporal characteristics 3. Social context 4. Activity system 5. Relationships 6. Child 7. Adult/teacher Environmental Systems
Time of Day Preceding Activities/ Scheduled Activity/ Subsequent Activities Individual Child’s Schedule Group’s Schedule Adults’ Schedules Perspectives of Time
Map the Child’s Day Describe the flow of activities in which the child participates across the day. Identify the times when he/she is available for teaching in conversation alone or in small groups. Identify group times when language goal might be embedded in a larger group activity. Identify key conversation partners and assess their availability as language teachers or conversational partners.
Analyze the Child’s Day Identify highly preferred activities and partners. Analyze identified teaching times in terms of the child’s communication goals. Examine the child’s day in terms of the child’s communication goals. Examine the child’s day in terms of supports for communication (models of language, access to listeners, support for total communication and emergent literacy).
Map the Adults’ Days Begin with your daily schedule. Note who you talked to, what you do, what your teaching and classroom management agenda looks like. Note group sizes, goals of activities, support provided by others in the classroom, transitions, etc. Think about goals and priorities for each activity. Use your intentions as well as what you accomplished in mapping the day.
Analyze the Adults’ Days Identify the times in which skills are currently being taught formally or informally. Identify additional times for teaching that emerge as you analyze the day from the teacher and child perspective. Note the strategies the teacher currently uses to teach language skills including specific target language, concepts, social interaction skills, emergent literacy skills, direction following, etc. Note the types of talk the teacher generally uses in the classroom.
Activities & Skills Children:Setting:Date:
Steps in Naturalistic Curriculum Ecological assessment Set priorities Determine present levels of performance Establish instructional objectives Develop instructional plans Establish an instructional schedule Instruct Evaluate
References Brown, J., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situate cognition and culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 17, Duchan, J., & Weitzner-Lin, B. (1987). Nurturan-naturalistic intervention for language-impaired children. ASHA, 29, Hart, B., & Risley, T. (1975). Incidental teachingof language in the preschool. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, Kaier, A. P., Hendrickson, J., & Alpert, C. (1991). Milieu language teaching: Asecond look. In R. Gable (Ed.), Advances in mental retardation and developmental disabilities, (Volume IV, pp ). London, Jessica Kingsley Publisher. Koegel, R. & Johnson, J., (1989). Motivating language use in autistic children. In G. Dawson (Ed.) Autism (pp ). New York: Guilford Press. Mahoney, G. & Powell, A. (1984). The transactional intervention program. Woodhaven, MI: Woodhaven School District. Mcdonald, J. (1989). Becoming partners with children. San Antonio, TX: Special Press, Inc. McDonnell & Hardman (1988). A synthesis of best practice guidelines for early childhood services. Journal of the Division for Early Childhood, 12, Noonan, M. J., & McCormick, L. (1993). Early intervention in natural environments: Methods and procedures. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co. Odom, S. L. & McLean, M. E. (1996). Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education:Recommended Practices. Austin, TX: Pro-ed. Warren. S., & Kaiser, A. (1986). Incidental language teaching: A critical review. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 51,