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Treatment of Peptic Ulcer Dr.S.Manikandan Department of Pharmacology Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER) Pondicherry.

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Presentation on theme: "Treatment of Peptic Ulcer Dr.S.Manikandan Department of Pharmacology Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER) Pondicherry."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Treatment of Peptic Ulcer Dr.S.Manikandan Department of Pharmacology Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER) Pondicherry. INDIA.

3 Proglumide ACh PGE 2 Histamine Gastrin Adenyl cyclase _ + ATPcAMP Protein Kinase (Activated) Ca ++ + Proton pump K K+K+ H+H+ Gastric acid Parietal cell Lumen of stomach Antacid Omeprazole Ranitidine H2H2 M3M3 Misoprostol _ _ _ _ + PGE receptor + + Gastrin receptor + + +

4 Antacids  Weak bases that neutralise acid  Also inhibit formation of pepsin (As pepsinogen converted to pepsin at acidic pH)  Present day antacids : Aluminium Hydroxide Magnesium Hydroxide  Not part of Physician prescribed regimen  OTC drug for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia

5 Antacids – cont… Duration of action :  30 min when taken in empty stomach  2 hrs when taken after a meal Side effects :  Al 3+ antacids – constipation ( As they relax gastric smooth muscle & delay gastric emptying )  Mg 2+ antacids – Osmotic diarrhoea.  In renal failure Al 3+ antacid – Aluminium toxicity & Encephalopathy

6 Antacids – Common additives  Simethicone – Decrease surface tension,thereby reduce bubble formation Added to prevent reflux.  Alginates - Form a layer of foam on top of gastric contents & reduce reflux  Oxethazaine – Surface anaesthetic

7 Antacid - Interactions  Adsorb drugs and form insoluble complexes that are not absorbed. Clinical importance : Interactions can be avoided by taking antacids 2 hrs before or after ingestion of other drugs.

8 Now answer this question  Is it rational to combine aluminium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide in antacid preparations ?

9 Answer  Combination provides a relatively fast and sustained neutralising capacity. (Magnesium Hydroxide – Rapidly acting Aluminium Hydroxide - Slowly acting )  Combination preserves normal bowel function. (Aluminium Hydroxide – constipation Magnesium hydroxide – diarrhoea )

10 Histamine H 2 Receptor Antagonist  Reversible competitive inhibitors of H 2 receptor  Highly selective, No action on H 1 or H 3 receptors  Very effective in inhibiting nocturnal acid secretion ( as it depends largely on Histamine )  Modest impact on meal stimulated acid secretion (As it depends on gastrin, acetyl choline and histamine)

11 Cimetidine Ranitidine Famotidine Nizatidine Bioavailability >90 Relative Potency Half life (hrs) Duration of action (hrs) Inhibition of CYP 450 Dose mg(bd)

12 H 2 Blockers–Side effects & Interactions  Extremely safe drugs  Cimetidine causes gynecomastia, galactorrhea ( as it is antiandrogenic & increases orolactin level )  Cimetidine inhibits CYP450 & increases conc. of Warfarin, Theophylline, Phenytoin, Ethanol.

13 Now answer this question  Your friend wants to take a H 2 antagonist before he takes alcohol to avoid gastric irritation.He consults you.Which H 2 antagonist will you ask him to take ?

14  Answer : Famotidine  Explanation : All H 2 antagonist except famotidine inhibit gastric first pass metabolism of ethanol and increase its bioavailability.

15 Proton Pump Inhibitors  Most effective drugs in antiulcer therapy  Irreversible inhibitor of H + K + ATPase  Prodrugs requiring activation in acid environment  Weakly basic drugs & so accumulate in canaliculi of parietal cell  Activated in canaliculi & binds covalently to extracellular domain of H + K + ATPase  Acid secretion resumes only after synthesis of new molecules

16 Proton Pump Inhibitors Omeprazole 20 mg o.d. Esomeprazole mg o.d. Lansoprazole 30 mg o.d. Pantoprazole 40 mg o.d. Rabeprazole 20 mg o.d.

17 Poton Pump Inhibitors – Kinetics  Given as enteric coated granules in capsule or enteric coated tablets  Pantoprazole also given intravenously  Half life – 1.5 hrs  Since it requires acid for activation - given 1 hr before meals Other acid suppressing agents not coadministered

18 Now answer this question  It is given in the previous slides that the half life of proton pump inhibitors is 1.5 hours only and these drugs are generally given once daily. How this can be justified ?  Answer : P.P.I - Irreversible inhibitors of H + K + ATPase (Hit and run drugs)

19 P.P.I. – Side effects & Interactions  Extremely safe drugs  Causes hypergastrinemia which leads to carcinod tumor in rats  But no evidence of such tumors in man  Inhibit CYP 450 & hence metabolsim of warfarin, phenytoin, etc  Pantoprazole & Rabeprazole have no significant interactions

20 Now Answer this Question A patient comes to your clinic at midnight complaining of heart burn. You want to relieve his pain immediately. What drug will you choose?

21 Answer : Antacids Explanation : Antacids neutralise the already secreted acid in the stomach. All other drugs act by stopping acid secretion and so may not relieve symptoms atleast for 45 min.

22 Mucosal Protective Agents

23  Sucralfate  Misoprostol  Colloidal Bismuth compounds

24 Sucralfate  Salt of sucrose complexed to sulfated aluminium hydroxide  In acidic pH polymerises to viscous gel that adheres to ulcer crater  Taken on empty stomach 1 hr. before meals  Concurrent antacids, H 2 antagonist avoided ( as it needs acid for activation )

25 Misoprostol  PGE 1 analogue  Modest acid inhibition  Stimulate mucus & bicarbonate secretion  Enhance mucusal blood flow  Approved for prevention of NSAID induced ulcer  Diarrhoea & cramping abd. pain – 20 %  Not so popular as P.P.I are more effective & better tolerated

26 Colloidal Bismuth Compounds  Coats ulcer, stimulates mucus & bicarbonate secretion  Direct antimicrobial activity against H.pylori  May cause blackening of stools & tongue  Not used for long periods – bismuth toxicity Available compounds :  Bismuth subsalicylate – in USA  Bismuth sobcitrate – in Europe  Bismuth dinitrate

27 Now answer this question  A pregnant lady (first trimester) comes to you with peptic ulcer disease. Which drug will you prescribe for her ?

28  Answer : Antacids or Sucralfate  Explanation ; H 2 antagonists cross placenta and are also secreted in breast milk. Safety of Proton pump inhibitors not established in pregnancy. Misoprostol causes abortion.

29 Can you identify these people ? Nobel prize Medicine – 2005 Barry J MarshallJ. Robin Warren Discovery of H.pylori & its role in ulcer

30 Eradication of H.pylori

31 Triple Therapy  The BEST among all the Triple therapy regimen is Omeprazole / Lansoprazole - 20 / 30 mg bd Clarithromycin mg bd Amoxycillin / Metronidazole - 1gm / 500 mg bd  Given for 14 days followed by P.P.I for 4 – 6 weeks  Short regimens for 7 – 10 days not very effective

32 Triple Therapy – cont …  Bismuth subsalicylate – 2 tab qid Metronidazole mg qid Tetracycline mg qid Some other Triple Therapy Regimens are  Ranitidine Bismuth citrate mg bd Tetracycline mg bd Clarithromycin / Metronidazole mg bd

33 Quadruple Therapy  Given when Triple Therapy fails  Omeprazole / Lansoprazole - 20 / 30 mg bd Bismuth subsalycilate - 2 tabs qid Metronidazole mg qid Tetracycline mg qid

34 Now you have learnt about drugs used for treating peptic ulcer ? Are there any drugs that can cause peptic ulcer ? Drugs causing peptic ulcer  Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)  Glucocorticoids  Cytotoxic agents

35  Stress induced ulceration after head trauma Cushing’s ulcer  Stress induced ulceration after severe burns Curling’s ulcer

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