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Nutrition and Wound Healing. Handouts you should have… Outline for taking notes Braden Scale Diagram of pressure points “Cascade of wound healing events”

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrition and Wound Healing. Handouts you should have… Outline for taking notes Braden Scale Diagram of pressure points “Cascade of wound healing events”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrition and Wound Healing

2 Handouts you should have… Outline for taking notes Braden Scale Diagram of pressure points “Cascade of wound healing events” RDA vs. Needs in the wounded patient Nutritional assessment algorithm Bibliography/references

3 Outline Introduction What are wounds? Mechanisms of healing Nutritional therapy in the wounded patient Q & A

4 Introduction Most wounds, surgical or otherwise, WILL HEAL –A non-healing wound places the pt at increased risk of death Malnourished patients have a higher risk of wound-related problems –But obesity is more of a risk than malnutrition! Wounds heal at a molecular level

5 What are wounds? A wound is tissue destruction that triggers an inflammatory response geared towards restoration of skin integrity The difference between a chronic and an acute wound is that chronic wounds have a constant source of infliction that needs to be removed in order for the wound to heal.

6 What are wounds? Acute wounds –Scrapes and lacerations –Surgical wounds, intact or dehisced –burns

7 Surgical wound, dehisced

8 What are wounds? Chronic wounds –Decubitus ulcers/pressure ulcers –Diabetic foot ulcers –Venous stasis wounds –Arterial stasis wounds

9 Diabetic foot ulcers Peripheral neuropathy “The princess and the pea” syndrome Uncontrolled blood sugars Typically on the planter surface of the food Number one cause of amputations in diabetics

10 Diabetic foot ulcers

11 Venous and arterial stasis wounds Think back to normal leg vascularization The calf-pump mechanism fails because of –Obstruction (DVT or extraluminal masses) –Regurgitation (valve weakness) –Venous incompetence (proximal DVT) –Vein weakness (primary varicose vein syndrome) –Muscle failure (ankle trauma or surgical fusion)

12 Pressure Ulcers Pressure ulcers occur when capillary blood flow is cut off from the tissue They occur from the inside to the outside Primary causes of pressure ulcers –Pressure –Friction –Shear

13 Pressure ulcer areas  Coccyx  Scapula  Greater trocanter  Occitiput  Elbows  Heals  knees

14 Staging of Pressure Ulcers Stage I: redness and warmth Stage II: shallow ulcer with distinct edges Stage III: full-thickness loss of skin Stage IV: involvement of fascia, connective tissue, muscle and bone Stage V: area covered with black eschar (aka scab)

15 Stage I

16 Stage II

17 Stage III

18 Stage IV

19 Stages and Characteristics Inflammation –Within the 1 st 72 hours after wound formation –Vascular dilitation –Leukocyte and macrophage migration –Clot formation

20 Stages and Characteristics Fibroplasia –Occurs 2 weeks after inflammation stage –Collagen fibrils and ground substance producing matrix for the new connective tissue is formed –Vitamins A and C and protein are required for collagen formation

21 Stages and Characteristics Contraction –Edges of the wound are drawn together –Degree of contraction is directly related to elasticity of the underlying tissue –80% of all acute wounds will heal by contraction alone

22 Stages and Characteristics Epithelialization –Epithelial cell migration across surface of the wound –Requirements for migration include tissue oxygenation, moisture, nutrition, temperature, and lack of infection –Aka “healing by secondary intention”

23 Stages and Characteristics Maturation –Continuous remodeling and organization of collagen –Nutritional deficiencies may produce degeneration and weakening of the collagen network

24 Objectives of Nutrition Tx Restore nutrient intake, correcting CPM Monitor Branden Scale Scores Heal the ulcer and prevent further breakdown Improve infection, fever, diarrhea, and vomiting Assess intake using calorie counts Maintain skin integrity once healed Support immune system

25 Assessment of the wound patient Profile –Height, weight, weight changes, IBW –Stage of ulcer(s) –Braden scale –Meds –BUN/Cr, H/H, TP, Alb/prealbumin, N balance, Glue, TLC, Serum Zn and B12 –Appetite, usual intake, current intake –Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, general bowel fct –Estimated intake from TEN or TPN –Meds

26 Dietary Recommendations Provide a high protein diet Provide kcal at ~25-35 kcal/kg CURRENT weight Tube feed or parentally feed if necessary Small frequent feedings if intake is poor Supplement with MVI, Vit A, Vit C, thiamin, and zinc

27 Specific nutrient effects Protein- tensile strength Vitamin C- collagen formation Copper- cross linking of collagen fibers * Iron- immune function Arginine- collagen precursor, stimulates insulin and GH secretion, enhances collagen accumulation

28 Specific nutrient effects Vitamin A- antioxidant, counteracts steroids Vitamin C- increases collagen synthesis Zinc- immune function, increases healing only if there’s a deficiency in the first place Vitamin E- clinical relevance not yet established B Vitamins- collagen production and cross linking Omega-3 fatty acids- cause weaker wounds by interfering with spatial orientation of fiber

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