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Chen, T.; Barton, S.; Binyamin, G.; Gao, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Kim, H.-H.; Heller, A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 8630-8631. Miniature Biofuel Cells.

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Presentation on theme: "Chen, T.; Barton, S.; Binyamin, G.; Gao, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Kim, H.-H.; Heller, A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 8630-8631. Miniature Biofuel Cells."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Chen, T.; Barton, S.; Binyamin, G.; Gao, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Kim, H.-H.; Heller, A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, Miniature Biofuel Cells

4 Microbial Fuel Cells Bond, D. R.; Holmes, D. E.; Tender, L. M.; Lovley, D. R. Science 2002, 295, Reimers, C. E.; Tender, L. M.; Fertig, S.; Wang, W. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2001,35, Park, D. H.; Zeikus, J. G. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2000, 66,

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7 Cellulase (1) Improve catalytic activity (2) Eliminate feedback inhibition Cellulose Synthase Temperature-sensitive rsw1 rsw2 alleles produce noncrystalline, soluble cellulose in Arabidopsis. Lane, D. R.; Wiedemieier, A.; Peng, L.; Hofte, H.; Vernhettes, S.; Desprez, T.; Hocart, C. H.; Birch, R. J.; Baskin, T. I.; Burn, J. E.; Arioli, T.; Betzner, A. S.; Williamson, R. E. Plant Physiol. 2001, 126, Arioli, T.; Peng, L.; Betzner, A. s.; Burn, J.; Wittke, W.; Herth, W. Camilleri, C.; Hofte, H.; Plazinski, J.; Birch, R.; Cook, A.; Glover, J.; Redmond, J.; Williamson, R. E. Science 1998, 279,

8 Approximately 80% of the backbone xylose residues are substituted by side chains. Ferulic acid is attached to arabinose side chains. Dimerization of the ferulic acids contributes to the cross-linking. Saulnier, L.; Thibault, J.-F. J. Sci. Food Agric. 1999, 79, Zaldivar, J.; Ingram, L. O. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 1999, 66,

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10 Ingram, L. O.; Conway, T.; Flavio, A. U.S. Patent , Zhang, M.; Eddy, C.; Deanda, K.; Finkelstein, F.; Picataggio, S. Science 1995, 267, Walfridsson, M.; Hallborn, J.; Penttila, M.; Keranen, S.; Hahn-Hagerdahl, B. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1995, Ho, N.W.Y.; Chen, Z.; Brainard, A. P. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1998, 64,

11 Bio Hydrogen Benemann, J. Nature Biotechnol. 1996, 14, Light Reactions

12 Bio Hydrogen Dark Reaction Van Ginkel, S.; Sung, S.; Lay, J.-J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2001, 35, Woodward, J.; Orr, M.; Cordray, K.; Greenbaum Nature 2000, 405, Adams, M. W. W.; Stiefel, E. I. Science 1998, 282,

13 Bio Diesel Murray, S. Wall Str. J (May 9), CCXXIX (91), A4.

14 CH 4 Ferry, J. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 1999, 23,

15 Reactions: Reduction Huber, C.; Skopan, H.; Feicht, R.; White, H.; Simon, H. Arch. Microbiol. 1995, 164, 110. Simon, S.; White, H.; Lebertz, H.; Thanos, I. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1987, 26, 785. White, H.; Strobl, G.; Feicht, R.; Simon, H. Eur. J. Biochem. 1989, 184, 89. White, H.; Feicht, R.; Huber, C.; Lottspeich, F.; Simon, H. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 1991, 372, 999. Johnson, M. K.; Rees, D.C.; Adams, M.W.W. Chem. Rev. 1996, 96, Kletzin, A.; Adams, M. W. W. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 1996, 18, 5. Adams, M. W. W.; Kletzin, A. Adv. Prot. Chem. 1996, 48, 101. Fraisse, L.; Simon, H. Arch. Microbiol. 1988, 150, 381. Huber, C.; Caldeira, J.; Jongejan, J. A.; Simon, H. Arch. Microbiol. 1994, 162, 303. van den Ban, E. C. D.; Willemen, H. M.; Wassink, H.; Laane, C.; Haaker, H. Enz. Microb. Technol. 1999, 25, 251.

16 Reactions: Oxidation Merkx, M.; Kopp, D. A.; Sazinsky, M. H.; Blazyk, J. L.; Muller, J.; Lippard, S. J. Ang. Chem. Int. Ed. 2001, 40,

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18 CO 2 Fixation ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylas/oxygenase Can Rubisco be improved? Stemmer, W. P.; Subramanian, V.; Selifonov, S. WO 00/2808, 2000.

19 CO 2 Fixation phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase pyruvate carboxylase Peters-Wendisch, P. G.; Schiel, B.; Wendisch, V. F.; Katsoulidis, E.; Mockel, B.; Sahm, H.; Eikmanns, B. J. J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2001, 3, Vemuri, G. N.; Eiteman, M. A.; Altman, E. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2002, 68,

20 CO 2 Immobilization PLA Gruber, P. R. In Carbon Management: Implications for R&D in the Chemical Sciences and Technology; National Academy Press: Washington, 2001, Chap 11, p Kharas, G. B.; Sanchez-Riera, F.; Severson, D. K. in Plastics from Microbes; Mobley, D. P., Ed.; Hanser: New York, 1994, Chap 4, p

21 CO 2 Immobilization BioNylon 6

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24 Skraly, F. A.; Lytle, B. L.; Cameron, D. C. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1998, 64, Niu, W.; Draths, K. M.; Frost, J. W. Biotechnol. Prog. 2002, 18, Gibson, J. M.; Thomas, P. S.; Thomas, J. D.; Barker, J. L.; Chandran, S. S.; Harrup, M. K.; Draths, K. M.; Frost, J. W. Ang. Chemie Int. Ed. 2001, 40, Amaratunga, M.; Lobos, J. H.; Johnson, B. F.; Williams, E. D. U. S. Patent , 2000.

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26 Yield and Titer

27 Patnaik, R.; Liao, J. C. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1994, 60, Snoep, J. L.; Arfman, N.; Yomano, L. P.; Fliege, R. K.; Conway, T.; Ingram, L. O. J. Bacteriol. 1994, 176, 2133.

28 Yield and Titer Product Toxicity Product Export “A New Type of Transporter with a New Type of Cellular Function: L-Lysine Export from Corynebacterium glutamicum” Vrljic, M.; Sahm, H.; Eggeling, L. Molecular Microbiol. 1996, 22, 815. “Unbalance of L-Lysine Flux in Corynebacterium glutamicum and Its Use for the Isolation of Excretion Defective Mutants” Vrljic, M.; Kronemeyer, W.; Sahm, H.; Eggeling, L. J. Bacteriol. 1995, 177, mechanism-based osmotolerance

29 Catalytic Lifetime Kolter, R. J. Bacteriol. 1999, 181, Schellhorn, H. E.; Audia, J. P.; Wei, L. I. C.; Chang, L. J. Bacteriol. 1998, 180, Rowe, D. C. D.; Summers, D. K. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1999, 65, Yamada, M.; Talukder, A. A.; Nitta, T. J. Bacteriol. 1999, 181,

30 Transcriptome and Proteome Analysis Tao, H.; Gonzalez, R.; Martinez, A.; Rodriguez, M.; Ingram, L. O.; Preston, J. F.; Shanmugam, K. T. J. Bacteriol. 2001, 183, Gonzalez, R.; Tao, H.; Shanmugam, K. T.; York, S. W.; Ingram, L. O. Biotechnol. Prog. 2002, 18, 6-20.

31 Expression Promoters inducers host range mRNA stability “all or none” Transcription/Translation codon usage folding proteolysis Smolke, C. D.; Khlebnikov, A.; Keasling, J. D. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2001, 57, Jahng, D.; Wood, T. K. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1994, 60,

32 Stemmer, W. P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1994, 91, Zhao, H.; Giver, L.; Shao, Z.; Affholter, J. A.; Arnold, F. H. Nature Biotechnol. 1998, 16, Gene Shuffling

33 Family Shuffling Crameri, A.; Raillard, S.-A.; Bermudez, E.; Stemmer, W. P. C. Nature 1998, 391,

34 Genome Shuffling Zhang, Y.-X.; Perry, K.; Vinci, V. A.; Powell, K.; Stemmer, W. P. C.; del Cardayre, S. B. Nature 2002, 415,

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