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طريقة تخطيط الاطباق Streak Plate Method التخطيط المتعامد.

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Presentation on theme: "طريقة تخطيط الاطباق Streak Plate Method التخطيط المتعامد."— Presentation transcript:

1 طريقة تخطيط الاطباق Streak Plate Method التخطيط المتعامد

2 Streak Plate Method

3 Gram Stain One drop of water + Loop of Bacteria clean glass slide spread as a thin layer 1-allowed to air dry 2-fixed smear 2. Saturate the smear with crystal violet for 1 minute. 3. Rinse the slide gently with water. 4. Saturate the smear with iodine for 30 Second. 5. Rinse the slide gently with water. 6. Decolorize (alcohol) 7. Rinse the slide gently with water. 8. Saturate the smear with safranin for 1 minute. 9. Rinse the slide gently with water. 10. Carefully blot the slide dry with bibulous paper. 11. Observe the slide under the microscope

4 Gram staining Results Gram staining Results Gram positive bacteria will stain purple. Gram negative bacteria will stain red/pink. Gram positive bacteria have a thick cell wall made of peptidoglycan,peptidoglycan whereas gram negative bacteria have thin layer of peptidoglycan.

5 Cells Description under the microscope 1- Cell response : GV + or GV-

6 2- Cell shape and arrangement : Cocci: single- Diplo – Grape like-Strepto Cells Description under the microscope

7 Road: Short or long Cells Description under the microscope Single or Chain

8 Classification of Bacteria Bacteria Gram- Positive Gram- negative

9 Gram-Positive Bacteria I- Gram Positive bacteria A- Gram positive cocci B- Gram positive rods Spore-forming Aerobic Bacillus anthracis Anaerobic Clostridium Non spore- forming Corynebacterium

10 Gram-Positive Cocci A- Gram- positive cocci I- staphylococciII- streptococci

11 The catalase test is distinguished streptococci from staphylococci flood culture with drops of 3% H2O2 Catalase-positive cultures bubble at once The test should not be done on blood agar because blood itself will produce bubbles H2O2 H2O + O2 (gas, ↑) Staphylococci Catalase Catalase test

12 Species of Satphylococci Three species of staphyloccoci have medical importance: –S. aureus: Pathogenic & commensally found in nose (nares)  S. epidermidis: non pathogenic & common commensals in nares & skin  S. saprophyticus: Cause UTI in female & occasionally commensally found skin

13 Coagulase Test Principle: This test used to differentiate between S. aureus (CPS) & other Staphylococcus species (CNS) Coagulase test Coagulase Positive Staphylococus aureus Coagulase-Negative S. epidermidis & S. saprophyticus Fibrinogen (Plasma) Coagulase Fibrin (Clot)

14 Staphylococci General characters: –Gram Positive Cocci –Grape-like –Non Motile –Non Spore Forming –Non Capsulated –Non Fastidious –Facultative Anaerobes –Fermentative –Catalase positive

15 Gram stain of Staphylococcus

16 Laboratory diagnosis of Staphylococcus Gram Stain: –Gram Positive Cocci, arranged in cluster Culture: 1- Blood agar, 2- MSA media –Blood agar (Non-Selective Media) Coagulase Positive Staphylococci are Pigmented & hemolytic Coagulase Negative Staphylococci are non-pigmented & non- hemolytic

17 MSA is selective differential medium for staphylococci –It contains: NaCl (7.5%), Mannitol, & Phenol Red –The cause of selectivity due to presence of high salt concentration –The cause of differential because contains mannitol (sugar) and phenol red (pH indicators turns yellow in acidic pH and turns red in alkaline pH). Mannitol fermentation on MSA Mannitol fermented Yellow colonies: S. aureus Mannitol nonfermenter Red colonies: S. epidermidis& S. saprophyticus

18 Coagulase Test The tube coagulase test (Free): Procedure: –Mix 0.1 ml of culture ml of plasma –Incubate at 37C for 4 h –Observing the tube for clot formation –Any degree of clotting constitutes a positive test Advantage –More accurate Disadvantage –Time consumed S. aureus S. epidermidis

19 Coagulase Test Two Methods: –The slide Method –Tube Method The slide coagulase test –Used to detect bound coagulase or clumping factor –Add one drop heavy bacterial suspension and one drop of plasma on clean slide –Mixing well and observing for clumping within 10 seconds Advantage –Rapid diagnosis Disadvantage –Less accurate

20 Deoxyribonuclease (DNAase) test Principle: –DNA is insoluble in acid –DNA is hydrolyzed into oligo nucleotides by the action of DNase –Nucleotides soluble in acid DNase test Positive Staphylococus aureus Negative S. epidermidis & S. saprophyticus

21 DNase Test Procedure & result: –Inoculate DNA agar with tested organism in circular motion –Incubate at 37C for 24-48h –Observe DNase activity by adding 1N HCl to the agar surface, a zone of clearing indicates a positive test –The zone represents the absence of DNA –The medium around colonies not producing DNase remains opaque, which is a reflection of the precipitation of DNA by the added acid.

22 Novobiocin Sensitivity A simple disk diffusion test for estimating novobiocin susceptibility used to distinguish S. saprophyticus from other clinically species Inoculated overnight culture on Mueller-Hinton agar Add novobiocin disk on inoculated plate Incubate at 370C overnight Novobiocin resistance is intrinsic to S. saprophyticus but uncommon in other clinically important species. Novobiocin resistance is intrinsic to S. saprophyticus but uncommon in other clinically important species. Novobiocin test Sensitive S. aureus S. epidermidis Resistant S. saprophyticus

23 Practical Work Gram stain Catalase test Mannitol fermentation on MSA Coagulase Test by Tube and Slide Method DNAase Test


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