Presentation on theme: "PEST MANAGEMENT Selva Türkölmez Cevza Esin Tunç Deniz Çerik Kemal Alper Önsü"— Presentation transcript:
PEST MANAGEMENT Selva Türkölmez Cevza Esin Tunç Deniz Çerik Kemal Alper Önsü
O UTLINE What is pest? Causes of pests What is pest management? Why is the pest control important? Types of pest management: Biological Mechanical Physical What is Integrated Pest Managemet (IPM)? What are the positive and negative effects of pest management?
WHAT IS PEST?
Any animal, plant or microorganism that: cause harm or damage to people or their animals, destroy their crops or possessions(houses, yards, lands...etc).
W HICH SPECIES ARE CONSIDERED AS PEST ? insects, mites, ticks (and other arthropods), mice, rats, and other rodents, slugs, snails, nematodes, cestodes (and other parasites), weeds fungi, bacteria, viruses (and other pathogens)
A GRICULTURAL PESTS : species that are harmful for agriculture by feeding on crops or parasitising livestock. For example: o Codling moth apples o Boll weevil cotton 1&s=1&id=183 kurdu-kirtik-1894
P ESTS : Deteriorate a wild ecosystem Harmful for humans For example: Rats &fleas: plaque Mosquitoes: malaria Ticks : Lyme disease https://extension.umd.edu/CucurbitPe stManagement open-access/
CAUSES OF PESTS
1) Environmental Change changes in climate, habitat, or community structure insect population with a reproductive opportunity insects become epidemic from endemic
2) Introduction of Pests expansion of international travel and trade accidentially transportation (through air or sea transportation) introduction of pests to new environment without their natural enemies pests become problematic in new area due to: lack of resistance of native crops & lack of natural enemies
3) Destruction of Natural Enemies excess use of insecticides and pesticides natural enemies are killed natural control mechanism is deteriorated pest outbreak ceid= &context=
4) Development of Resistance& Genetic Diversity stress by single factor parasites evolve change of genetics & adaptation to new conditions resistance
R ESURGENCE : the sudden increase of pests due to resistance in spite of good initial reduction. 1)Excessive use of pesticides 2)pests:adopt&become resistant & natural enemies: cannot survive and become resistant 3)pest pop. tremendously increases but natural enemy pop. cannot 4)natural enemy pop. cannot catch up pest pop. and control their amount 5)increase of pests
5) Extensive and Intensive Cultivation Monoculture pests Extensive cultivation No need for competition for food multiplication & diversity of pests
6) Introduction of New Crops and Varieties Most of new introduced crops lack of resistance feeding more on introduced crop pest multiplication
7) Breeding Crops Occured first in Main aim was to increase crop yields by changing their genetics When changing the genetics of crops,little attention was paid to the resistance of plants to pests Changing genetics changed resistance increase in pests
8) Improved Agronomic Practices Increased N fertilizer increase Closer planting of Granular insecticides pests
WHAT IS PEST MANAGEMENT?
Regulations or managements about pests (which are harmful to ecology, health and economy) to get rid of them or control their amount. Excluding or eradicating pests, creating environments where pests cannot survive and reproduce. Agricultural and urban/industrial pest control. In agricultural pest management: coexistence rather than eradiction
LOGIC ( STEPS ) OF PEST MANAGEMENT : 1. Identification -- Exactly which species is causing damage? 2. Quantification -- What is the density and/or distribution of the population? 3. Specification -- What is the most reasonable and effective course of action? 4. Application -- Implementation of the appropriate management tactic. 5. Evaluation -- How effective was the control operation?
TYPES OF PEST MANAGEMENT
BIOLOGICAL PEST MANAGEMENT (NATURAL PEST CONTROL)
Eduction of pest populations by favoring natural enemies Relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms. Typically also involves an active human management role.
N ATURAL ENEMIES : BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS THAT REDUCES THE HOSTS ( PESTS ) https://www.pioneer.com/home/site/us/agronomy/crop- management/soybean-insect-disease/soybean-aphid
3 TYPES OF NATURAL ENEMIES : Predators : free-living species that consume a prey Ex: birds monarch butterflies (feeding on milkweed)
Parasitoids: species whose immature stage develops on or within a single insect host (pest) Ex: wasp & most of flies monarch larvaes
Pathogens: bacteria, fungi, and viruses. They kill or weaken their host (pest) Ex: pathogenic fungi and viruses caterpillars
T YPES OF BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL : CONSERVATION, CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL ( IMPORTATION ), AUGMENTATION CONSERVATION Protecting natural enemies Most pests are attacked by several different types and species of natural enemies their conservation is the primary way to successfully use biological control
A NT CONTROL, HABITAT MANIPULATION, AND SELECTIVE PESTICIDE USE ARE KEY CONSERVATION STRATEGIES selective use of pesticides: pesticides are toxic to natural enemies they kill natural enemies or reduce their reproduction ability They should be applied in a selective manner.
o ANT CONTROL : Ants: beneficial as consumers of weed seeds predators of many insect pests soil builders, and nutrient cyclers. control methods include: cultivating soil around ant nests, encircling trunks with ant barriers, and applying insecticide baits near plants. if ants are controlled, populations of many pests: oon_postcards
o HABITAT MANIPULATION : providing a suitable habitat to favor living & reproduction of natural enemies gardens and landscapes should be managed excess fertilization and irrigation should be avoided sequentially flowering species should be planted to provide natural enemies with nectar, pollen, and shelter low populations of plant-feeding insects and mites should be tolerated some food is always available to retain predators and parasites false-false-en-us-x-none.html
IMPORTATION(CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL) practice of importing(introducing) natural enemies to control an exotic pests exotic pests: the ones that inadvertently been introduced from elsewhere without their natural controls Steps: i. determine the origin of the introduced pest ii. collect appropriate natural enemies iii. quarantine process iv. growing&multiplication of natural enemies v. release _pest_control
AUGMENTATION supplemental release of natural enemies when their amount is insufficient Only a few natural enemies can be effectively augmented in gardens and landscapes Habitat or environmental manipulation: altering the cropping system to augment or enhance the effectiveness of a natural enemy
Question: Is there a negative effect of biological pest control ? what can be the negative effect(s) of biological pest control? Answer: Problems can occur as a result of: predation, parasitism, pathogenicity, competition, or other attacks on non-target species. deterioration of native ecosystem
F OR EXAMPLE : “The mongoose was introduced to Hawaii in order to control the rat population. However it preyed on the endemic birds of Hawaii, especially their eggs, more often than it ate the rats”.
Q UESTION Is it clever to kill pests in order to save our crops? Answers: Since there are beneficial insects reliant on some of these pests total destruction of them would eventually harm our selective environment, maintaining the numbers in a scale will be much more efficient.
WHAT IS INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) ?
Many pests are not controlled effectively with a single technique; rather, a combination of control methods is often more effective. Integrated pest management (IPM) combines a variety of biological, cultivation, and pesticide controls tailored to the conditions and crops of an individual farm, campus, city, or greenhouse.
IPM focusses on controlling, rather than eradication of pests. Using pesticides is seen as the last option for IPM
P RINCIPLES OF IPM
1) Acceptable Pest Levels First, establish acceptable pest level, ( action threshold) then if it is exceeded, we can now use control methods. Not using pesticides lead more vulnerable pest generations.
2) Preventive Cultural Practice Selecting best techniques for local growing conditions and maintaining healthy crops is the first line of defense. Plant Quarantine Cultural Techniques -removal of diseased plants -cutting leafs to prevent spread of infections -crop sanitation
3) Monitoring Regular observation is critically important. Observation of target insects-pests may provide crucial information about their life-cycle or reproduction. Since insects are cold-blooded, their physical development is dependent on area temperatures.
4) Mechanical Controls It includes traps containing female pest pheronomes attract and capture the males. 5) Biological and Genetic Controls Main approach is to promote beneficial insects that eat or parasitize target pests. e.g. Entomopathogenic fungi, Entomopathogenic nematodes Genetic control includes pest-resistant GM crop
6) Responsible Use of Pesticides Synthetic pesticides are used as required and often only at specific times in a pest’s life cycle. Many newer pesticides are derived from plants or naturally occurring substances ( e.g. — nicotine, pyrethrum and insect juvenile hormone analogues) nicotinepyrethrumjuvenile hormone
Farmers need to be educated so that they know what strategies will work best in their particular situations. IPM requires a lot of knowledge and observations, but it is cheaper, efficient, sustainable and more beneficial for environment than pesticides(eradication). IPM has been most successful in controlling insect pests.
IPM AT H OME FOR M ICE Remove the incentive for mice to live in your home by keeping foods sealed and stored Reduce potential habitats for mice by closing up holes in walls and carefully but thoroughly cleaning out any place where mice have built nest Add a cat your household Set mousetraps in places where mice are known to travel Use poisons selectively—and only in place where children and petst cannot get to them
Q UESTION :W HAT ARE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF IPM? ANSWER: Advanteges There is no escape for pests, somehow they are controlled by farmers by various techniques. Cheap, efficient, sustainable and beneficial for environment. Disadvantages It requires lots of knowledge,therefore it is not common amongst farmers. It is still in developing proccess(biologic and genetic pest control) and it is not widely used.
WHY IS PEST CONTROL IMPORTANT?
M AIN P URPOSES OF P EST C ONTROL Protect our food Protect our health Convenience
H UMAN H EALTH Pests carry harmful bacteria that contaminate food and cause illnesses. Quality of life depends on: better pharmaceuticals, better vaccines, better pest control Allergy (e.g. cockroaches) Increased life expectancy
C ROP P ROTECTION Consumption and Contamination of the 20% of our food supply Lost profits in business
P ESTS DO DAMAGES Pests destroy houses and buildings and their contents. Rats can cause fire by chewing the wires.
P ESTICIDES ‘’any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or controlling any pest, including vectors of human or animal disease, unwanted species of plants or animals, causing harm during or otherwise interfering with the production, processing, storage, transport, or marketing of food, agricultural commodities, wood and wood products or animal feedstuffs, or substances that may be administered to animals for the control of insects, arachnids, or other pests in or on their bodies’’ – Food and Agriculture Organization
T HE DDT S TORY First-generation pesticides vs. Second-generation pesticides Paul Müller, Toxic to insects and nontoxic to humans World War II U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
WHAT ARE THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF PEST MANAGEMENT?
P ESTICIDE U SE Benefits Disease Control Crop Protection Problems Evolution of genetic Resistance Imbalances in the Ecosystem Persistence, Bioaccumulation, Biological magnification Mobility in the Environment Adverse Environmental and Human Health Effects Resurgances & Secondary- Pest Outbreaks
E VOLUTION OF G ENETIC R ESISTANCE The prolonged use of a particular pesticide can cause a pest population to develop genetic resistance to the pesticide. Associated with secondary-pest outbreaks Pesticide Treadmill Resistance Management: Strategies for managing genetic resistance to maximize the period in which a pesticide is useful.
D EVELOPED G ENETIC R ESISTANCE
P ESITICIDE T READMILL
I MBALANCES IN THE E COSYSTEM Beneficial insects are also killed as effectively as pest insects. Dieldrin – kills animals such as birds, rabbits, beneficial insects, cats and squirells besides Japanese beetles Reduction in the population of natural enemies of target pest insects Creation of new Pests
P ERSISTENCE, B IOACCUMULATION, B IOLOGICAL M AGNIFICATION Bioaccumulation: The buildup of a persistent pesticide or other toxic substance in an organism’s body Biological Magnification: The increased concentration of toxic chemicals such as certain pesticides in the tissues of organisms at higher trophic levels in food webs.
M OBILITY IN THE E NVIRONMENT Pesticides do not stay where they are applied The pesticide level in an aquatic ecosystem may harm the fishes. Water and Air pollunation
I NTENDED AND A CTUAL P ATHWAYS FOR P ESTICIDE
R ISKS ON H UMAN H EALTH Short-term Effects such as Pesticide Poisioning: more than 4 million people suffer from pesticide poisoning and 300,000 people die each year Use of dangerous pesticides in developing countries Safety regulations
R ISKS ON H UMAN H EALTH Long-term Effects such as cancer and sterility Increase the risk of Parkinson’s Disease Miscarriages and birth defects Pesticides are Endocrine disrupters
W HY ARE P ESTICIDES SO WIDELY USED ? Use of pesticides -> The amount of food The economic value of pesticides Many health problems are impossible to control without insecticides.
C HANGES IN P ESTICIDE U SE AROUND THE W ORLD
Question: Explain how the use of pesticides can disrupt the nature of an ecosystem. Answer: The pesticides also have effects on non-target organisms. Along the target organisms, some other species can also be harmed and killed by the applied pesticide. In addition, the use of pesticides can also cause a species to become a serious pest, although it was not previously a problem.
R EFERENCES : D. S. Hill, Agricultural Insect Pests of the Tropics and their Control, 2nd ed., London, Hoffmann, M.P. and Frodsham, A.C. (1993) Natural Enemies of Vegetable Insect Pests. Cooperative Extension, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. 63 pp. Hillock, D., & Bolin, P. (n.d.). Earth-Kind Gardening Series Mechanical Pest Controls.. Retrieved April 19, 2014, from Physical Control of Pests. (n.d.). Physical Control of Pests. Retrieved April 19, 2014, from SMITH F. B., ENGER E. D., 2010, Environmental Science, McGraw Hill Higher Education, Twelth Edition WRIGHT R. T., BOORSE D. F., 2011, Environmental Science, Pearson, Eleventh Edition RAVEN P. H., BERG L. R., HASSENZAHL D. M., 2010, Environment, Wiley, Seventh Edition