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Management of Acute Bleeding from a Peptic Ulcer N Engl J Med 2008;359:928-37.

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Presentation on theme: "Management of Acute Bleeding from a Peptic Ulcer N Engl J Med 2008;359:928-37."— Presentation transcript:

1 Management of Acute Bleeding from a Peptic Ulcer N Engl J Med 2008;359:928-37

2 Epidemiology   The vast majority of acute episodes of UGI bleeding (80 to 90%) have nonvariceal causes, with peptic ulcer accounting for the majority of lesions.   The annual incidence of bleeding from a peptic ulcer may be decreasing worldwide ( the incidence is 60 per 100,000 population) – –an increasing proportion of episodes related to the use of aspirin and NSAID   Peptic ulcer bleeding is seen predominantly among the elderly – –68% > 60Y/O and 27% >80Y/O   Mortality associated with peptic ulcer bleeding remains high at 5 to 10%

3 Management of Acute Bleeding from a Peptic Ulcer, According to Clinical Status and Endoscopic Findings

4 The first priority in treatment is correcting fluid losses and restoring hemodynamic stability.

5 Initial Management   Assess hemodynamic status – –Tachycardia (pulse, ≥100 beats per minute) – –Hypotension (systolic blood pressure, <100 mm Hg), – –postural changes (an increase in the pulse of ≥20 beats per minute or a drop in systolic blood pressure of ≥20 mm Hg on standing) – –Mucous membranes, neck veins, urine output   Obtain CBC, electrolytes, BUN/Cr, PT INR/ APTT, blood type, and cross- match

6 Initial Management   Initiate resuscitation with crystalloid intravenous fluids with the use of large-bore IV-access catheters – –two peripheral catheters of 16 to 18 gauge – –a central catheter if peripheral access is not available   PRBC – –If tachycardia or hypotension is present – –If the hemoglobin level is less than 10 g per deciliter.   Oxygen   correction of coagulopathy

7 The insertion of a NG tube   The presence of red blood in the NG aspirate is an adverse prognostic sign   15% of patients without bloody or coffee- ground material in NG aspirates are found to have high-risk lesions on endoscopy   The use of a large-bore OG tube with gastric lavage – –improve visualization of the gastric fundus on endoscopy – –not improve the outcome.   No role for occult-blood testing of aspirate

8 Initial Management   Consider giving a single 250-mg IV dose of erythromycin 30 to 60 minutes before endoscopy – –promote gastric motility and substantially improve visualization of the gastric mucosa on initial endoscopy. – –not improve the diagnostic yield of endoscopy substantially or to improve the outcome   Consider initiating treatment with an IV PPI (80-mg bolus dose plus continuous infusion at 8 mg/hr) while awaiting early endoscopy – –down-staging of endoscopic lesions – –not have an effect on outcomes – –The cost- effectiveness remains controversial   No role for H2 blocker

9 Risk-Stratification Tools for Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Blatchford scores from 0 to 23, with higher scores indicating higher risk The Rockall score : -Used clinical and endoscopic criteria -The scale ranges from 0 to 11 points, with higher scores indicating higher risk.

10 Early endoscopy   The cornerstone of treatment   performed within 24 hours   Improve certain outcomes – –the number of units of blood transfused – –the length of the hospital stay   Determine the cause of bleeding, ascertain prognosis, and administer endoscopic therapy.   Treatment recommendations have focused on the first 72 hours after presentation and endoscopic evaluation and therapy, since this is the period when the risk of rebleeding is greatest (90 %)

11 Forrest grade IAForrest grade IB Forrest classification Forrest grade IIA

12 High-risk — Forrest grade IA, IB, or IIA   Perform endoscopic hemostasis – –contact thermal therapy – –mechanical therapy ( hemoclips ) – –epinephrine injection, followed by contact thermal therapy or by injection of a second injectable agent.   Epinephrine injection as definitive hemostasis therapy is not recommended   The endoscopist should use the most familiar hemostasis technique

13 High-risk — Forrest grade IA, IB, or IIA   Admit the patient to a monitored bed or ICU setting(for the first 24 hours of what is usually at least a 3-day hospital stay)   Treat with an IV PPI (80-mg bolus dose plus continuous infusion at 8 mg per hour) for 72 hours after endoscopic hemostasis   No role for H2 blocker, somatostatin, or octreotide.   Initiate oral intake of clear liquids 6 hours after endoscopy in patients with hemodynamic stability   Transition to oral PPI after completion of IV therapy.   Perform testing for Helicobacter pylori; initiate treatment if the result is positive.

14 Effect of Proton-Pump Inhibition in Peptic-Ulcer Bleeding

15  Gastric acid impairs clot formation, promotes platelet disaggregation, and favors fibrinolysis  Inhibiting gastric acid and raising the intragastric pH to 6 or more and maintaining it at that level may promote clot stability, thus decreasing the likelihood of rebleeding.  Although data from clinical trials support the use of a bolus followed by a continuous infusion of proton-pump inhibitors, recent studies from North America show that even a high-dose, continuous infusion of proton- pump inhibitors may not sustain an intragastric pH of 6 or more.  The reduction in mortality appears to occur only among patients with high- risk stigmata who have first undergone endoscopic therapy, a finding that supports the use of medical therapy as an adjunct to but not a replacement for endoscopic hemostasis..  Intravenous bolus loading followed by continuous infusion of proton-pump inhibitors is more effective than bolus dosing alone in decreasing the rates of rebleeding and the need for surgery

16 High-dose oral PPI   The use of high-dose oral PPI in peptic- ulcer bleeding has been shown in Asian populations reductions – –the risk of rebleeding – –the need for surgery – –the risk of death   These results may not be completely generalizable to North American or European populations

17 Second-look endoscopy   Planned, second-look endoscopy that is performed within 24 hours after initial endoscopic therapy has not been recommended.   It provided only a limited reduction in the rate of rebleeding. (Two meta-analyses)   It may not be cost-effective when medical therapy leading to profound acid suppression is used.   Repeat endoscopy may be considered on a case-by- case – –if there are clinical signs of recurrent bleeding – –if there is uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of hemostasis during the initial treatment.

18 Forrest grade IIB Forrest classification

19 High-risk — Forrest grade IIB   Consider endoscopic removal of adherent clot, followed by endoscopic hemostasis if underlying active bleeding or nonbleeding visible vessel is present.   Admit the patient to a monitored bed or ICU setting.   Treat with IV PPI (80-mg bolus dose plus continuous infusion at 8 mg per hour) for 72 hours after endoscopy, regardless of whether endoscopic hemostasis was performed   No role for H2 blocker, somatostatin, or octreotide   Initiate oral intake of clear liquids 6 hours after endoscopy in patients with hemodynamic stability   Transition to an oral PPI after completion of IV therapy.   Perform testing for H. pylori; initiate treatment if the result is positive.

20 Forrest grade IICForrest grade III Forrest classification

21 Low-risk — Forrest grade IIC or III   Do not perform endoscopic hemostasis.   Consider early hospital discharge after endoscopy if the patient has an otherwise low clinical risk and safe home environment.   Treat with an oral PPI.   Initiate oral intake with a regular diet 6 hours after endoscopy in patients with hemodynamic stability.   Perform testing for H. pylori; initiate treatment if the result is positive.

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23 Predictors of failure of endoscopic treatment   History of peptic ulcer disease   Previous ulcer bleeding   The presence of shock at presentation   Active bleeding during endoscopy   Large ulcers (>2 cm in diameter)   Large bleeding vessel (≥2 mm in diameter)   Ulcers located on the lesser curve of the stomach or on the posterior or superior duodenal bulb

24 After endoscopy   If there is clinical evidence of ulcer rebleeding, repeat endoscopy with an attempt at endoscopic hemostasis,obtain surgical or interventional radiologic consultation for selected patients.   For selected patients, discuss the need for ongoing use of NSAIDs, antiplatelet agents, and concomitant therapy with a gastroprotective agent.

25 Thanks a lot!


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