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Acute surgical conditions

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Presentation on theme: "Acute surgical conditions"— Presentation transcript:

1 Acute surgical conditions
New Resident Orientation Daniel J. Farrugia, MD PhD June 24, 2014 University of Florida, Department of Surgery

2 Pancreaticobiliary Service
Acute cholecystitis Acute cholangitis Acute pancreatitis

3 Acute Cholecystitis Low grade fever, RUQ pain, oral intolerance
Mild leukocytosis: 10-12 Key points RUQ US best test – stones, pericholecystic fluid, GB wall thickening >3 mm, CBD >6 mm Complicating features: diabetes, peritonitis, high leukocytosis, high-grade fever, jaundice/hyperbilirubinemia. Could indicate gangrenous cholecystitis, perforated cholecystitis, choledocholithiasis, cholangitis, pancreatitis. GB wall 3mm

4 Cholangitis Fever and leukocytosis Charcot’s Triad/Reynold’s Pentad
Rapid progression to sepsis. Hyperbilirubinemia, dilated common bile duct Imaging: only indicated if diagnosis is not certain. No role for MRCP in clear-cut cholangitis. Treatment: emergent ERCP for stone extraction and sphincterotomy. RUQ pain, fever, jaundice; + AMS, +shock

5 Acute Pancreatitis Acute onset epigastric pain radiating to the back
Elevated amylase and lipase Possibly elevated transaminase and alk phos from impacted gallstone Common causes: alcohol, gallstone, metabolic, malignancy, drugs, hypertriglyceridemia Treatment depends on the underlying cause, supportive care Metabolic: hereditary, hypercalcemia, hyperlipidemia, malnutrition. Drugs: sulfa, steroids, Lasix, hydrochlorothiazide. Medicine stuff: infection such as mumps, Coxsackie, mycoplasma pneumonia, Ascaris, Clonorchis

6 Acute Care Surgery/VA General
Appendicitis Small bowel obstruction Incarcerated hernia Perforated gastric ulcer

7 Acute Appendicitis History and physical are the most important
Acute onset peri-umbilical pain migrating to the right lower quadrant. Nausea and vomiting, subjective fevers, chills. Pain at McBurney’s point, peritonitis. Signs: Rovsing, Psoas, Obturator Imaging: CT with IV contrast is first line, ultrasound in children and pregnant women, MRI CT: enlarged appendix greater than 6 mm, contrast enhancement of the appendiceal wall, non-filling of appendix lumen with oral contrast, peri- appendiceal fat stranding Management: IV fluids, IV antibiotics (Unasyn or Cipro/Flagyl in adults, Ceftriaxone/Flagyl in pediatrics) Laparoscopic appendectomy in most cases Additional points: high fever or high leukocytosis often correlates with perforation. Innervation of the appendix occurs at T10 which can confuse with the umbilicus. Rovsing: palpation of the left lower quadrant of a person's abdomen increases the pain felt in the right lower quadrant Psoas: irritation to the iliopsoas group of hip flexors in the abdomen, and consequently indicates that the inflamed appendix is retrocaecal. passively extending the thigh of a patient lying on his side with knees extended, or asking the patient to actively flex his thigh at the hip Obturator:

8 CT of appendicitis

9 Small Bowel Obstruction
Absence of flatus, bowel movements Nausea, vomiting, abdominal distention, abdominal pain CT scan Look for proximal dilatation, distal decompression, “transition point” Closed loop, Free fluid, mesenteric swirling Small bowel protocol after overnight decompression Most common cause are adhesions and hernias. History must include documentation of prior abdominal or pelvic surgeries. Must rule out incarcerated hernias, volvulus. Treatment for small bowel obstruction caused by adhesions is initial conservative management with NPO, NG tube, IV fluids.

10 Dilated promixal / Decompressed Distal

11 Incarcerated Hernias Reducible, incarcerated, strangulated
Inguinal, umbilical, femoral, obturator, ventral. Femoral and operator hernias are difficult to diagnose on physical exam. CT scan is helpful Do not reduce a hernia in someone who is toxic Maneuvers to increase successful reduction Supine position, legs bent, deep constant pressure, Trendelenburg position, sedation Acutely irreducible hernia is an indication for surgery.

12 Inguinal hernia imaging

13 Perforated Gastric Ulcer
Acute onset abdominal pain Peritonitis, rigid abdomen Free air under diaphragm on erect CXR or KUB H/o aspirin, NSAIDs, Goody powder Treatment: urgent laparotomy.

14 Air under the diaphragm

15 Treatment of Gastric Ulcer

16 Vascular and TCV Surgery
Acute limb ischemia DVT/PE Ruptured AAA Acute dissection

17 Acute Limb Ischemia 6 Ps: pain, pulselessness, paralysis, pallor, paraesthesia, poikilothermia Obtain history about timing, irregular heart rhythm, chest pain suggestive of heart attack, history of aneurysms. Document good pulse exam Treatment: immediate anticoagulation with heparin infusion Embolectomy Fasciotomy Possible muscle weakness and sensory loss, inaudible arterial signal with intact venous signal Fasciotomy for salvageable limb

18 DVT Unilateral leg swelling, leg pain, worse with movement
Homan’s sign is not useful Wells criteria Diagnosis: venous duplex ultrasound D-dimer is usually elevated postoperatively Rx: systemic anti-coagulation with therapeutic heparin GTT or Lovenox SQ

19 Pulmonary Embolism Tachypnea, tachycardia, pleuritic chest pain
Assess for DVT CXR and EKG nonspecific (rule out other stuff) ABG: decreased CO2 (tachypnea) Radiology: PE protocol CT is expensive, requires heavy dye load, and is not appropriate for low suspicion V/Q scan, like all nuc med studies, are of limited value Same Rx as DVT Supplemental O2 EKG to rule out MI, CXR to rule out pneumothorax, pneumonia V/Q scan always intermediate suspicion D-dimer can rule out, but low sensitivity

20 Ruptured AAA Signs of shock Pulsatile abdominal mass
Most common presentation is transfer from OSH with CT scan showing AAA rupture Call fellow on call immediately If stable, obtain CT scan for possible endovascular repair planning if not already done Operative & Blood Consent, T+C, Labs OR

21 Ruptured AAA

22 Aortic Dissection Sudden onset tearing, ripping, 10/10 chest pain radiating to back Vitals: hypertension Work up: CT, Echo Treatment: beta blockers and BP control for Type B OR for type A

23 Aortic Dissection Stanford A/B: DeBakey I, II, III A = asc,
Determine Location Classification Stanford A/B: A = asc, B = arch + desc DeBakey I, II, III I asc + desc II asc + arch III desc distal to L SCA

24 Aortic dissection

25 Colorectal Surgery Acute Diverticulitis Perforated Colon Cancer

26 Diverticulitis LLQ pain, hx of diverticulosis, past episodes
Diagnosis by CT scan Uncomplicated – bowel thickening, localized tenderness Complicated – Hinchey Classification Hinchey I: pericolic abscess Hinchey II: larger mesenteric abscess, extension to pelvis Hinchey III: free perforation, purulent peritonitis Hinchey IV: feculent peritonitis Treatment: uncomplicated  clear liquids, oral abx, ?outpatient management complicated Hinchey I/II: NPO, IV abx, percutaneous drainage for abscess >5cm Hinchey III: resection and primary anastomosis vs colostomy Hinchey IV: diverting colostomy

27 Diverticulitis

28 Burn Surgery Burns Necrotizing soft tissue infection

29 Burn Mechanism Rule out inhalational injury
gas on trash, explosion, house fire, electrical, chemical Rule out inhalational injury History: enclosed space, smoke Physical: soot in mouth, singed facial hairs, hoarseness Labs: methemoglobin on ABG Bronchoscopy Resuscitate – Parkland Formula, LR, UOP Evaluate pulses for need for escharotomy / fasciotomy

30 Necrotizing soft tissue infection
Risk factors: Diabetes, Immunosuppression Exam: tachycardia / tachypnea / altered mental status Tenderness / pain away from erythematous area Crepitus, paralysis, bullae Labs: LRINEC score Imaging: CT for gas in soft tissue / fascia MRI difficult to obtain quickly Diagnosis is CLINICAL Treatment: Urgent wide debridement IV Abx: Vancomycin, Zosyn, Clindamycin


32 Pediatric Surgery Appendicitis Gastroschisis / Omphalocele
Malrotation / mid-gut volvulus Intussusception Pyloric Stenosis Necrotizing Enterocolitis

33 Gastroschisis / Omphalocele
Defect of umbilical membrane near vein No coverage Need immediate coverage Omphalocele Incomplete closure of abdominal wall Associated with other abnormalities (VACTERL) Babygram (vertebral) Echocardiogram Usually covered by sac, sometimes ruptured

34 Gastroschisis Omphalocele

35 Midgut Volvulus Secondary to intestinal malrotation Bilious emesis
Xray: gastric/duodenal distension UGI: oral contrast film corkscrew appearance of duodenum extrinsic compression by Ladd’s bands Small bowel on right, colon on left Duplex US: SMV is normally to right of SMA, flipped in volvulus

36 Ladd Procedure

37 Intussusception Age 6 months to 2 years Hypertrophied Peyer’s patches
Colicky abdominal pain, currant jelly stool Tx: air enema by radiology Operative reduction if enema unsuccessful

38 Intussusception

39 Pyloric Stenosis Risk factors: first born white male, erythromycin use in pregnancy Age: 2-6 weeks History: nonbilious projective vomiting shortly after feeds Physical: palpable “olive” epigastric area Labs: hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis Imaging: abdominal ultrasound Tx: resuscitation, correct electrolytes Operation only after medical stabilization

40 Necrotizing Enterocolitis
Abdominal distension, intolerance to feeds, bilious emesis, bloody stools soon after enteral intake in premature infant Abdominal erythema, crepitus, or discoloration is ominous Tx: NPO, IV abx, NGT, resuscitation Urgent operation for: Pneumoperitoneum Portal venous gas, abd erythema, clinical deterioration

41 Pneumatosis intestinalis

42 I thank you for your attention and am happy to take questions.

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