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Case presentation Diabetes Mellitus

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Presentation on theme: "Case presentation Diabetes Mellitus"— Presentation transcript:

1 Case presentation Diabetes Mellitus

2  Gajender kumar  55 yr, male  Bulandahar, UP  Presenting complaint:  Nonhealing ulcer bilateral foot - 2 month  Pus discharge from left foot ulcer – 2 month  Blackish discolouration of left foot - 10 days

3  Apparently alright 2 month back  h/o injury to b/l foot – 2 month back  Developed ulcer at trauma site  No associated pain at the site of ulcer  Purulent discharge from left foot ulcer : treated with antibiotics and dressing  Blackish discoloration of left foot – 10 days  No h/o change in colour with change in temprature  No H/o fever, swelling of lower limb

4  K/c/o DM – 6 yr  Previously was on OHA for 4yrs  Changed to insulin since last 2 yrs  H/o poor compliance to treatment and poor control of blood sugars  Presently on insulin  Human actrapid 12 IU BBF,BL & BD  Insulatard 25 IU after dinner  On this regimen blood sugars were controlled  H/o similar discoloration in Lt toe 1yr back, amputation done ↓ RA, U/E

5  H/o syptoms suggestive of hypoglycemic episodes  H/o tingling and numbness in both lower limbs since 2 yrs  No history s/o any other medical illness ( HTN, TB, CAD, Asthma,etc )

6  No H/o:  Chest pain, palpitations, breathlessness, orthopnea/ PND, edema feet, syncope, cough  ↓ urine output, generalized edema  Giddiness on change of posture  No h/o decreased vision  Limited mobility since last 1 month due to b/l foot ulcer  Initially could climb 3 flights of stairs  No history of any drug allergy

7 Treatment history:  Inj. Levoflox 500 mg i.v. od  Inj. Metrogyl 500mg 8 th hrly Personal history :  Bowel and bladder habits: normal  Alcohol intake : occasional  Cigarette smoker: smoked for 15 yrs, 4-5/day, stopped since last 3yrs Family history :  Insignificant

8  Awake,Conscious, Oriented, sitting comfortably in bed  Wt: 55 kg, ht: 164 cm  Afebrile  No pallor, icterus, cyanosis, clubbing, jaundice, lymphadenopathy  JVP: not raised  Good i.v. access

9  Pulse: 80/min, regular, adequate volume, no radioradial or radiofemoral delay  BP in right arm: 138/ 84 mm of Hg supine position, 130/ 80 mm of Hg sitting position  RR: 20/ min, regular  HR response to deep breathing: > 15bpm

10  Left foot: heel ulcer 8x12 cm, blackish discoloration till ankle, no line of demarcation, purulent discharge, foul smelling Surrounding skin: swollen, erythematous, tender  Right foot: 2×4 cm ulcer, no discharge

11  CVS: Apex beat in 5 th intercoastal space, midclavicular line S1, S2 normal No murmurs  Respiratory system: B/L air entry present No crepitations or rhonchi  Abdomen: soft, no organomegaly  Spine: normal

12 CNS:  Higher functions normal  Cranial nerves : normal  Sensory examination: B/L lower limb Pain, touch and temperature sensation were decreased in the distal parts Pressure, position sense and vibration sense intact & normal in both the limbs  Motor examination: Power and tone: normal in both the limbs Reflexes: Ankle jerk: B/L absent all other reflex present

13  Mouth opening: 5 cm  MMP class: 2  Neck movements: WNL  TMD: 6 cm  Teeth: intact  Prayers sign: negative

14 DM with b/l foot ulcer,with gangrene of left lower limb  Surgical plan : Below knee amputation of left leg

15  Hb = 10.0 g/dl  TLC =14500  Platelet count =3,21,000  Na+/K+ =150/4.8  Urea = 58mg/d  T. bil = 0.7  Pt = 12/ 13  CXR = WNL  ECG= WNL  Blood sugar :  Fasting 156 mg/dl  Urine sugar and ketones –ve

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17 1)Symptoms ( polyuria, polydipsia,wt loss )plus random plasma glucose >=200 mg/dl (11.1mmol/l) or 2) A fasting (>8hr)plasma glucose of >=126 mg/dl (7 mmol/l). or 3)A glucose conc. Of >=200 mg/dl (11.1mmol/l)2 hrs after oral ingestion of 75 g glucose  2004 ADA, reduces normal fasting glucose thresold from 110mg/dl to 100 mg/dl (normal FBG = 70 – 100 )  Impaired fasting glucose = 101 – 125 mg/dl

18  Metabolic syndrome x At least 3 of the following:  FPG ≥ 110 mg/dl  Abdominal obesity (waist grith >40 in men and >35 in women )  Sr. triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl  Sr. HDL <40 mg/dl in men and < 50 mg/dl in women  Blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mmhg

19 Class Pathogenesis Incidence (Formerly juvenile or IDDM) Type 1 (Formerly juvenile or IDDM) Immune mediated idiopathic forms of β cell function absolute insulin deficiency 0.4% 0.4% male =female male =female usually young usually young (Formerly NIDDM) Type 2 (Formerly NIDDM) Insulin resistance relative insulin deficiency or secretory defect 6.6% 6.6% adult onset adult onset Type 3 Specific types of DM genetic defect / disease of exocrine pancreas genetic defect / disease of exocrine pancreas Type 4 Gestational DM Gestational DM 4% of pegnanrcies

20 Classical diabetic complications Macroangiopathy - arteriosclerosis Microangiopathy - heart, kidney &retina Autonomic neuropathy - heart, GI &urinary tracts Peripheral neuropathy Collagen anomalies - respiratory tract & joints Unifying hypothesis - impaired glycosylation of proteins Systematic search of diabetic complications – key step

21  Dehydration, electrolyte & metabolic disturbances  Predisposes to DKA  Delayed wound healing  Bacterial infection & postop wound infection  Median glycemic threshold for neutrophil dysfunction 200 mg/dl  Independent risk factor for increase in short & long term mortality after cardiovascular surgery  Worsens clinical outcome in stroke, traumatic brain injury, global & focal cerebral ischaemia  Haemorrhagic extension of ischaemic stroke

22  Maintenance of normal white blood cell & macrophage function  Positive trophic & anabolic effects of insulin  Improved erythropoiesis  Decreased hemolysis  Reduced cholestasis  Less axonal dysfunction

23 Class Sulfonylurea AgentsDurationAction Side- effects 1 st generation Tolbutamide Chlorpropa mide h h h h Up to 24h Increase d pancreati c insulin release Receptor level action Hypoglyc emia 2 nd generation GlipizideGiburaideGlimepride

24 Class ClassAgentsDurationAction Side- effects Biguanides Metformin Metformin h h Up to 24h Improve receptor sensitivity ? Reduction in resistance Pancreatic insulin release Lactic acidosis Lactic acidosis Liver dysfuncti on Liver dysfuncti on GlitizonesTroRosiPioDar

25 Class ClassAgentsDuration Action Action Side- effects GlinidesRepaglinideNateglinide 3 h 3 h 4 h Rapid insulin Rapid insulin secretion secretion Reduced carbohydrate absorption Liver dysfn Diarrhea Abd pain Alpha – glucosidase inhibitor acarbose

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27 Χ “No glucose, no insulin” Limitations : 1. Not suitable for insulin dependent diabetics 2. Pt’s stores of glucose used to meet increased metabolic demands 3. Patients taking long acting OHAs predisposed to hypoglycemia Acceptable for non-insulin dependent diabetics & minor surgical procedures Frequent blood sugar monitoring. May require insulin therapy

28  Aim : Prevent hypoglycemia, ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar states  Day before surgery : NPO > midnight  Day of surgery : iv ml/kg/hr (Preop + intraop)  Subcut one half usual daily intermediate acting insulin on morning of surgery, increased by 0.5U for each unit of regular insulin dose of insulin subcut  Postop : Monitor blood glu & treat on sliding scale  Limitations:  Insulin requirements vary in periop period  Onset & peak effect may not correlate with glucose admn or start of surgery  Hypoglycemia esp in afternoon  Lowest therapeutic ratio

29  Aim : mg/dl  Protocol :  Evening before, do pre-prandial bld glucose  Begin iv 50 ml/hr/70 kg  Piggyback to 5%D, infusion of regular insulin (50 U in 250 ml 0.9% NS)  Insulin infusion rate (U/hr) = plasma glu (mg/dl) / 150 or /100 if on steroids or severe infection  Repeat bld glu every 4 hours  Day of surgery : Non dextrose containing solutions,  Monitor blood glu at start & every 1-2 hours

30  Aim : Same as TC regimen I  Protocol : Obtain a feedback mechanical pancreas & set controls for desired plasma glucose.  Institute 2 iv drips for insulin & fluids

31  Alberti & Thomas IV GIK solution [500ml 10% glucose + 10 units soluble insulin + 1 gm 100 ml/hr]  Before surgery - stabilize on soluble insulin regimen, omit morning dose of insulin  Commence infusion early on morning & monitor glu at 2-3 hours  180 mg/dl replace bag with 5U or 15U respectively

32  Initial solution : 500ml 10% glu + 10 mmol KCl + 15 U Insulin, infuse at 100 ml/hr  Check Blood glu every 2 hours  Adjust in 5 U steps  Discontinue if bld glu < 90 mg/dl Blood glu (mg/dl) Action <12010 U insulin (2U/h) U insulin (3U/h) >20020 U insulin (4U/h)

33  Advantages : simple, Inherent safety factor, balance appropriate  Criticism : hypoglycemia, water load & hyponatremia, cautious : poor renal function  20% or 50% D

34  Aim : Normoglycemia  Infuse glucose 5 g/hr with pot 2-4 mmol/hr  Start insulin  Measure blood glucose hourly Blood glu (mg/dl) Action (insulin infusion) < 80Turn off for 30 min, give 25 ml 50% D ↓ by.3 U/h No change in infusion rate ↑ by.3 U/hr > 220↑ by 0.5 U/hr

35  RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Supplement usual diabetes medications to treat uncontrolled high blood sugars 2. Short term use (24-48 h) in a patient admitted with unknown insulin requirement 3. Should not be used as a sole substitute, risk of DKA Periop changes in regional blood flow – unpredictable absorption

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37  Combining multiple daily injections of intermediate or long acting insulin (NPH, lente, or ultralente) rapid or short acting insulins (Regular, insulin lispro, or insulin aspart)  “1500 Rule” : (ICF) 1500/total insulin dose = how much 1 unit of regular insulin will decrease blood glucose.

38  BG < 50 mg/dl in adults and < 40 mg/dl in children  whipple’s triad : low plasma glucose hypoglycemic symptoms resolution of symptoms with correction of blood sugar  Sympathoadrenal :  Weakness, sweating, ↑ HR, palpitations, tremor, nervousness, irritability, tingling, hunger  Neuroglycopenia :  Headache, ↓ temp, visual disturbances, mental confusion, amnesia, seizures, coma

39  Treatment :  Discontinue insulin drip  Give D 50 w iv patient conscious – 25 ml patient unconscious – 50 ml  Recheck BG every 20 min & repeat 25 ml of D50 w if < 60 mg/dl  Restart drip once BG is > 70 mg/dl

40 Pupillary Decreased diameter of darkadapted pupil Argyll-Robertson type pupil Metabolic Hypoglycemia unawareness Hypoglycemia unresponsiveness Cardiovascular Tachycardia, exercise intolerance Cardiac denervation Orthostatic hypotension Heat intolerance Neurovascular Areas of symmetrical anhydrosis Gustatory sweating Hyperhidrosis Alterations in skin blood flow Gastrointestinal Constipation Gastroparesis diabeticorum Diarrhea and fecal incontinence Esophageal dysfunction Genitourinary Erectile dysfunction Retrograde ejaculation Cystopathy Neurogenic bladder Defective vaginal lubrication

41  Resting heart rate  > 100 beats/minute is abnormal  Beat-to-beat heart rate variation  The patient should abstain from drinking coffee overnight  Test should not be performed after overnight hypoglycemic episodes  When the patient lies supine and breathes 6 times per minute, a difference in heart rate of less  than 10 beats/minute is abnormal  An expiration:inspiration R-R ratio > 1.17 is abnormal  Heart rate response to standing  The R-R interval is measured at beats 15 and 30 after the patient stands  A 30:15 ratio of less than 1.03 is abnormal  Heart rate response to Valsalva maneuver  The patient forcibly exhales into the mouthpiece of a manometer, exerting a pressure of 40 mm Hg, for 15 seconds  A ratio of longest to shortest R-R interval of less than 1.2 is abnormal

42  Systolic blood pressure response to standing  Systolic blood pressure is measured when the patient is lying down and 2 minutes after the patient stands  A fall of more than 30 mm Hg is abnormal  A fall of 10 to 29 mm Hg is borderline  Diastolic blood pressure response to isometric exercise  The patient squeezes a handgrip dynamometer to establish his or her maximum  The patient then squeezes the grip at 30% maximum for 5 minutes  A rise of less than 16 mm Hg in the contralateral arm is abnormal  Electrocardiography  A QTc of more than 440 ms is abnormal  Depressed very-low frequency peak or low-frequency peak indicate sympathetic dysfunction  Depressed high-frequency peak indicates parasympathetic dysfunction  Lowered low-frequency/high-frequency ratio indicates sympathetic imbalance  Neurovascular flow  Noninvasive laser Doppler measures of peripheral sympathetic responses to nociception

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49 Diabetes

50 The Greek word Diabetes = to Siphon /pass through …...and the Latin word mellitus = sweet as honey


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