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Selva Türkölmez Cevza Esin Tunç Deniz Çerik Kemal Alper Önsü

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Presentation on theme: "Selva Türkölmez Cevza Esin Tunç Deniz Çerik Kemal Alper Önsü"— Presentation transcript:

1 Selva Türkölmez Cevza Esin Tunç Deniz Çerik Kemal Alper Önsü
PEST MANAGEMENT Selva Türkölmez Cevza Esin Tunç Deniz Çerik Kemal Alper Önsü

2 Outline What is pest? Causes of pests What is pest management?
Why is the pest control important? Types of pest management: Biological Mechanical Physical What is Integrated Pest Managemet (IPM)? What are the positive and negative effects of pest management?

3 WHAT IS PEST?

4 Any animal, plant or microorganism that:
cause harm or damage to people or their animals, destroy their crops or possessions(houses, yards, lands...etc).

5 Which species are considered as pest?
insects, mites, ticks (and other arthropods), mice, rats, and other rodents, slugs, snails, nematodes, cestodes (and other parasites), weeds fungi, bacteria, viruses (and other pathogens)

6 Agricultural pests:  species that are harmful for agriculture by feeding on crops or parasitising livestock. For example: Codling mothapples Boll weevilcotton

7 Pests: Deteriorate a wild ecosystem Harmful for humans For example:
Rats &fleas: plaque  Mosquitoes: malaria Ticks : Lyme disease https://extension.umd.edu/CucurbitPestManagement

8 CAUSES OF PESTS

9 1) Environmental Change
changes in climate, habitat, or community structure insect population with a reproductive opportunity insects become epidemic from endemic

10 http://californiaagriculture. ucanr. edu/landingpage. cfm. article=ca

11 2) Introduction of Pests
expansion of international travel and trade  accidentially transportation (through air or sea transportation) introduction of pests to new environment without their natural enemies  pests become problematic in new area due to: lack of resistance of native crops & lack of natural enemies

12 3) Destruction of Natural Enemies
excess use of insecticides and pesticides natural enemies are killed natural control mechanism is deteriorated pest outbreak

13 4) Development of Resistance& Genetic Diversity
stress by single factor parasites evolve change of genetics & adaptation to new conditions  resistance

14 Resurgence: the sudden increase of pests due to resistance in spite of good initial reduction. 1)Excessive use of pesticides 2)pests:adopt&become resistant & natural enemies: cannot survive and become resistant  3)pest pop. tremendously increases but natural enemy pop. cannot 4)natural enemy pop. cannot catch up pest pop. and control their amount  5)increase of pests

15 5) Extensive and Intensive Cultivation
Monoculture pests Extensive cultivation  No need for competition for food multiplication & diversity of pests

16 6) Introduction of New Crops and Varieties
Most of new introduced crops lack of resistance feeding more on introduced crop pest multiplication

17 7) Breeding Crops Occured first in 1940-1970
Main aim was to increase crop yields by changing their genetics When changing the genetics of crops,little attention was paid to the resistance of plants to pests Changing genetics  changed resistance increase in pests

18 8) Improved Agronomic Practices
Increased N fertilizer increase Closer planting of Granular insecticides pests

19 WHAT IS PEST MANAGEMENT?

20 Regulations or managements about pests (which are harmful to ecology, health and economy) to get rid of them or control their amount. Excluding or eradicating pests, creating environments where pests cannot survive and reproduce. Agricultural and urban/industrial pest control. In agricultural pest management: coexistence rather than eradiction

21 logic(steps) of pest management:
Identification -- Exactly which species is causing damage? Quantification -- What is the density and/or distribution of the population? Specification -- What is the most reasonable and effective course of action? Application -- Implementation of the appropriate management tactic. Evaluation -- How effective was the control operation?

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23 TYPES OF PEST MANAGEMENT

24 BIOLOGICAL PEST MANAGEMENT (NATURAL PEST CONTROL)

25 Eduction of pest populations by favoring natural enemies
Relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms. Typically also involves an active human management role.

26 Natural enemies: biological control agents that reduces the hosts(pests)
https://www.pioneer.com/home/site/us/agronomy/crop-management/soybean-insect-disease/soybean-aphid

27 3 types of natural enemies:
Predators :  free-living species that consume a prey Ex: birds  monarch butterflies (feeding on milkweed)

28 Ex: wasp & most of flies  monarch larvaes
Parasitoids: species whose immature stage develops on or within a single insect host (pest) Ex: wasp & most of flies  monarch larvaes

29 Pathogens: bacteria, fungi, and viruses
Pathogens: bacteria, fungi, and viruses. They kill or weaken their host (pest) Ex: pathogenic fungi and viruses caterpillars

30 Types of biological pest control: conservation, classical biological control (importation), augmentation CONSERVATION Protecting natural enemies Most pests are attacked by several different types and species of natural enemies their conservation is the primary way to successfully use biological control 

31 Ant control, habitat manipulation, and selective pesticide use are key conservation strategies
selective use of pesticides: pesticides are toxic to natural enemies they kill natural enemies or reduce their reproduction ability They should be applied in a selective manner.

32 ant control: Ants: beneficial as consumers of weed seeds
predators of many insect pests soil builders, and nutrient cyclers. control methods include: cultivating soil around ant nests, encircling trunks with ant barriers, and applying insecticide baits near plants. if ants are controlled, populations of many pests:

33 habitat manipulation:
providing a suitable habitat to favor living & reproduction of natural enemies gardens and landscapes should be managed excess fertilization and irrigation should be avoided sequentially flowering species should be planted to provide natural enemies with nectar, pollen, and shelter low populations of plant-feeding insects and mites should be toleratedsome food is always available to retain predators and parasites

34 IMPORTATION(CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL)
practice of importing(introducing) natural enemies to control an exotic pests exotic pests: the ones that inadvertently been introduced from elsewhere without their natural controls Steps: determine the origin of the introduced pest collect appropriate natural enemies quarantine process growing&multiplication of natural enemies release

35 AUGMENTATION supplemental release of natural enemies when their amount is insufficient Only a few natural enemies can be effectively augmented in gardens and landscapes Habitat or environmental manipulation: altering the cropping system to augment or enhance the effectiveness of a natural enemy

36 Question: Is there a negative effect of biological pest control
Question: Is there a negative effect of biological pest control ? what can be the negative effect(s) of biological pest control? Answer: Problems can occur as a result of: predation, parasitism, pathogenicity, competition, or other attacks on non-target species.  deterioration of native ecosystem

37 For example: “The mongoose was introduced to Hawaii in order to control the rat population. However it preyed on the endemic birds of Hawaii, especially their eggs, more often than it ate the rats”.

38 MECHANICAL & PHYSICAL PEST MANAGEMENT

39 https://pbs.twimg.com/media/A_HXiJKCYAASeNw.jpg

40 Mechanical Control Physical Control
To provide a protective barrier between plants and insects. Physical Control  Getting rid of insects to protect crops

41 Row Covers

42 Merit increasing soil and air temperature reducing wind damage
providing a physical barrier against pests. non-toxic with no residues

43 Drawback Labor intensive in windy air Cannot prevent pests from soil
Prevent pollunation

44 Handpicking Traps and Attrachtants Insect vacuum

45 Insecticidal Soaps

46 Merit Control insects Minimize plant injury Consistent manufacture
Not fatal for benefical insects

47 Drawback Increased risk of plant injury Not effective against big bugs
Spider mites

48 To Prevent Plant Injury
Dilute the solution Wash leaves after usage

49 Other Methods Water pressure system Diatomaceous Earth
Horticulture Oils

50

51 Harvest Practices Strip harvesting Early swathing Mowing Hand pulling

52 Temperature Control Fire Cold Storage

53 http://capepestcontrol. co

54 Question Is it clever to kill pests in order to save our crops?
Answers: Since there are beneficial insects reliant on some of these pests total destruction of them would eventually harm our selective environment, maintaining the numbers in a scale will be much more efficient.

55 WHAT IS INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) ?

56 Many pests are not controlled effectively with a single technique; rather, a combination of control methods is often more effective. Integrated pest management (IPM) combines a variety of biological, cultivation, and pesticide controls tailored to the conditions and crops of an individual farm, campus, city, or greenhouse.

57 IPM focusses on controlling, rather than eradication of pests.
Using pesticides is seen as the last option for IPM

58 Principles of IPM

59 1) Acceptable Pest Levels
First, establish acceptable pest level, (action threshold) then if it is exceeded, we can now use control methods. Not using pesticides lead more vulnerable pest generations.

60 2) Preventive Cultural Practice
Selecting best techniques for local growing conditions and maintaining healthy crops is the first line of defense. Plant Quarantine Cultural Techniques -removal of diseased plants -cutting leafs to prevent spread of infections -crop sanitation

61 3) Monitoring Regular observation is critically important.
Observation of target insects-pests may provide crucial information about their life-cycle or reproduction. Since insects are cold-blooded, their physical development is dependent on area temperatures.

62 5) Biological and Genetic Controls
4) Mechanical Controls It includes traps containing female pest pheronomes attract and capture the males. 5) Biological and Genetic Controls Main approach is to promote beneficial insects that eat or parasitize target pests. e.g. Entomopathogenic fungi , Entomopathogenic nematodes Genetic control includes pest-resistant GM crop

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64 6) Responsible Use of Pesticides Synthetic pesticides are used as required and often only at specific times in a pest’s life cycle. Many newer pesticides are derived from plants or naturally occurring substances (e.g.— nicotine, pyrethrum and insect juvenile hormone analogues)

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66 Farmers need to be educated so that they know what strategies will work best in their particular situations. IPM requires a lot of knowledge and observations, but it is cheaper, efficient, sustainable and more beneficial for environment than pesticides(eradication). IPM has been most successful in controlling insect pests.

67 IPM at Home for Mice Remove the incentive for mice to live in your home by keeping foods sealed and stored Reduce potential habitats for mice by closing up holes in walls and carefully but thoroughly cleaning out any place where mice have built nest Add a cat your household Set mousetraps in places where mice are known to travel Use poisons selectively—and only in place where children and petst cannot get to them

68 Question:What are advantages and disadvantages of IPM?
ANSWER: Advanteges There is no escape for pests, somehow they are controlled by farmers by various techniques. Cheap, efficient, sustainable and beneficial for environment. Disadvantages It requires lots of knowledge,therefore it is not common amongst farmers. It is still in developing proccess(biologic and genetic pest control) and it is not widely used.

69 WHY IS PEST CONTROL IMPORTANT?

70 Main Purposes of Pest Control
Protect our food Protect our health Convenience

71 Human Health Pests carry harmful bacteria that contaminate food and cause illnesses. Quality of life depends on: better pharmaceuticals, better vaccines, better pest control Allergy (e.g. cockroaches) Increased life expectancy

72 Crop Protection Consumption and Contamination of the 20% of our food supply Lost profits in business

73 Pests do damages Pests destroy houses and buildings and their contents. Rats can cause fire by chewing the wires.

74 Pesticides ‘’any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or controlling any pest, including vectors of human or animal disease, unwanted species of plants or animals, causing harm during or otherwise interfering with the production, processing, storage, transport, or marketing of food, agricultural commodities, wood and wood products or animal feedstuffs, or substances that may be administered to animals for the control of insects, arachnids, or other pests in or on their bodies’’ – Food and Agriculture Organization

75 The DDT Story First-generation pesticides vs. Second-generation pesticides Paul Müller, -1938 Toxic to insects and nontoxic to humans World War II U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

76 WHAT ARE THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF PEST MANAGEMENT?

77 Pesticide Use Benefits Problems Evolution of genetic Resistance
Disease Control Imbalances in the Ecosystem Crop Protection Persistence, Bioaccumulation, Biological magnification Mobility in the Environment Adverse Environmental and Human Health Effects Resurgances & Secondary- Pest Outbreaks

78 Evolution of Genetic Resistance
The prolonged use of a particular pesticide can cause a pest population to develop genetic resistance to the pesticide. Associated with secondary-pest outbreaks Pesticide Treadmill Resistance Management: Strategies for managing genetic resistance to maximize the period in which a pesticide is useful.

79 Developed Genetic Resistance

80 Pesiticide Treadmill

81 Imbalances in the Ecosystem
Beneficial insects are also killed as effectively as pest insects. Dieldrin – kills animals such as birds, rabbits, beneficial insects, cats and squirells besides Japanese beetles Reduction in the population of natural enemies of target pest insects Creation of new Pests

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83 Persistence, Bioaccumulation, Biological Magnification
Bioaccumulation: The buildup of a persistent pesticide or other toxic substance in an organism’s body Biological Magnification: The increased concentration of toxic chemicals such as certain pesticides in the tissues of organisms at higher trophic levels in food webs.

84 Mobility in the Environment
Pesticides do not stay where they are applied The pesticide level in an aquatic ecosystem may harm the fishes. Water and Air pollunation

85 Intended and Actual Pathways for Pesticide

86 Risks on Human Health Short-term Effects such as Pesticide Poisioning: more than 4 million people suffer from pesticide poisoning and 300,000 people die each year Use of dangerous pesticides in developing countries Safety regulations

87 Risks on Human Health Long-term Effects such as cancer and sterility
Increase the risk of Parkinson’s Disease Miscarriages and birth defects Pesticides are Endocrine disrupters

88 Why are Pesticides so widely used?
Use of pesticides -> The amount of food The economic value of pesticides Many health problems are impossible to control without insecticides.

89 Changes in Pesticide Use around the World

90 Question: Explain how the use of pesticides can disrupt the nature of an ecosystem. Answer: The pesticides also have effects on non-target organisms. Along the target organisms, some other species can also be harmed and killed by the applied pesticide. In addition, the use of pesticides can also cause a species to become a serious pest, although it was not previously a problem.

91 References: D. S. Hill, Agricultural Insect Pests of the Tropics and their Control, 2nd ed., London, 1983. Hoffmann, M.P. and Frodsham, A.C. (1993) Natural Enemies of Vegetable Insect Pests. Cooperative Extension, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. 63 pp. Hillock, D., & Bolin, P. (n.d.). Earth-Kind Gardening Series Mechanical Pest Controls. . Retrieved April 19, 2014, from Physical Control of Pests. (n.d.). Physical Control of Pests. Retrieved April 19, 2014, from SMITH F. B., ENGER E. D., 2010, Environmental Science, McGraw Hill Higher Education, Twelth Edition WRIGHT R. T., BOORSE D. F., 2011, Environmental Science, Pearson, Eleventh Edition RAVEN P. H., BERG L. R., HASSENZAHL D. M., 2010, Environment, Wiley, Seventh Edition

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