What is it?? Usually a slow-growing, locally invasive malignant tumor of pleuripotent epithelial cells Arising from basal epidermis and hair follicles, hence affecting the pilosebaceous skin
Predisposing Factors Exposure to UVR Exposure to Arsenic compounds, coal tar, aromatic compounds, IR, Coal Tar Genetic Skin Cancers White skinned people Age 40-80 yrs
PATHOGENESIS No apparent precursor lesion Proportional to initial dose of carcinogen but not duration. Rarely metastise,Hard to culture,Resist transplantation Mesodermal factors acting as intrinsic promoters coupled with an initiation step
PROGNOSIS HIGH RISK > 2cm Eye, Nose, Ear Ill defined margins Recurrent ulcer LOW RISK
MANAGEMENT SURGICAL Excision Mohs Micrographic Surgery Two stage surgery NON SURGICAL Curettage Electrodessication Laser Vaporization No pathological specimen No confirmation of diagnosis Tumor margin not confirmed RADIOTHERAPY
Indications POORLY DEMARCATED RECURRENT INCOMPLETELY EXCISED AREA AROUND EYES NOSE EAR
PROCEDURE Performed under LOCAL ANESTHESIA Initial SAUCERISING EXCISION of primary tumors visible extent. Sample and the defect are then marked and oriented Map of specimen drawn & characterised using different colored stains in different equators.
Histotechnician receives tissue sample from the Mohs Surgeon. Sample is sectioned and stained with H&E Mohs surgeon examines slide for tumor residue and excises the relevant mapped parts.
What is it?? SCC is a malignant tumor of keratinising cells of the epidermis or its appendages. Arises from the stratum basale of the epidermis 2 nd most common skin tumor (4 times less than BCC & affects Elderly)
PREDISPOSING FACTORS WHITE SKINNED TWICE AS COMMON IN MEN SUN EXPOSURE CLOSER TO EQUATOR
Contd. chronic inflammation (chronic sinus tracts, pre-existing scars, osteomyelitis, burns, vaccination points) immunosuppression (organ-transplant recipients). When a SCC appears in a scar it is known as a Marjolin’s ulcer.
CLINICAL FEATURES History Age > 40 yrs Occupation -chimney sweepers Duration- one or few months (variable cap growth) Symptoms Nodule/ Ulcer Usually Painless Enlarged Lymph node ( unlike BCC)
LOCAL EXAMINATION Site Size and shape.- circular /oval EDGE: Raised & Everted FLOOR: Necrotic tissue, Serum, Blood. BASE: Indurated. MOBILITY: early cases can be moved later fixed Regional Lymph nodes enlarged due to 2ndry infectn Tenderness +
PROGNOSIS There are several independent prognostic variables for SCC: 1 Invasion: a Depth: the deeper the lesion, the worse the prognosis. For SCC 6 mm, 15% of SCCs will have metastasised ; b Surface size: lesions > 2 cm have a worse prognosis than smaller ones. 2 Histological grade: the higher the Broder’s grade, the worse the prognosis. 3 Site: SCCs on the lips and ears have higher local recurrence rates than lesions elsewhere, and tumours at the extremities fare worse than those on the trunk.
4 Aetiology: SCC that arises in burn scars, osteomyelitic skin sinuses, chronic ulcers and areas of skin that have been irradiated has a higher metastatic potential. 5 Immunosuppression: SCC will invade further in those with impaired immune response. 6 Prognosis: Tumours with perineural involvement have a worse prognosis and require a wider than usual clearance. The overall rate of metastasis is 2% for SCC – usually to regional nodes – with a local recurrence rate of 20%.
TNM STAGING T1=or<2cm T2 – 2-5cm T3- >5cm T4 -Muscle or bone invasion NODES N0 - N1- RLN METASTAES MO no mets M1- distant mets
investigations Incision biopsy Xray of affected part r/o bone inv Xray chest r/o mets (very rare event) Other inv for anaesthesia clearance
MANAGEMENT TREATMENT OF PRIMARY LESION Surgery Radiotherapy TREATMENT OF SECONDARY LYMPH NODEs Radical Block dissection Palliative Radiotherapy
SURGERY Wide excision is Treatment of choice after biopsy confirmation. Excision of growth performed with 2cm margin of normal tissue surrounding tumor. Tumor involving finger, toes, penis.. AMPUTATE!
Indications for Surgery Large sized lesions Involving muscle cartilage bone No radiotherapy facilities Recurrence after radiotherapy.
RADIOTHERAPY Superficial Radiotherapy has 80% cure of early lesions INDICATIONS poorly differentiated condition not amenable for surgery small growth no involvement of muscle bone cartilage