Haifa, Israel 9 million tons (66 million barrels) of crude oil/ year
What is Chemical Engineering? Basic sciences PLUS engineering fundamentals: Convert raw materials into valuable products Design and manufacture devices This is accomplished by: Chemical reactions (making and breaking of bonds) Catalysis (accelerating chemical reactions) Separation, purification of complex chemical mixtures
Famous Chemical Engineers Linus Pauling – Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1954, Nobel Peace Prize, 1962 Jack Welch – Former CEO of General Electric Lee Raymond – ExxonMobile chairman and CEO Victor Mills – Invented first disposable diaper Robert Gore – Inventor of Gore-Tex Samuel Bodeman – Former United States Secretary of Energy (2005-2009)
Chemist vs. Chemical Engineer Chemists: Design new molecules and synthesizes new formulas – Work in grams of materials Chemical Engineers: Design equipment and processes for large-scale chemical manufacturing – Work in tonnes of materials
Bhopal Gas Tragedy Union Carbide India Limited pesticide plant, Bhopal, India - December 2-3, 1984 1-naphthol chloroformate carbaryl
Factors leading to the Bhopal disaster Caused >15,000 deaths Use of hazardous chemicals (MIC) instead of less dangerous ones Storing these chemicals in large tanks instead of over 200 steel drums. Possible corroding material in pipelines Poor maintenance after the plant ceased production in the early 1980s Failure of several safety systems (due to poor maintenance and regulations). Safety systems being switched off to save money— including the MIC tank refrigeration system
A Chemical Engineer’s Curriculum Lots of Math, Chemistry and Physics Fundamental Classes – Heat and Mass Transfer – Chemical Thermodynamics – Chemical Kinetics – Fluid Mechanics – Units of Chemical Processes: chemical reactors, bioreactors, distillation columns, heat exchangers – Design Chemical Process – integrate process units with regard to economics, safety and environmental impact
Black Box Theory Device, system or object which can be viewed solely in terms of its input, output and transfer characteristics without any knowledge of its inner workings Examples: – Computer programming; software testing – Finance: market prediction – Climate change- weather prediction – Physics: Particle physics Hadron Collider – Human mind: fMRI Biological systems… Black box theory has been used in many fields of science and engineering
Evaporator Converts Liquid -> Gas Heat Exchanger A(75C) A(30C) Distillation Column AB A + B
Process Unit Input/FeedOutput Distillation AB A + B Heat Exchanger A(75C) A(30C) Blackbox Unit Operations
Process streams Mass flow rate, m, (kg/h) Volumetric flow rate, V (L/min)......
Process Unit Input/FeedOutput Distillation AB A + B Heat Exchanger A(75C) A(30C) Blackbox Unit Operations m 1, v 1.. m 2, v 2..
The volumetric flow rate of CCl 4 ( = 1.595 g/cm 3 ) in a pipe is 100.0 cm 3 /min. What is the mass flow rate of the CCl 4 ? Question 1
Process Unit Input/FeedOutput M in (kg CH 4 /h). M out (kg CH 4 /h). M in != M out.. Why? 1.Incorrect measurement 2.Leakage 3.Adsorption onto the walls 4.Reacted away? Or generated as a product?
Conservation of Mass What goes in must come out!! At steady state, accumulation in system = 0: No reaction:
Each year 50,000 people move into a city, 75,000 people move out, 22,000 are born and 19,000 die. Write a balance on the population of the city. Question 2
A feed stream of pure liquid water enters an evaporator at a rate of 0.5 kg/s. Three streams come from the evaporator: a vapor stream and two liquid streams. The flow-rate of the vapor stream was measured to be 4 X 10 6 L/min and its density was 0.004 kg/m 3. The vapor stream enters a turbine, where it loses enough energy to condense fully and leave as a single stream. One of the liquid streams is discharged as waste, the other is fed into a heat exchanger, where it is cooled. This stream leaves the heat exchanger at a rate of 0.1893 kg/s. Calculate the flow rate of the discharge and the efficiency of the evaporator. Question 3
One thousand kilograms per hour of a mixture of benzene (B) and toluene (T) containing 50% benzene by mass is separated by distillation into two fractions. The mass flow rate of benzene in the top stream is 450 kg B/h and that of toluene in the bottom stream is 475 kg T/h. The operation is at steady state. Write balances on benzene and toluene to calculate the unknown component flow rates in the output streams. Question 4
Question 5 Two methanol-water mixtures are contained in separate flasks. The first mixture contains 40.0 wt% methanol, and the second contains 70.0 wt% methanol. If 200 g of the first mixture is combined with 150 g of the second, what are the mass (m) and composition of the product?
High Fructose Corn Syrup Milestones – 1957 – Process developed by Richard O. Marshall and Earl R. Kooi – Up until 1970: sucrose used as a main sweetener – 1975 – 1985 – HFCS introduced to processed foods and soft drinks – Common forms: HFCS 42 and HFCS 55 Soft Drinks95% Baked Goods25% Diary30% Processed Foods45%
Sold in a bushel: 56 pounds of wet corn (48.1 lb of dry corn + 7.9 lb of water) Milling Process Corn Oil1.6 lb Cornmeal2.5 lb Animal Feed12.5 lb Starch31.5 lb Water7.9 lb
Operation Research and Industrial Engineering ORIE, IEOR, OR-SE-IE
Originated in military efforts in WWII Evaluates efficacy of the use of technology “Decision science”: OR finds optimal solutions to complex decision making process
Examples 1.Routing: Routes of buses so few buses are needed 2.Floor-planning: layout of equipment of factory or computer chip to reduce manufacturing time/ costs 3.Network optimization: set-up of telecommunications network to maintain quality of service during outages 4.Healthcare: How effective are various disease treatments
Courses? Statistics Optimization Probability theory Decision analysis Queuing/Game/Graph theories Computer science/analytics
Financial Engineering NOT a real engineering discipline!
Applies engineering methodologies to problems in finance Combines: to predict Design new financial instruments Models to help minimize financial risk
Jobs? Investment banks Securities industry Consulting firms (quantitative analysts) Corporate finance/risk management roles in other general manufacturing and service firms
Prerequisite: Bachelor’s in computer science, operation research economics or math Master of Financial Engineering Master of Quantitative Finance PhDs in computer science or applied mathematics Face of a Financial Engineer?
Courses to consider in college: Financial economics (some colleges offer engineering economics) Probability and statistics Differential equations Software engineering
Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) International professional designation to financial analyst who complete three (6 hr) exams Level 1: Asset valuation, financial reporting/analysis, portfolio management Level 2: Asset valuation and quantitative methods Level 3: Portfolio management and strategies for managing equity, derivative investments for individuals and institutions