Presentation on theme: "Selva Türkölmez Cevza Esin Tunç Deniz Çerik Kemal Alper Önsü"— Presentation transcript:
1Selva Türkölmez Cevza Esin Tunç Deniz Çerik Kemal Alper Önsü PEST MANAGEMENTSelva TürkölmezCevza Esin TunçDeniz ÇerikKemal Alper Önsü
2Outline What is pest? Causes of pests What is pest management? Why is the pest control important?Types of pest management:BiologicalMechanicalPhysicalWhat is Integrated Pest Managemet (IPM)?What are the positive and negative effects of pest management?
4Any animal, plant or microorganism that: cause harm or damage to people or their animals,destroy their crops or possessions(houses, yards, lands...etc).
5Which species are considered as pest? insects, mites, ticks (and other arthropods),mice, rats, and other rodents,slugs, snails, nematodes,cestodes (and other parasites),weedsfungi, bacteria, viruses (and other pathogens)
6Agricultural pests: species that are harmful for agriculture by feeding on crops or parasitising livestock.For example:Codling mothapplesBoll weevilcotton
7Pests: Deteriorate a wild ecosystem Harmful for humans For example: Rats &fleas: plaque Mosquitoes: malariaTicks : Lyme diseasehttps://extension.umd.edu/CucurbitPestManagement
112) Introduction of Pests expansion of international travel and trade accidentially transportation (through air or sea transportation)introduction of pests to new environment without their natural enemies pests become problematic in new area due to:lack of resistance of native crops & lack of natural enemies
123) Destruction of Natural Enemies excess use of insecticides and pesticides natural enemies are killednatural control mechanism is deteriorated pest outbreak
134) Development of Resistance& Genetic Diversity stress by single factor parasites evolvechange of genetics & adaptation to new conditions resistance
14Resurgence:the sudden increase of pests due to resistance in spite of good initial reduction.1)Excessive use of pesticides2)pests:adopt&become resistant &natural enemies: cannot survive and become resistant 3)pest pop. tremendously increases but natural enemy pop. cannot4)natural enemy pop. cannot catch up pest pop. and control their amount 5)increase of pests
155) Extensive and Intensive Cultivation Monoculture pestsExtensive cultivation No need for competition for food multiplication & diversity of pests
166) Introduction of New Crops and Varieties Most of new introduced crops lack of resistancefeeding more on introduced crop pest multiplication
177) Breeding Crops Occured first in 1940-1970 Main aim was to increase crop yields by changing their geneticsWhen changing the genetics of crops,little attention was paid to the resistance of plants to pestsChanging genetics changed resistance increase in pests
20Regulations or managements about pests (which are harmful to ecology, health and economy) to get rid of them or control their amount.Excluding or eradicating pests, creating environments where pests cannot survive and reproduce.Agricultural and urban/industrial pest control.In agricultural pest management: coexistence rather than eradiction
21logic(steps) of pest management: Identification -- Exactly which species is causing damage?Quantification -- What is the density and/or distribution of the population?Specification -- What is the most reasonable and effective course of action?Application -- Implementation of the appropriate management tactic.Evaluation -- How effective was the control operation?
24BIOLOGICAL PEST MANAGEMENT (NATURAL PEST CONTROL)
25Eduction of pest populations by favoring natural enemies Relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms.Typically also involves an active human management role.
26Natural enemies: biological control agents that reduces the hosts(pests) https://www.pioneer.com/home/site/us/agronomy/crop-management/soybean-insect-disease/soybean-aphid
273 types of natural enemies: Predators : free-living species that consume a preyEx: birds monarch butterflies (feeding on milkweed)
28Ex: wasp & most of flies monarch larvaes Parasitoids: species whose immature stage develops on or within a single insect host (pest)Ex: wasp & most of flies monarch larvaes
29Pathogens: bacteria, fungi, and viruses Pathogens: bacteria, fungi, and viruses. They kill or weaken their host (pest) Ex: pathogenic fungi and viruses caterpillars
30Types of biological pest control: conservation, classical biological control (importation), augmentationCONSERVATIONProtecting natural enemiesMost pests are attacked by several different types and species of natural enemiestheir conservation is the primary way to successfully use biological control
31Ant control, habitat manipulation, and selective pesticide use are key conservation strategies selective use of pesticides:pesticides are toxic to natural enemiesthey kill natural enemies or reduce their reproduction abilityThey should be applied in a selective manner.
32ant control: Ants: beneficial as consumers of weed seeds predators of many insect pestssoil builders, and nutrient cyclers.control methods include: cultivating soil around ant nests, encircling trunks with ant barriers, and applying insecticide baits near plants.if ants are controlled, populations of many pests:
33habitat manipulation: providing a suitable habitat to favor living & reproduction of natural enemiesgardens and landscapes should be managedexcess fertilization and irrigation should be avoidedsequentially flowering species should be planted to provide natural enemies with nectar, pollen, and shelterlow populations of plant-feeding insects and mites should be toleratedsome food is always available to retain predators and parasites
34IMPORTATION(CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL) practice of importing(introducing) natural enemies to control an exotic pestsexotic pests: the ones that inadvertently been introduced from elsewhere without their natural controlsSteps:determine the origin of the introduced pestcollect appropriate natural enemiesquarantine processgrowing&multiplication of natural enemiesrelease
35AUGMENTATIONsupplemental release of natural enemies when their amount is insufficientOnly a few natural enemies can be effectively augmented in gardens and landscapesHabitat or environmental manipulation: altering the cropping system to augment or enhance the effectiveness of a natural enemy
36Question: Is there a negative effect of biological pest control Question: Is there a negative effect of biological pest control ? what can be the negative effect(s) of biological pest control? Answer: Problems can occur as a result of: predation, parasitism, pathogenicity, competition, or other attacks on non-target species. deterioration of native ecosystem
37For example:“The mongoose was introduced to Hawaii in order to control the rat population. However it preyed on the endemic birds of Hawaii, especially their eggs, more often than it ate the rats”.
54Question Is it clever to kill pests in order to save our crops? Answers: Since there are beneficial insects reliant on some of these pests total destruction of them would eventually harm our selective environment, maintaining the numbers in a scale will be much more efficient.
56Many pests are not controlled effectively with a single technique; rather, a combination of control methods is often more effective.Integrated pest management (IPM) combines a variety of biological, cultivation, and pesticide controls tailored to the conditions and crops of an individual farm, campus, city, or greenhouse.
57IPM focusses on controlling, rather than eradication of pests. Using pesticides is seen as the last option for IPM
591) Acceptable Pest Levels First, establish acceptable pest level, (action threshold) then if it is exceeded, we can now use control methods.Not using pesticides lead more vulnerable pest generations.
602) Preventive Cultural Practice Selecting best techniques for local growing conditions and maintaining healthy crops is the first line of defense.Plant QuarantineCultural Techniques-removal of diseased plants-cutting leafs to prevent spread of infections-crop sanitation
613) Monitoring Regular observation is critically important. Observation of target insects-pests may provide crucial information about their life-cycle or reproduction.Since insects are cold-blooded, their physical development is dependent on area temperatures.
625) Biological and Genetic Controls 4) Mechanical ControlsIt includes traps containing female pest pheronomes attract and capture the males.5) Biological and Genetic ControlsMain approach is to promote beneficial insects that eat or parasitize target pests.e.g. Entomopathogenic fungi ,Entomopathogenic nematodesGenetic control includes pest-resistant GM crop
646) Responsible Use of Pesticides Synthetic pesticides are used as required and often only at specific times in a pest’s life cycle. Many newer pesticides are derived from plants or naturally occurring substances (e.g.— nicotine, pyrethrum and insect juvenile hormone analogues)
66Farmers need to be educated so that they know what strategies will work best in their particular situations. IPM requires a lot of knowledge and observations, but it is cheaper, efficient, sustainable and more beneficial for environment than pesticides(eradication). IPM has been most successful in controlling insect pests.
67IPM at Home for MiceRemove the incentive for mice to live in your home by keeping foods sealed and storedReduce potential habitats for mice by closing up holes in walls and carefully but thoroughly cleaning out any place where mice have built nestAdd a cat your householdSet mousetraps in places where mice are known to travelUse poisons selectively—and only in place where children and petst cannot get to them
68Question:What are advantages and disadvantages of IPM? ANSWER:AdvantegesThere is no escape for pests, somehow they are controlled by farmers by various techniques.Cheap, efficient, sustainable and beneficial for environment.DisadvantagesIt requires lots of knowledge,therefore it is not common amongst farmers.It is still in developing proccess(biologic and genetic pest control) and it is not widely used.
70Main Purposes of Pest Control Protect our foodProtect our healthConvenience
71Human HealthPests carry harmful bacteria that contaminate food and cause illnesses.Quality of life depends on: better pharmaceuticals, better vaccines, better pest controlAllergy (e.g. cockroaches)Increased life expectancy
72Crop ProtectionConsumption and Contamination of the 20% of our food supplyLost profits in business
73Pests do damagesPests destroy houses and buildings and their contents.Rats can cause fire by chewing the wires.
74Pesticides‘’any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or controlling any pest, including vectors of human or animal disease, unwanted species of plants or animals, causing harm during or otherwise interfering with the production, processing, storage, transport, or marketing of food, agricultural commodities, wood and wood products or animal feedstuffs, or substances that may be administered to animals for the control of insects, arachnids, or other pests in or on their bodies’’ – Food and Agriculture Organization
75The DDT StoryFirst-generation pesticides vs. Second-generation pesticidesPaul Müller, -1938Toxic to insects and nontoxic to humansWorld War IIU.S. Environmental Protection Agency
76WHAT ARE THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF PEST MANAGEMENT?
77Pesticide Use Benefits Problems Evolution of genetic Resistance Disease ControlImbalances in the EcosystemCrop ProtectionPersistence, Bioaccumulation, Biological magnificationMobility in the EnvironmentAdverse Environmental and Human Health EffectsResurgances & Secondary- Pest Outbreaks
78Evolution of Genetic Resistance The prolonged use of a particular pesticide can cause a pest population to develop genetic resistance to the pesticide.Associated with secondary-pest outbreaksPesticide TreadmillResistance Management: Strategies for managing genetic resistance to maximize the period in which a pesticide is useful.
81Imbalances in the Ecosystem Beneficial insects are also killed as effectively as pest insects.Dieldrin – kills animals such as birds, rabbits, beneficial insects, cats and squirells besides Japanese beetlesReduction in the population of natural enemies of target pest insectsCreation of new Pests
83Persistence, Bioaccumulation, Biological Magnification Bioaccumulation: The buildup of a persistent pesticide or other toxic substance in an organism’s bodyBiological Magnification: The increased concentration of toxic chemicals such as certain pesticides in the tissues of organisms at higher trophic levels in food webs.
84Mobility in the Environment Pesticides do not stay where they are appliedThe pesticide level in an aquatic ecosystem may harm the fishes.Water and Air pollunation
86Risks on Human HealthShort-term Effects such as Pesticide Poisioning: more than 4 million people suffer from pesticide poisoning and 300,000 people die each yearUse of dangerous pesticides in developing countriesSafety regulations
87Risks on Human Health Long-term Effects such as cancer and sterility Increase the risk of Parkinson’s DiseaseMiscarriages and birth defectsPesticides are Endocrine disrupters
88Why are Pesticides so widely used? Use of pesticides -> The amount of foodThe economic value of pesticidesMany health problems are impossible to control without insecticides.
90Question: Explain how the use of pesticides can disrupt the nature of an ecosystem. Answer: The pesticides also have effects on non-target organisms. Along the target organisms, some other species can also be harmed and killed by the applied pesticide. In addition, the use of pesticides can also cause a species to become a serious pest, although it was not previously a problem.
91References:D. S. Hill, Agricultural Insect Pests of the Tropics and their Control, 2nd ed., London, 1983.Hoffmann, M.P. and Frodsham, A.C. (1993) Natural Enemies of Vegetable Insect Pests. Cooperative Extension, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. 63 pp.Hillock, D., & Bolin, P. (n.d.). Earth-Kind Gardening Series Mechanical Pest Controls. . Retrieved April 19, 2014, fromPhysical Control of Pests. (n.d.). Physical Control of Pests. Retrieved April 19, 2014, fromSMITH F. B., ENGER E. D., 2010, Environmental Science, McGraw Hill Higher Education, Twelth EditionWRIGHT R. T., BOORSE D. F., 2011, Environmental Science, Pearson, Eleventh EditionRAVEN P. H., BERG L. R., HASSENZAHL D. M., 2010, Environment, Wiley, Seventh Edition