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Development of a Portable Fluorescence Bacterial Detector Texas A&M- Commerce.

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Presentation on theme: "Development of a Portable Fluorescence Bacterial Detector Texas A&M- Commerce."— Presentation transcript:

1 Development of a Portable Fluorescence Bacterial Detector Texas A&M- Commerce

2 People Team Members – David Andrew Jacob – Will Negrete – Jeff E. Landry – Holly Pryor Faculty Advisor – Dr. Frank Miskevich

3 Why is monitoring important to people both on earth and in space? on earth and in space?

4 Introduction Microorganisms can be found almost anywhere on earth. There are more microorganisms living in and on a human than the sum of the cells that make up that human. Some are dangerous to humans, others are benign.

5 Introduction Bacteria are a major contributor to human disease Fast generation time (exponential growth) Can spread quickly in compact populations as seen in space stations and space craft

6 Necessity of Monitoring Bacteria Causes – Allergy – Food Spoilage / Poisoning – Material Degradation – Infectious Disease Tuberculosis Dysentery Pneumonia Cholera Plague Tetanus

7 Monitoring Critical in Space Air and Water Recycled Limited Personal Hygiene Infectious Disease spreads quickly in close living quarters Difficult to isolate sick individual from crew Despite our best efforts microbes still inhabit the space station Fungus Growing on Wall of ISS

8 Detection Methods Culture Dependent – Plate Counting – Cytosensor (ΔpH) Culture Independent – Turbidimetry – ATP Bioluminesence – Quantitative PCR – Solid Phase Cytometry – Flow Cytometry* * Used to validate results.

9 What is Our Method & How Does it Work

10 Our Method Culture Independent Bacteria marked with a non-toxic, fluorescent DNA binding dye (Hoechst 33258) Each fluorescing bacteria is counted to give X bacterial fluorescent units (BFUs) Bacterial Fluorescent Units Test photo from microscope. Note: artifacts are not bacteria, nor should “cloudy” areas exist.

11 Our Method Counts both dead and alive bacteria Does not require prior knowledge of organism to be cultured to quantify Estimated that only 1% of present bacteria grow in culture dependent bacteria (La Duc, 2003) Bacterial Fluorescent Units

12 Proof of Concept Work done by Joseph Harvey, M.S. BFU results generated from our method correlates (P=0.8051) to flow cytometer results Flow Cytometer results pictured above. Shows both dead and alive bacteria.

13 Sample Preparation

14 Escherichia coli suspensions used to test device – Gram-negative rod, Non-sporulating – 2 μm long X 0.5 μm in diameter – Cell volume = ~0.6 - 0.7 μm 3 – Very common flora in human GI tract

15 Sample Preparation Hoechst 33258 is added to liquid bacteria sample at 1 micro liter per milliliter sample Liquid sample is then drawn up into syringe Sample is pass through 0.2 micron filter Filter is put into sample holder and photographed

16 Sample Holder Polycarbonate Filter Sandwiched between parts B and C (Above & Right) Parts A and D attached to stepper motor. Allows parts B & C to be held in front of the camera assembly

17 The Detector & previous work

18 The Detector

19 Detector Overview 1. Digital Camera 2. Infinitube 3. UV LED 4. Bandpass filter 5. Microscope objective lens 6. Stepper motor 7. Laptop 8. 19.2 VDC Power supply 9. Motor driver 10. Laptop Interface 11. Dichroic mirror

20 Filters Dichroic lens reflects 350nm light and allows 450nm sample emission to pass through 450nm bandpass filter selects for light very close to the 450nm spectrum “cleans up” picture seen by camera by reducing noise

21 Integration of Parts Stepper motor and UV LED activation coordinated by programmable step motor controller Relay Used to allow 5 VDC TTL activation of UV LED Single USB hook up to laptop controller Note Addition on Solenoid and controller board; Triggered from PSMC

22 Software Stepper motor controller program Nikon D80 camera software IMAGEJ Counting Macro Major Problem Solved: Computer Science Graduate Student Joining Team Next Semester

23 IMAGEJ Free software by National Institute of Health (NIH) Raw Images sharpened Delineates boundaries positive for bacteria and background Counting macro used to count bacteria Clusters of bacteria counted based on area and individual number of bacteria estimated bacterial image selected areas

24 The Detector Current Work: Integrate camera trigger and stepper controller Integrate camera trigger and stepper controller Increase UV light intensity Increase UV light intensity Increase structural integrity & refinement of device Increase structural integrity & refinement of device

25 Increase UV Intensity Light generated by UV LED(s). Reflected off dichroic lens towards sample or generated by “ring of LEDs” near sample. Ring of LEDs added to increase light intensity. Single LED source from microscope tube proved to be inadequate. Both sources are going to be used in future. Activated on same circuit as original LED.

26 Increase UV Intensity Five UV LEDs in series for ~19.2V draw from battery. LEDs will be focused so that their beams converge on the same point within the focal plane of the camera.

27 Camera Trigger Trigger activated via stepper motor controller

28 Camera Trigger Force limited by solenoid controller board so as not to damage trigger Operated off 19.2VDC battery activated by 5VDC TTL signal

29 Strengthening of Device Structure Must be rigid otherwise focus changes are possible. Focal length isvery small. “L” brackets added.

30 Strengthening of Device Structure Motor shim added to assist in maintaining coplanar focus. Critical to function and ability of get clear, uniformly focused pictures.

31 Future Work

32 Integrate all software (camera controller, motor / LED controller, IMAGEJ and counting macro) into one easy to use package that can be loaded onto the detectors memory stick and allow USB “Plug & Play” compatibility Integrate all software (camera controller, motor / LED controller, IMAGEJ and counting macro) into one easy to use package that can be loaded onto the detectors memory stick and allow USB “Plug & Play” compatibility Graduate computer science student Recruited to assist with integration of Software components into single, user-friendly package.

33 White Blood Cell Counts Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells) are anucleated. White blood cells have nuclear material. Left: Electron micrograph of RBC Above: stained in purple, WBC (neutrophil)

34 Our dye (Hoechst 33258) stains only DNA. Therefore, we can select preferentially for WBC and utilize the same process to estimate number of WBCs present in a given volume on blood. White Blood Cell Counts

35 Method of operation very similar. Method of operation very similar. Given a specific volume of blood our detector can generate WBCs per volume data. Given a specific volume of blood our detector can generate WBCs per volume data. White blood cell counts good marker for immune function and disease states. White blood cell counts good marker for immune function and disease states. White Blood Cell Counts

36 References Harvey, Joseph E. "The development and implementation of a portable fluorescence bacterial detector." Thesis. Miskevich, Frank, and Matthew Elam. Life at the Edge: Biology Beyond the Earth. Biology / Industrial Engineering, Texas A&M- Commerce. Bruce, Rebekah. Microbial Surveillance During Long-Duration Spaceflight. Bioastronautics Technology Forum. URL: http://advtech.jsc.nasa.gov/btf05.htm 2005 http://advtech.jsc.nasa.gov/btf05.htm 2005 Rasband, Wayne. Introduction to ImageJ. ImageJ website. 2008. http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/docs/intro.htmlhttp://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/docs/intro.html Obuchowska, Agnes. Quantitation of bacteria through adsorption of intracellular biomolecules on carbon paste and screen-printed carbon electrodes and volammetry of redox-active probes. Ana Bioanal Chem. 2008. Ortmanis, A., Patterson W.I., Neufeld, R.J. Evaluation of a new turbidimeter design incorporating a microprocessor-controlled variable pathlength cuvette. Enzyme Microb. Technol., vol. 13, June, 1991. Heid, C. A., J. Stevens, K. J. Livak, and P. M. Williams. Real time quantitative PCR. Genome Res. 6:986-994. 1996. Lyons, Sharon, et al. Quantitative real-time PCR for Porphyromonas gingivalis and total bacteria. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, June, Vol. 38, p.2362-2365. 2000. Cools, I. et al. Solid phase cytometry as a tool to detect viable but non-culturable cells of Campylobacter jejuni. Journal of Microbiological Methods. Vol. 63. Issue 2. p. 107-114. 2005. Bach, HJ. et al. Enumeration of total bacteria and bacteria with genes for proteolytic activity in pure cultures and in environmental samples by quantitative PCR mediated amplification. Journal of Microbial Methods. 49:235-245. 2002. Li, C.S. et al. Fluorochrome and flow cytometry to monitor microorganisms in treated hospital water. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazad Subst Environ Eng. Feb;42(2):195-203. 2007. Davey, H.M., Kell, D. B. Flow cytometry and cell sorting of heterogeneous microbial populations: the importance of single-cell analyses. Microbiological Reviews. Dec. p.641-696. 1996. Alsharif, Rana. Godfrey, William. Bacterial Detection and Live/Dead Discrimination by Flow Cytometry. BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA, 2002. La Duc, MT, Nicholson, WL, Kern, R, Venkateswaran, K Microbial characterization of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft and its encapsulation facility. Environmental Microbiology. 2003.

37 Questions


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