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Ch 14 and 15 General Review.  For what purposes do we use land?  Farming, mining, recreation, building cities and roads.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 14 and 15 General Review.  For what purposes do we use land?  Farming, mining, recreation, building cities and roads."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 14 and 15 General Review

2  For what purposes do we use land?  Farming, mining, recreation, building cities and roads.

3  Land that is covered mainly with buildings and roads.  Urban land

4  An area that contains 2500 or more people and has a governing body.  Urban area

5  Land that contains relatively few people and large areas of open space.  Rural area

6  Land used to graze livestock and wildlife.  Rangeland

7  Land used for harvesting wood, wildlife, fish, nuts, and other resources.  Forest land

8  Land used to grow plants for food and fiber.  cropland

9  Land used for recreation and scenic enjoyment and for preserving native animal and plant communities and ecosystems.  Parks and Preserves

10  Land that is difficult to use for human purposes.  Wetlands, mountains, and deserts

11  What is the percentage of land that is used for cropland in the United States?  20%

12  What is the percentage of land that is used for range and pasture land in the United States?  26%

13  What is the percentage of urban land in the US?  6%

14  Each person in a developed country uses the ecosystem services provided by about _____ hectares of land and water. 88

15  The movement of people from rural areas to cities is known as ___________.  Urbanization

16  How is a metropolitan area defined by the US census bureau?  Small towns that grow together to form larger urban areas.

17  How can a rapidly increasing population overwhelm infrastructure?  Traffic jams, substandard housing, polluted air and water. The growth rate may increase faster than the ability to add infrastructure.

18  What is the infrastructure for a city?  Roads, sewers, railroads, bridges, canals, police stations, schools, hospitals, water mains, power lines….etc

19  The rapid expansion of a city into the countryside around the city.  Urban sprawl

20  Land that is poorly suited for building. (slopes of mtns, landslide areas, floodplains)  Marginal land

21  The increased temperature in a city.  Heat island

22  What methods may city planners utilize to reduce the heat island effect?  Plant trees for shade. Install rooftops that reflect rather than retain heat.

23  Determining in advance how land will be used.  Land use planning

24  A computerized system for storing, manipulating, and viewing geographic data.  GIS geographic information system

25  Open spaces in urban areas left in their natural condition. These include parks, public gardens, and hiking trails.  greenbelts

26  Allowing more animals to graze in an area than the range can support.  Overgrazing

27  Land that supports different vegetation types like grasslands, shrublands, and deserts and that is not used for farming or timber production.  rangeland

28  Why was the Public Rangelands Improvement Act of 1978 enacted?  To improve land management practices.  To improve the quantity of vegetation in rangeland.

29  What is the average amount of wood used by each person in the world each day?  1800 cubic cm per day

30  In developing countries, how many people depend on firewood as their main source of fuel?  About 1.5 billion

31  How does the timber industry classify forest lands?  Virgin forest, native forest, tree farms

32  Forest that has never been cut.  Virgin forest

33  Forest that is planted and managed.  Native forest

34  Areas where trees are planted in rows and harvested like crops.  Tree farms

35  What are the two most widely used methods of harvesting trees?  Clear cutting and selective cutting

36  The clearing of trees from an area without replacing them.  deforestation

37  An area in which the land and the ecosystems it supports are protected from all exploitation.  wilderness

38  What is a disadvantage of selective cutting?  It is more expensive because lumberjacks may not be able to get their heavy equipment around the other trees.

39  Why did crops fail in Ethiopia in 1985?  Lack of rain, loss of soil, and war

40  Widespread starvation caused by a shortage of food.  famine

41  The amount of energy that is available in food is expressed in ___________.  calories

42  What are the major nutrients that we get from food?  Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins

43  A condition that occurs when people do not consume enough calories or do not eat a sufficient variety of foods to fulfill all of the body’s needs.  malnutrition

44  The type and amount of food that a person eats.  diet

45  __________ are produced in the greatest amounts worldwide.  grains

46  People in more developed countries tend to eat more _______ and ______ than people eat in less developed countries.  Protein, fats

47  In the US, almost half of all calories people consume come from _______, ______, and ________.  Meat, fish, and oil

48  The amount of food that can be produced in a given area.  yield

49  The world’s farmers produce enough grain to feed up to _____ billion people an adequate vegetarian diet.  10

50  The world’s hungry are nearly all _______ ______ and ______ _______.  Farm workers subsistence farmers

51  Farmers who grow only enough food for local use.  Subsistence farmers

52  How is extreme poverty defined?  An income of less than $1 per day.

53  Where do the world’s hungry live?  Africa, Asia, and the Mountains of South America  Asia…..China and India

54  Between 1950 and 1970, Mexico increased its production of wheat ______-______ and _____ doubled its production of rice, without increasing the area of farmland used.  Eight-fold India

55  What was the cause of the green revolution?  New varieties of grain

56  The surface layer of soil.  topsoil

57  How does soil form?  Rock breaks down into smaller and smaller pieces by wind, water, and chemical weathering.

58  The movement of rock and soil by wind and water.  erosion

59  In the past 200 years, _______ of the original topsoil has been lost to erosion.  half

60  The process by which land in arid or semiarid areas becomes less capable of growing crops.  desertification

61  What farming methods are used to prevent soil erosion?  Terracing, countour planting, no till farming, and drip irrigation

62  How can you tell the difference between young and old soil?  Young soil has larger particle sizes. Old soil contains clay.

63  How does organic fertilizer differ from inorganic fertilizer?  Organic fertilizers are made of leaves and manure. Inorganic fertilizers contain nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

64  Partly decomposed organic material.  compost

65  The accumulation of salts in the soil.  salination

66  How can the salination of land be slowed or reduced?  Irrigation canals are lined to prevent water from seeping into the soil.  The soil is watered heavily to wash out salts.

67  In North America, insects eat about ______ percent of all crops.  13

68  What are three examples of crop pests?  Weeds, plant eating insects, fungi

69  Chemicals used to kill insects, weeds, and other crop pests.  pesticides

70  The ability of a pest to survive exposure to a particular pesticide.  resistance

71  What are the changes to humans from pesticide use?  Increased cancer rates, nervous system disorders

72  Pesticides that do not break down rapidly into harmless chemicals.  Persistent Pesticides

73  The use of living organisms to control pests.  Biological Pest Control

74  Organisms that cause disease.  pathogens

75  A chemical that interferes with some stage of a pest’s life cycle.  Growth regulator

76  Chemicals produced by one organism that affect the behavior of another organism.  pheromones

77  What is an example of a cultivation control?  Vacuuming insects off of plants

78  Why do farmers save the seeds from the best fruits and vegetables for the next crop?  They are more likely to contain the genes for pest resistance.

79  Plants that result from genetic engineering.  GM plants genetically modified

80  Animals that are bred and managed for human use.  domesticated

81  Catching or removing from a population more organisms than the population can replace.  overharvesting

82  The raising of aquatic organisms for human use or consumption.  aquaculture

83  Domesticated animals that are raised to be used on a farm or ranch or to be sold for profit.  livestock

84  Why is the percentage of seafood produced by aquaculture increasing so rapidly?  Overharvesting is reducing the amount of fish in the oceans. 20% of the animal protein consumed comes from fish. Aquaculture can provide a large amount of food in a shorter time.


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