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Paul D. Dykstra Ganan & Shapiro, P.C. 411 Hamilton Boulevard, Suite 1006 Peoria, Illinois 61602 June 4, 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Paul D. Dykstra Ganan & Shapiro, P.C. 411 Hamilton Boulevard, Suite 1006 Peoria, Illinois 61602 June 4, 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Paul D. Dykstra Ganan & Shapiro, P.C. 411 Hamilton Boulevard, Suite 1006 Peoria, Illinois June 4, 2012

2 1.Employee/patient 2.Treating doctor 3.Employer / insurance provider 4.Drug

3 Top 15 Prescription Drugs in WC for Service Year OXYCONTIN® (Ox i KON tin) is a controlled-release narcotic painkiller prescribed for around-the-clock relief of moderate to severe pain. 2. LIDODERM® (LYE doe derm) is used to relieve the pain associated with sunburn; insect bites; poison ivy; poison oak; poison sumac; minor cuts, scratches, and burns; sores in the mouth; dental procedures; hemorrhoids; and shingles (herpes infection). 3. HYDROCODONE W/ACETAMINOPHEN (hye droe KOE done)/(ah see ta MIH no fen) (generic form of Vicodin®) is a narcotic analgesic used to relieve moderate to severe pain. 4. LYRICA® (LEER i kah) is an anticonvulsant and neuropathic pain agent used for treating fibromyalgia or nerve pain caused by certain conditions (e.g., shingles, diabetic nerve problems). It is also used in combination with other medicines to treat certain types of seizures. 5. CELEBREX® (SELL eh breks) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to treat pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and menstrual pain. It is also used in the treatment of hereditary polyps in the colon. 6. GABAPENTIN (ga bah PEN tin) (generic form of Neurontin®, approved in 2003) is used in the treatment of some types of seizures and the management of postherpetic neuralgia (nerve pain caused by the herpes virus or shingles). 7. SKELAXIN® (skell AX in) is a muscle relaxant used to treat skeletal muscle conditions such as pain or injury. 8. CYMBALTA® (sim BALL ta) is used to treat major depression—a disorder marked by continuing, serious, and overwhelming feelings of depression that interfere with daily functioning. It is used to treat diabetic peripheral neuropathy, a painful nerve disorder associated with diabetes that affects the hands, legs, and feet. 9. MELOXICAM (mell OX ih kam) (generic form of Mobic®) is used to relieve the pain and stiffness of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. 10. CYCLOBENZAPRINE HCL (sye kloe BEN za preen)/(HYE droe KLOR ide) (generic form of Flexeril®) is a muscle relaxant used to treat skeletal muscle conditions such as muscle spasms resulting from injuries such as sprains, strains, or pulls. 11. TRAMADOL HCL (TRA ma dol)/(HYE droe KLOR ide) (generic form of Ultram®) is prescribed to relieve moderate to moderately severe pain. 12. OMEPRAZOLE (oh MEP ra zole) (generic form of Prilosec®) is prescribed for the short-term treatment (four to eight weeks) of the following: stomach ulcer, duodenal ulcer (near the exit of the stomach), erosive esophagitis (inflammation of the esophagus), and heartburn and other symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (also known as GERD, which occurs when stomach acid backs up into the tube connecting the throat to the stomach). 13. FENTANYL (FEN ta nil) (generic form of Duragesic®) prescribed for chronic pain when short-acting narcotics and other types of painkillers fail to provide relief. 14. FLECTOR® is a patch that is placed on the skin to apply pain medication directly to the source. It is used to treat pain caused by minor strains, sprains, and bruises. 15. OXYCODONE HCL (ox i KOE done)/(HYE droe KLOR ide) (generic form of Roxicodone® or OxyContin® if extended release) is a narcotic pain reliever used to treat moderate to severe pain. The extended-release form of this medication is for around-the-clock treatment of pain.

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5 - Narcotic medications are most often prescribed for low-back pain - Prescription narcotics are extremely addictive, becoming so often shortly after first consumption, and have a diminishing effect with the same dosage over time. - Over the past five years, expenditures for prescription narcotics for low- back symptoms have increased 423%, with no appreciable effect or improvement on symptom or disability outcomes. - The two largest studies on narcotic prescription consumption show that noncompliance (misuse, overuse, nonconsumption) occurred in more than 70% of patients.

6 - The nature of the diagnosis and length of time experiencing pain did not correlate with who will be prescribed narcotic drugs. - Narcotic prescriptions most often correlated with the patient’s less education, lower income, mental illness, smoking, obesity, and ethnicity, most often Caucasian. - The primary risk factor for chronic benign pain are psychological and social, so prescribing narcotics bears little chance of successfully addressing that pain.

7 - The quantity of prescribed narcotics in 2010 was 4 times larger than in Per capita prescribed narcotics were 3 times higher in Florida (highest rate) than Illinois (lowest rate). -33 million Americans over age 12 misuse narcotics. - Nearly 500,000 emergency room visits in 2009 were due to misuse or abuse of prescription narcotics. - Misuse or abuse of prescribed narcotics costs health insurers $72.5 billion each year.

8 - Men are much more likely than women to misuse or abuse prescription narcotics. - Middle-aged adults have the highest prescription narcotics abuse rates. - People in rural counties are almost twice as likely to misuse or abuse prescription narcotics as those in urban areas. - Whites are more likely to abuse prescribed narcotics than any other race demographic.

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10 Top Physician-Dispensed Drugs in Florida (NCCI) Drug Name Price Per Script 1 CARISOPRODOL $118 MELOXICAM $192 2 NAPROXEN $35 CARISOPRODOL $272 3 CEPHALEXIN $52 TRAMADOL HCL $80 4 TRAMADOL HCL $35 OMEPRAZOLE $279 5 SKELAXIN® $50 RANITIDINE HCL $175 6 IBUPROFEN $12 LIDODERM® $502 7 RANITIDINE HCL $92 NAPROXEN $57 8 ETODOLAC $52 HYDROCODONE-ACETAMINOPHEN $50 9 CYCLOBENZAPRINE HCL $28 CYCLOBENZAPRINE HCL $63 10 DICLOFENAC SODIUM $56 ETODOLAC $126

11 Top Physician-Dispensed Drugs in Georgia (NCCI) Drug Name Price Per Script 1 IBUPROFEN $13 MELOXICAM $199 2 CYCLOBENZAPRINE HCL $35 LIDODERM® $419 3 DICLOFENAC SODIUM $45 HYDROCODONE-ACETAMINOPHEN $48 4 ETODOLAC $67 TRAMADOL HCL $63 5 RANITIDINE HCL $65 CARISOPRODOL $171 6 CEPHALEXIN $45 RANITIDINE HCL $121 7 TRAMADOL HCL $32 GABAPENTIN $167 8 NAPROXEN SODIUM $25 NAPROXEN $60 9 SKELAXIN® $80 OMEPRAZOLE $ NAPROXEN $32 CYCLOBENZAPRINE HCL $47

12 NCCI Study August, Narcotics account for nearly one-quarter of all workers compensation prescription costs. 2.In 2009, prescriptions accounted for 19% of total medical costs, rising roughly 1% per year since Prescription distribution and utilization, not price increase, accounts for global cost increase. 4.Per-claim prescription costs grew 12% from 2008 to Narcotics share of drug costs increases as claims age. 6.Narcotics are used mostly for back injuries in workers compensation.

13 Percentage of prescriptions dispensed by physicians (versus by pharmacies) Nationally19%23%28% Florida22%44%50% California50%46%48% Georgia20%33%44% Maryland14%29%35% Pennsylvania22%27%33% Illinois18%22%31%

14 Reasons for physician dispensation of prescriptions 1.Having the patient begin taking the medication immediately. 2.Getting the medication dosage properly calibrated. 3.Providing convenience for the patient. 4.Bypassing medical fee schedules by repackaging and repricing the medications (giving the doctor a vested interest in prescribing narcotic medication).

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16 Top 50 Drugs for Service Year 2009 Paid Share Rank by Service Year (NCCI) 2009 Drug Name % OXYCONTIN® % LIDODERM® % HYDROCODONE-ACETAMINOPHEN % LYRICA® % CELEBREX® % GABAPENTIN % SKELAXIN® % CYMBALTA® % MELOXICAM % CYCLOBENZAPRINE HCL % TRAMADOL HCL % OMEPRAZOLE % FENTANYL % FLECTOR® > % OXYCODONE HCL % ULTRAM® ER % OXYCODONE HCL-ACETAMINOPHEN % CARISOPRODOL % NAPROXEN % KADIAN® % ZOLPIDEM TARTRATE % OPANA® ER % AMRIX® % TIZANIDINE HCL % AMBIEN CR® % PERCOCET®

17 Top 10 Therapeutic Classes by Amount Billed–2010 (Coventry First Script Drug Trends 2011) Therapeutic Class % Total Rx % Total Billed Analgesics, Narcotic Sustained-Release 6.0% 20.3% Analgesics, Narcotic Short-Acting 30.2% 17.5% Anticonvulsants 8.5% 10.6% NSAIDs 11.1% 7.5% Muscle Relaxants 10.3% 7.3% Dermatological/Topical Preparations 3.6% 7.0% Antidepressant Medications, Non-TCA 6.1% 6.7% Sedative/Hypnotics 3.4% 3.5% Antiulcer Medications 2.6% 3.2% Antipsychotics 0.6% 2.0% Top 10 Total 82.4% 85.6% All Other Total 17.6% 14.4%

18 Top 10 Therapeutic Classes by Amount Billed–2011 (Coventry First Script Drug Trends 2011) Therapeutic Class % Total Rx % Total Billed Analgesics, Narcotic Sustained-Release 5.7% 19.4% Analgesics, Narcotic Short-Acting 29.8% 17.5% Anticonvulsants 8.5% 10.7% NSAIDs 11.9% 7.7% Dermatological/Topical Preparations 3.9% 7.3% Antidepressant Medications, Non-TCA 6.0% 6.8% Muscle Relaxants 10.3% 6.7% Antiulcer Medications 2.6% 3.3% Sedative/Hypnotics 3.1% 3.1% Antipsychotics 0.7% 2.3% Top 10 Total 82.5% 84.8% All Other Total 17.5% 15.2%

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20 - In a recent study, 100% of patients demonstrated increased vulnerability to pain after one month of taking prescribed narcotics. - Pain thresholds in those patients decreased 16%, and pain tolerance dropped 24%, in that time. - Narcotics cause a phantom pain, called “hyperalgesia,” that often accounts for unexplained symptoms. - Narcotics may aggravate the pain that they were designed to address. - These effects were found not to be permanent, as 21 of 23 patients in the study reported a significant decrease in pain after detoxification.

21 - Narcotics produce severe pain that hinders functional ability and accurate impairment assessments. - The AMA Guides for Impairment include subjective claims of functional impairment as a factor in the impairment rating. - Narcotic consumption delays attainment of maximum medical improvement because of the related hyperalgesia and lack of effectiveness in addressing the true organic symptoms that relate to the injury. - Several studies prove that consumption of narcotics made no difference in pain control versus consumption of a placebo.

22 - Side effects of prescription narcotics - - Endocrine disruption (87% of men reported erectile dysfunction after ingestion of narcotics). - Sleep abnormalities. - Immune system compromise. - Cognitive impairment. - Abuse of other substances (56% of patients taking narcotics abuse other substances).

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24 1. Encourage treating doctors who prescribe narcotic medications to frequently have the patient tested to ensure that the drug is in the patient’s system and in the intended amount. 2. Develop a system within your program to trigger Utilization Review of a prescribed medication after a designated number of refills. 3. Use independent medical examinations and peer records reviews to obtain opinions on the necessity of narcotics prescriptions. 4. Bring the employee back to work in order to break the dependence psychology that many times drives the “need” for narcotic medication and in order for you to be able to monitor the employee’s behavior and ongoing status.

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