Presentation on theme: "Ch 14 and 15 General Review. For what purposes do we use land? Farming, mining, recreation, building cities and roads."— Presentation transcript:
Ch 14 and 15 General Review
For what purposes do we use land? Farming, mining, recreation, building cities and roads.
Land that is covered mainly with buildings and roads. Urban land
An area that contains 2500 or more people and has a governing body. Urban area
Land that contains relatively few people and large areas of open space. Rural area
Land used to graze livestock and wildlife. Rangeland
Land used for harvesting wood, wildlife, fish, nuts, and other resources. Forest land
Land used to grow plants for food and fiber. cropland
Land used for recreation and scenic enjoyment and for preserving native animal and plant communities and ecosystems. Parks and Preserves
Land that is difficult to use for human purposes. Wetlands, mountains, and deserts
What is the percentage of land that is used for cropland in the United States? 20%
What is the percentage of land that is used for range and pasture land in the United States? 26%
What is the percentage of urban land in the US? 6%
Each person in a developed country uses the ecosystem services provided by about _____ hectares of land and water. 88
The movement of people from rural areas to cities is known as ___________. Urbanization
How is a metropolitan area defined by the US census bureau? Small towns that grow together to form larger urban areas.
How can a rapidly increasing population overwhelm infrastructure? Traffic jams, substandard housing, polluted air and water. The growth rate may increase faster than the ability to add infrastructure.
What is the infrastructure for a city? Roads, sewers, railroads, bridges, canals, police stations, schools, hospitals, water mains, power lines….etc
The rapid expansion of a city into the countryside around the city. Urban sprawl
Land that is poorly suited for building. (slopes of mtns, landslide areas, floodplains) Marginal land
The increased temperature in a city. Heat island
What methods may city planners utilize to reduce the heat island effect? Plant trees for shade. Install rooftops that reflect rather than retain heat.
Determining in advance how land will be used. Land use planning
A computerized system for storing, manipulating, and viewing geographic data. GIS geographic information system
Open spaces in urban areas left in their natural condition. These include parks, public gardens, and hiking trails. greenbelts
Allowing more animals to graze in an area than the range can support. Overgrazing
Land that supports different vegetation types like grasslands, shrublands, and deserts and that is not used for farming or timber production. rangeland
Why was the Public Rangelands Improvement Act of 1978 enacted? To improve land management practices. To improve the quantity of vegetation in rangeland.
What is the average amount of wood used by each person in the world each day? 1800 cubic cm per day
In developing countries, how many people depend on firewood as their main source of fuel? About 1.5 billion
How does the timber industry classify forest lands? Virgin forest, native forest, tree farms
Forest that has never been cut. Virgin forest
Forest that is planted and managed. Native forest
Areas where trees are planted in rows and harvested like crops. Tree farms
What are the two most widely used methods of harvesting trees? Clear cutting and selective cutting
The clearing of trees from an area without replacing them. deforestation
An area in which the land and the ecosystems it supports are protected from all exploitation. wilderness
What is a disadvantage of selective cutting? It is more expensive because lumberjacks may not be able to get their heavy equipment around the other trees.
Why did crops fail in Ethiopia in 1985? Lack of rain, loss of soil, and war
Widespread starvation caused by a shortage of food. famine
The amount of energy that is available in food is expressed in ___________. calories
What are the major nutrients that we get from food? Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins
A condition that occurs when people do not consume enough calories or do not eat a sufficient variety of foods to fulfill all of the body’s needs. malnutrition
The type and amount of food that a person eats. diet
__________ are produced in the greatest amounts worldwide. grains
People in more developed countries tend to eat more _______ and ______ than people eat in less developed countries. Protein, fats
In the US, almost half of all calories people consume come from _______, ______, and ________. Meat, fish, and oil
The amount of food that can be produced in a given area. yield
The world’s farmers produce enough grain to feed up to _____ billion people an adequate vegetarian diet. 10
The world’s hungry are nearly all _______ ______ and ______ _______. Farm workers subsistence farmers
Farmers who grow only enough food for local use. Subsistence farmers
How is extreme poverty defined? An income of less than $1 per day.
Where do the world’s hungry live? Africa, Asia, and the Mountains of South America Asia…..China and India
Between 1950 and 1970, Mexico increased its production of wheat ______-______ and _____ doubled its production of rice, without increasing the area of farmland used. Eight-fold India
What was the cause of the green revolution? New varieties of grain
The surface layer of soil. topsoil
How does soil form? Rock breaks down into smaller and smaller pieces by wind, water, and chemical weathering.
The movement of rock and soil by wind and water. erosion
In the past 200 years, _______ of the original topsoil has been lost to erosion. half
The process by which land in arid or semiarid areas becomes less capable of growing crops. desertification
What farming methods are used to prevent soil erosion? Terracing, countour planting, no till farming, and drip irrigation
How can you tell the difference between young and old soil? Young soil has larger particle sizes. Old soil contains clay.
How does organic fertilizer differ from inorganic fertilizer? Organic fertilizers are made of leaves and manure. Inorganic fertilizers contain nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.
The accumulation of salts in the soil. salination
How can the salination of land be slowed or reduced? Irrigation canals are lined to prevent water from seeping into the soil. The soil is watered heavily to wash out salts.
In North America, insects eat about ______ percent of all crops. 13
What are three examples of crop pests? Weeds, plant eating insects, fungi
Chemicals used to kill insects, weeds, and other crop pests. pesticides
The ability of a pest to survive exposure to a particular pesticide. resistance
What are the changes to humans from pesticide use? Increased cancer rates, nervous system disorders
Pesticides that do not break down rapidly into harmless chemicals. Persistent Pesticides
The use of living organisms to control pests. Biological Pest Control
Organisms that cause disease. pathogens
A chemical that interferes with some stage of a pest’s life cycle. Growth regulator
Chemicals produced by one organism that affect the behavior of another organism. pheromones
What is an example of a cultivation control? Vacuuming insects off of plants
Why do farmers save the seeds from the best fruits and vegetables for the next crop? They are more likely to contain the genes for pest resistance.
Plants that result from genetic engineering. GM plants genetically modified
Animals that are bred and managed for human use. domesticated
Catching or removing from a population more organisms than the population can replace. overharvesting
The raising of aquatic organisms for human use or consumption. aquaculture
Domesticated animals that are raised to be used on a farm or ranch or to be sold for profit. livestock
Why is the percentage of seafood produced by aquaculture increasing so rapidly? Overharvesting is reducing the amount of fish in the oceans. 20% of the animal protein consumed comes from fish. Aquaculture can provide a large amount of food in a shorter time.