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Certain minerals have had more focus: Zinc- low levels are found in horses with hoof problems If feeding whole grains or forage only can be deficient Low.

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Presentation on theme: "Certain minerals have had more focus: Zinc- low levels are found in horses with hoof problems If feeding whole grains or forage only can be deficient Low."— Presentation transcript:

1 Certain minerals have had more focus: Zinc- low levels are found in horses with hoof problems If feeding whole grains or forage only can be deficient Low risk for toxicity so easy to supplement Watch your copper levels because it is linked to absorption of zinc so too much of one can interfere with absorption of the other. Feeding the Hoof

2 Biotin-a B-vitamin that improves hoof condition with ~20 mg/day Biotin only improves hoof horn growth, not existing hoof It takes a year for an entirely new hoof to grow Should see improvement after 6 months of supplementation Feeding the Hoof

3 Recommendations for Good Hoof Growth Use nutritionally balanced premium horse feed and feed at recommended rates Only use supplement for horses with poor hoof quality Feed supplement containing multiple nutrients (biotin, iodine, zinc, amino acids)

4 What The Coat is Saying… Coat quality relies on appropriate balances of protein, vitamins, minerals and fats. Normal growth of hair and skin use 25-30% of horse’s daily protein requirements Gastric ulcers, sand irritation, internal parasites can compromise absorption of nutrients

5 Feeding the Coat Protein must be added to hay or pasture only diet for horses with skin issues Poor hair growth and dull appearance reflect deficiencies in protein (amino acids)

6 Minerals- Zinc most important mineral for coat Zinc deficiencies can result in hair loss, cracked and thickened skin Vitamins- Vitamin A is most important for skin health- too much or too little leads to scruffy coat Vitamin E also important for coat Both must be obtained from dietary sources Feeding the Coat

7 Fats & Fatty Acids- Omega 3s and Omega 6s Grass great source of Omega 3s Dietary fat supplementation is proven to help absorb fat-soluble vitamins (A & E) which contribute to healthy haircoat Fatty acids coat hair-protective oily barrier gives coat shiny appearance Feeding the Coat


9 Behavior Issues Today’s equine stable management practices have contributed to many of the horse’s behavior problems Certain behaviors do not exist in wild, free roaming, grass fed horses Anxiety can induce behaviors such as cribbing, and weaving

10 Feeding for Better Behavior Behaviors that can be affected by nutrition include: Excitability Behaviors related to ulcers Anorexia Agression Sterotypic (continuous, repetitive, serves no purpose)

11 EXCITABILITY Research shows Higher Starch and Sugar content = Higher Excitability Higher fat in diet for energy will help Dietary fat has a calming effect Source of energy is usually the culprit High Fat includes feeds >6-10% fat

12 Southern States Feeds with High Fat & Low NSC Solution 6% Fat 20% NSC Legends Performance Pellet 10% Fat 12.9% NSC Legends Maturity 6% Fat 19 % NSC

13 Triple Crown Feeds High in Fat & Low In NSC Low Starch Pellet 6% Fat 13.5 % NSC Senior Textured 10% Fat 11.7 % NSC Complete Textured 10% Fat 20 % NSC Safe Starch Forage 6% Fat 8.7 % NSC

14 Behavioral Signs of Ulcers Altered eating behavior, not finishing meals Grinding of teeth (bruxism) Intermittent or recurrent colic signs Change in attitude or behavior Decreased performance and reduction in stride length Cribbing? Possible with grain feeding

15 Feeding Management to Reduce Ulcers Fat and fiber don’t ferment to lactic acid like starch and sugar Acid destroys lining of stomach and causes ulcer formation Select feed with digestive aids (yeast culture and probiotics) to maintain intestinal pH and digestive efficiency

16 Feeding to Reduce Ulcers Chewing increases amount of saliva to stomach, contains sodium bicarbonate (buffer that increases stomach pH) - feed adequate hay for saliva production, at least 1% of body weight daily Eliminate “grain-based” feeds and use “fiber-based” feeds that contain less starch and sugar and more added fat Feed as often as possible, smaller more frequent meals, to maintain higher stomach pH

17 Feed free choice hay- alfalfa if you can as it has calcium for buffer High fiber feeds with beet pulp also help, easier to digest As much turn out as possible Feeding Management to Reduce Ulcers

18 High Fiber Feeds >15% Fiber 18% Fiber15 % Fiber17% Fiber18% Fiber

19 ANOREXIA Some research to support theory that acidosis (too high acidity) in hind gut can cause anorexia in horses Usually a result of too much rich concentrate and not enough hay or pasture Hind gut designed to ferment fiber. When grain gets back there causes increase in acid Loss in weight difficult to regain If you need high energy- feed high fiber feed

20 AGRESSION Related to establishing dominance Must consider feeding management practices Adequate space for feeders Separate horses and give them time to eat in peace Provide enough hay (and piles) for every one

21 Abnormal-Sterotypic (continuous, repetitive, serves no purpose) Tail or Mane Chewing Weaving Wood Chewing Eating of Dirt or Feces Cribbing

22 Fiber Related Issues High fiber (lots of hay and/or pasture) reduces behaviors such as wood chewing, weaving, tail or mane eating Need to mimic nature as much as possible Reduce confinement or provide stall bound horses with GOOD hay

23 Mineral Deficiencies? Eating of Dirt or Feces has been shown to be related to a lack of certain minerals Lower copper and iron were found in horses with these behaviors Can be caused by boredom so rule that out first Blood levels by vet can check for these

24 Good sources for Vitamin and Mineral supplementation: Comes in bucket or block. No added protein Vitamin, Mineral and PROTEIN

25 CRIBBING Cribbing is an oral-stereotypy Can have genetic or environmental relationship Not seen in the wild Increases with low-fiber, high concentrate diet Irregular feeding schedule can increase frequency

26 Cribbing can sometimes be a way for horses to increase saliva production to buffer stomach acid so may be related to gastric ulcers

27 High Fiber Feeds >15% Fiber 18% Fiber15 % Fiber17% Fiber18% Fiber

28 Southern States Forage Products Hay Stretcher Bagged Forages Forage Cubes

29 Ingredients for Behavioral Problems in Horses

30 Calming Ingredients and Uses in Horses

31 TAKE AWAYS  Feed Good Forage  Don’t be afraid of protein  Feed well balanced, fortified feed in correct amount for weight & activity or supplement  Too much energy (kcal) causes health and behavior problems  Use you feed company nutritionist!! We are FREE help for your horse!

32 THANK YOU ! Laura Stopper, PAS (804) 814-1620 THE END!

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