Receives food and begins the process of digestion. Breaks down foods mechanically by tearing into smaller particles. Mixes saliva with food.
Produces saliva and other enzymes that aid in digestion. ◦ Parotid is the largest gland producing 25% of saliva. ◦ Submandibular produces 70% of saliva. ◦ Sublingual produces 5% of saliva. ◦ Von Ebner’s is located in the tongue and begins lipid hydrolysis.
Located behind the oral cavity. Allows food and air to pass into the body. ◦ Epiglottis closes trachea when food enters. Divided in three sections: ◦ Oropharynx ◦ Nasopharynx ◦ Laryngopharynx
Muscular tube in which food is transported into the stomach from the pharynx. Peristalsis- muscular contraction of smooth muscle to move food.
Located between the esophagus and small intestine. Primary function of the stomach is to break down food. When the food enters the stomach, millions of gastric glands that line the stomach secret 400-800 ml of gastric juice.
Important Cells ◦ parietal cells ◦ chief cells ◦ mucus-secreting cells ◦ G cells
The main function of the liver is to produce substances that break down fats, convert glucose to glycogen, produce urea, make certain amino acids filter harmful substances from the blood storage of vitamins and minerals and maintain a proper level or glucose in the blood. The liver is also responsible for producing cholesterol.
Small organ, about six inches long Location ◦ Deep in the abdomen, between the stomach and spine ◦ Part of it is behind the stomach and the other part rest on the curve of the small intestine
Function ◦ Breaks down protein, carbohydrates, and fats using digestive juices of the pancreas and intestine ◦ Secret hormones that affect sugar level in blood ◦ Produces NaHCO 3 to neutralize stomach acid Important Cells o Beta cells o Alpha cells o Delta cells o Gamma cells
Produces bile which is secreted by the liver into bile ducts, some of it goes into the small intestine and some of it is stored in the gallbladder for later use. The bile has two major functions: It breaks down the fats that you eat so that your body can utilize them and bile is a very powerful antioxidant which helps to remove toxins from the liver.
The duct that carries bile from the gallbladder and liver into the duodenum. The common bile duct is formed by the junction of the cystic duct that comes from the gallbladder and the common hepatic duct that comes from the liver.
Located in the gastrointestinal tract, between the stomach and the large intestine. Nutrients from food are absorbed through the villi to the blood It is composed of three parts ◦ Duodenum ◦ Jejunum ◦ Ilenum
Occurs when diverticula form in the wall of the colon and then get inflamed or infected. Causes ◦ Low fiber diet ◦ When bacteria get trapped in the diverticula
Symptoms ◦ Belly pain ◦ Fever and chills ◦ Bloating and gas ◦ Diarrhea or constipation ◦ Nausea and sometimes vomiting ◦ Lost of appetite Treatment ‒Antibiotics ‒Surgery (sometimes)
Intestinal Obstruction is a blockage of the digestive tract that prevents the passage of food. Causes ◦ Present at birth ◦ Hernias ◦ Abnormal scar tissue after an abdominal operation ◦ Inflammatory Bowel Disease ◦ Medications, especially narcotics
Symptoms ◦ Abdominal fullness, gaseous ◦ Abdominal distention ◦ Abdominal pain and cramping ◦ Vomiting ◦ Failure to pass gas or stool (constipation) ◦ Diarrhea ◦ Breath odor Diagnosis o Barium enema o Abdominal CT scan o Upper GI and small bowel series o Abdominal film
Treatment o A nasogastric (NG) tube is inserted through the nose down into the stomach to remove the content of the stomach and upper intestine. o The surgery for the disorder is called a Ladd procedure. During the surgery, the intestine is straightened out, Ladd’s bands are separated. The small intestine is placed on the right side of the abdomen and the colon is moved to the left.
A peptic ulcer is a type of sore or hole that forms in the lining of the stomach or intestine. The word "peptic" refers to the digestive process. An ulcer in the lining of the stomach is called a gastric ulcer. An ulcer in the upper part of the small intestine, or duodenum, is called a duodenal ulcer.
Symptoms ◦ Gnawing or burning pain in the abdomen between the breastbone and navel. This pain usually occurs between meals and in the early hours of the morning. Duration of the pain is from a few minutes to a few hours and may be relieved by eating or taking antacids. Symptoms also includes nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, loss of weight, bleeding from ulcers. If blood loss is slow, it may not be obvious. People suffering from slow bleeding may feel tired and weak. If the bleeding is heavy, blood will appear in vomit or stool. Stools containing blood appear tarry or black.
Treatment ◦ There are two main groups of medicines available to treat peptic ulcers. Both reduce acid production in the stomach, allowing the ulcer to heal. The first group are called H2-blockers. Examples include ranitidine and cimetidine. These are effective for most people with a peptic ulcer. There are more powerful medicines called proton pump inhibitors, which can completely stop acid production. Examples include omeprazole and lansoprazole.
Prevention ◦ There are lifestyle changes that you can make to help your ulcers heal and prevent them coming back. not having food and drink that seems to cause more severe symptoms - these foods can include spicy foods, coffee and alcohol, stopping smoking and not taking painkillers that are likely to cause ulcers in the future.
An autoimmune disease of the digestive system which can attack any part of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus. Believed to be genetically based.
Symptoms ◦ Severe abdominal pain that cannot be relieved even after bowels are passed. ◦ Bloating and a lot of flatulence ◦ Stool will usually contain blood. ◦ Also associated with Colitis, which is a series of inflammation and sores that occur throughout the large intestine and bowel, and sometimes in the ileum. ◦ Diarrhea ◦ Intensified risk of cancer in the areas of inflammation. There is no treatment currently.
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