A bit of Ch 9 and 28 Applied, Industrial and Biotechnical Microbiology Microbial manufacturing
Biotechnology Defined The Use of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a product. 1/5 th of the manufacturing Jobs in the Bay area are Biotechnology related.
Microorganisms represent an almost limitless supply of enzymatic reactions May reduce the risks and complexities of industrial syntheses Is less expensive By-products are usually less toxic Used in environmental cleanup (In situ)
Commercial production of Microorganisms Fermentation projects (Beer and Wine) Biomass where the physical structure of the microbe is wanted –Baking yeast –Edible forms of bacteria (spirulina) –Single-cell protein SCP May concentrate toxic compounds Nucleic acids in large numbers are toxic
Biotransformation (Bioconversion) Transformation of a chemical added to the medium into a commercially valuable compound
Fermenter Are structures designed to optimize the growth conditions of the specific organisms that we want –Control oxygen, ph, medium, temperature and nutrients antifoaming –Stirred tank reactor –Air lift reaction
Two types of ways to grow Continuous fermentation Batch culturing What are the advantages and disadvantages of each Mixed culture fermentation
Bioconversions Example, bioconversion of steroids –Chemical synthesis requires 37 steps –Bioconversion requires 11 steps, reduces the cost and shortens the time of manufacturing. How these processes work Use of immobilized cells (cells localized in a matrix and the chemical is converted as it flows pas the column
Microorganism and Agriculture Ice-minus bacteria –Pseudomonas syringae promote ice formation at 2’C –Scientists have used biotechnology to remove the gene and these ice-strains can be sprayed on and colonize. –Is genetically altered –EPA has stated that these bacteria use for biological control decrease the presence of wild type bacteria and this must be registered as pesticides. Will greatly increase the cost of these products
Frost Technologies corporation registered with EPA a mixture of naturally occurring bacteria
Microbial pesticides Why? Troubles with DDT –Resistance by insects –Biological magnification –Long half life banned in 1972
Microbial pesticides represent a “biodegradable” way to control insects Over 100 microbial pathogens have been identified for insets These can be genetically altered to increase their potentency The genes for these toxins can be placed in our food plants.
One such item Bacillus thuringiensis produces a toxin (BT toxin) that is toxic to certain types of insect larvae that feed on plants. Drawback only occur in sporulating cells. Genes were transferred to Pseudomonas and are produced all the time. Work is underway to increase the range of these toxins and to stabilize the toxins.
Baculovirus are invertebrate specific DNA viral proteins Has narrow host range Organism continues to feed for a time after it is infected.
Products from Microorganisms Primary MetabolitesSecondary Metabolites Amino AcidsAntibiotics VitaminsPigments PolysaccharidesToxins EthanolAlkaloids Acetone and ButanolMany pharmacological compounds
Primary metabolites Are produced during an organism’s growth phase
Fuels Hydrogen from species of Clostridium and Chlorella Ethanol (High cost of input, only 12% conversion) –High temp fermenter –Use of green waste
Plastics Use of living organism to make complex polymers Would all be biodegradable Poly beta hydroxyalkanoate
Metal Extraction Extraction of specific metals from flowing water or oceans Use of specific transport proteins to remove certain chemicals
Biological Leaching of Copper Ores Figure 28.14a
What can microorganisms do. Microbes can do all the things that we currently use chemistry and energy to do, we just do not know how to use the microbes yet. In the future we will use microorganism to
Convert waste into usable items like energy and food. Harvest metals from the oceans Clean toxic waste Deal with hazardous materials that currently cannot be contained.
Summary We are on a new verge of discovery, same as the one we went through 5000 years ago, how can we use microbes, just like with animal and plant husbandry to make our lives easier.
Preserving our Food A public health process is preserving our food. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system –Safeguard food from farm to fork –Designed to prevent contamination –Identifying where contamination can occur –Requires monitoring Temperature For Microbes
Food Microbiology Preserving food is synonymous with preventing growth of microorganisms
Modern types of food preservation Canning –Steam under pressure –Use Clostridium botulinum as a test organism –Some endospores or thermopiles can survive commercial sterilization
Aseptic Packaging Sterile contents are added to sterile containers in an aseptic manner
Presterilized materials assembled into packages and aseptically filled (Aseptic packaging) Gamma radiation kills bacteria, insects, and parasitic worms High-energy electrons Food Preservation Figure 28.4
Radiation and Industrial food preservation Gamma radiation can be used to sterilize food, kill insects and parasitic worms, and prevent the sprouting of fruits and vegetables
Discussion The Role of the FDA? http://www.fda.gov/ see video on anatomy of an outbreakhttp://www.fda.gov/