4 CYSTS Cyst is a fluid filled sac bound by a wall. Fluid is often clear, colorless or cholesterol crystals, or tooth paste like.True Cyst: lined with epithelial or endothelial cells.False Cyst: which are walled off fluid collection not by epitheliume.g. Pancreatic pseudocyst
6 CONGENITAL CYSTS Sequestration dermoid Tubuloembryonic Cysts of embryonic remnantsHydatid of MorgagniCysts of the urachusCyst of vitellointestinal ductCysts of wolffian ductBranchial CystThyroglossal Cyst
8 Sequestration dermoid: This is due to dermal cell being buried along to the lines of closure of embryonic clefts and sinuses by skin fusion.Lined by epidermis and containing paste like material.Sites midline of bodyouter canthusanterior triangle of mouth.
9 Tubuloembryonic cyst: in the track of ectodermal tube development.e.g: thyroglossal cyst, ependymal cyst.
10 Acquired cyst:Retention cyst:due to accumulation of secretion in gland behind an obstruction of a duct.e.g: sebaceous cyst, Pseudu pancreatic cyst, parotid gland cyst.
11 Distension cyst:occur in thyroid from dilatation of acni.cystic hygroma and lymphatic cyst.
14 Clinical Features Varies according to the site & size Pain → enlarging cysts,Pain → Secondary to haemorrhage, infection, rupture, torsionAcute abdominal emergency: torsion or rupture of ovarian cyst
15 Clinical FeaturesCompression symptoms resulting from compression of adjacent structuresHaemorrhage in thyroglossal cyst → increase in size → compress the tracheaLarge ovarian cyst → abd: fullness & reduced appetite resulting from raises I/abd: pressureObstruction to pelvic veins → varicose veins of lower limbs
24 ULCER An ulcer is a break in the continuity of an epithelial surface. Characterized by progressive destruction of the surface epithelium and a granulating base which may clean, healthy or containing necrotic slough
28 Marjolin’s ulcerMalignant change occurring in any long standing benign ulcer irrespective of its cause.Change usually occurs at the edge of a chronic ulcer
29 Management Treatment of cause Accurate assessment of the ulcer Identify & correct the co - morbid factorsAdequate drainage & desloughingAntiseptics and topical antibioticsWound dressingsHydrogelAlginatesLyofoamTegadermAlleyvn
34 SINUSESA sinus is a blind tract usually lined with granulation tissue that leads from an epithelial surface into the surrounding tissue.e.g. pilonidal sinus
35 FISTULAIt is a communicating track between two epithelial surfaces, commonly between a hollow viscus and the skin ( external fistula) or between two hollow viscera ( internal fistula)The track is lined with granulation tissue which is subsequently epithelialzed