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Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century: reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause. Christopher Kniffen Research and.

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Presentation on theme: "Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century: reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause. Christopher Kniffen Research and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century: reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause. Christopher Kniffen Research and Development Specialist Soil Works LLC.

2 Human Microbiome Project (HMP) The HMP aims to characterize the microbial communities found at several different sites on the human body, and to analyze the role of these microbes in human health and disease. The HMP found that the human gut on average contains 100 trillion bacteria. Bacteria are needed to digest food, to synthesize certain vitamins, and to compete with disease- causing bacteria

3 Microorganisms in the human gastrointestinal tract form an intricate ecosystem affecting body weight, energy, and nutrition. The ideal ratio of beneficial to pathogenic bacteria in your gut is – 85% good bacteria – 15% bad bacteria An imbalance in bacterial populations decreases your bodies natural immune system. Nutr Clin Pract Apr;27(2): doi: / Epub 2012 Feb 24..

4 Since 1992, Inflammatory Bowel Disease has increased 40% – The main form of IBD is Crohn’s disease. Symptoms of Crohn’s include: Abdominal pain Vomiting Diarrhea Rectal bleeding Sever internal cramps/muscle spasms in the pelvis Weight loss Cosnes, J., Gower-Rousseau, C., Seksik, P., and Cortot, A Epidemiology and Natural History of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Gastroenterology 140,

5 Gastrointestinal Infections: Age-Adjusted Rates of Death in the United States, 1979–2004 Vital Statistics of the United States

6 On February 1, 2012, researchers at the Pre-& Probiotics conference reported that worldwide probiotic sales are expected to increase from $2.7 billion in 2011 $4 billion in That’s a 48% increase. The United States is showing the fastest growth of probiotic sales, with the industry bringing in $140 million in “Probiotics Market By Products (Functional Foods, Dietary Supplements, Specialty Nutrients, Animal Feed), Applications (Regular, Therapeutic, Preventive Health Care) And Ingredients (Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria, Yeast) – Global Trends & Forecasts To 2017”.

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8 So…… If we have 100 trillion bacteria in our gut, then why are we needing probiotics? WHAT HAS CHANGED?

9 In 1995 the US received marketing approval for the following transgenic crops: – Canola with modified oil composition (Calgene) – Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn/maize (Ciba-Geigy) – Cotton resistant to the herbicide bromoxynil (Calgene) – Bt cotton (Monsanto) – Bt potatoes (Monsanto) – Soybeans resistant to the herbicide glyphosate (Monsanto) – Virus-resistant squash (Asgrow) – Delayed ripening tomatoes (DNAP, Zeneca/Peto, and Monsanto) James, C. and A.F. Krattiger Global Review of the Field Testing and Commercialization of Transgenic Plants, 1986 to 1995: The First Decade of Crop Biotechnology. ISAAA Briefs No. 1. ISAAA: Ithaca, NY. pp. 31.

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11 Transgenic or Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) are crops that have had a foreign gene inserted into their DNA. In NON-GMO plants, the production of the EPSPS gene is stopped by chemical herbicides. This results in a decrease in the NON- GMO plants immunity to pathogenic diseases, which ultimately, causes death to all NON-GMO plants. In GMO plants, this foreign gene allows the plant to compensate for discontinued production of the EPSPS gene caused by herbicides. In the GMO crop, the inserted gene allows chemical pesticides and herbicides to be applied without detriment to the plants immune system. For the grower this means they have to spend less time and effort on weed control while still producing high yields…….its an easy choice right? Steinrucken HC, Amrhein N The herbicide glyphosate is a potent inhibitor of 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1980, 94,

12 In 2007, glyphosate (Roundup) was the most common herbicide used in the agricultural sector. Glyphosate use rose 1500% from 1994 to million pounds of glyphosate is used every year on more than a billion acres. United States EPA 2007 Pesticide Market Estimates Agriculture, Home and Garden “Food herbicide residues set to rise as much as 150 times”, Press Release, GM Freeze, 8 February 2012, Cherry B. GM crops increase herbicide use in the United States. Science in Society 45, 44-46, 2010

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14 But, the manufacturer promotes that glyphosate is “completely safe for the environment.” So safe you can drink it! In 1991, the Peer Review Committee classified glyphosate as Group E (evidence of non- carcinogenicity) based on a lack of convincing evidence.

15 Patent issued on August 10, Glyphosate was patented as an antimicrobial agent. Estimated Expiration Date: August 29, 2023.

16 So…… Are Probiotics correcting the cause…..or reacting to symptoms? If you have 100 trillion bacteria in your stomach, and you are consuming a known antimicrobial agent…..is there a connection?

17 Figure 3. Stomach shows allergic response of discoloration and inflammation in GMO fed pig (right) compared with control (left) NON-GMO FED GMO FED Sirinathsinghji E. GM Soy Linked to Illnesses in Farm Pigs. Science in Society 55, 8-9, 2012.

18 The 2011 Meeting of physicians found that in crop sprayed towns in Argentina there was a reduction in the average age and height of residents. In addition residents experienced increased, “birth defects, mutagenesis, miscarriages, depression and suicide, disorders of the central nervous system and other neurological pathologies; disabilities, spina bifida, lupus, leukemia and other types of cancers; chloracne and other skin problems; asthma, allergies, and other respiratory and lung-related problems; male sterility and impotence; hormonal disruption and other hormonal disorders; diminished childhood development; prolonged febrile syndrome without focus; children’s increased vulnerability to pollutants; anemia, multiple sclerosis cerebral ischemia, death.” physicians-of-sprayed-and-fumigated-towns-and-villages/ physicians-of-sprayed-and-fumigated-towns-and-villages/ Consumer Benefits: De Roos AJ, Blair A, Rusiecki JA, Hoppin JA, Svec M, Dosemeci M, Sandler DP, Alavanja MC. Cancer incidence among glyphosate-exposed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Environ Health Perspect 2005, 113,

19 In doses far lower than those used in agricultural spraying. Glyphosate has caused birth defects in frog and chicken embryos. Humans have the same developmental mechanisms as frogs and chickens. At lower “nontoxic” concentrations of glyphosate (1 ppm), males exhibit a testosterone decrease by 35% Consumer Benefits: Ho MW. Roundup Kills Frogs. Science and Society 26, 14, Sirinathsinghji EC. Glyphosate Kills Rat Testes Cells. Science in Society 54, Clair E, Mesnage R, Travert C, Seralini GE. A glyphosate-based herbicide induces necrosis and apoptosis in mature rat testicular cells in vitro, and testosterone decreases at lower levels. Toxicology In Vitro 2011 Dec 19. [Epub ahead of print] Ho MW. Lab study establishes glyphosate link to birth defects. Science in Society 48, 32-33, 2010.

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22 At lower nontoxic concentrations of glyphosate (1 ppm), males exhibit a testosterone decrease by 35% mg/kg = ppm

23 So…… Are testosterone supplements correcting the cause…..or reacting to symptoms?

24 MONSANTO’S PLEDGE “As an agricultural and technology company committed to human rights, we have a unique opportunity to protect and advance human rights. We have a responsibility to consider not only how our business can benefit consumers, farmers, and food processors, but how it can protect the human rights of both Monsanto’s employees and our business partners’ employees.” Hugh Grant, Monsanto, Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer

25 The 2011 Meeting of physicians found that in crop sprayed towns in Argentina there was a reduction in the average age and height of residents. In addition residents experienced increased, “birth defects, mutagenesis, miscarriages, depression and suicide, disorders of the central nervous system and other neurological pathologies; disabilities, spina bifida, lupus, leukemia and other types of cancers; chloracne and other skin problems; asthma, allergies, and other respiratory and lung-related problems; male sterility and impotence; hormonal disruption and other hormonal disorders; diminished childhood development; prolonged febrile syndrome without focus; children’s increased vulnerability to pollutants; anemia, multiple sclerosis cerebral ischemia, death.” Consumer Benefits: and-villages/

26 Who is really benefiting?

27 How Glyphosate Works as a broad spectrum herbicide. – Glyphosate inhibits the plant enzyme EPSPS in the shikimate pathway which disrupts the production of amino acids. Amino acids are the building blocks for all proteins. – Glyphosate weakens secondary metabolism. Secondary metabolism is responsible for production of plant defense compounds. Disruption of secondary metabolism can cause premature cell death in the plant. – Glyphosate does not kill the plant. It weakens the plants immune system for pathogens to take over Steinrucken HC, Amrhein N The herbicide glyphosate is a potent inhibitor of 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1980, 94,

28 When glyphosate is applied to sterile soil (A), it does not kill the plant. According to Purdue weed scientists, the actual plant assassins are severe disease-causing organisms present in almost all soils. Glyphosate dramatically promotes these, which in turn overrun the weakened crops with deadly infections. Ho MW and Cherry B. Glyphosate tolerant crops bring diseases and death. Science in Society , 2010.

29 Glyphosate tolerant crops are engineered to carry extra copies of the EPSPS gene. – These GM crops are tolerant to glyphosate, however they cannot metabolize it or get rid of it. – Therefore, glyphosate remains in the plant residues of GM crops destined to become food or animal feed. – Glyphosate does not degrade, it can remain in the soil for up to 25 years. Steinrucken HC, Amrhein N The herbicide glyphosate is a potent inhibitor of 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1980, 94,

30 Glyphosates antimicrobial properties are increasing the occurrence and severity of plant pathogens. – Thirty-four plant diseases have been reported in the scientific literature to increase in occurrence as a result of glyphosate weed- eradication programs. – Not only are these plant diseases increasing, pesticide and herbicide use is steadily increasing due to “super weeds” which are becoming resistant to glyphosate. Sirinathsinghji E. USDA Scientist Reveals All. Glyphosate Hazards to Crops, Soils, Animals and Consumer. Science in Society 53, , Sirinathsinghji E. Monsanto Defeated By Roundup Resistant Weeds. March 21 st 2012.http://www.weedscience.org/In.asp

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32 Glyphosate is also a strong chelating agent and was originally designed and patented as such. Its effect and use as an herbicide have been afterthoughts. Glyphosate was originally patented by Stauffer Chemicals in the early 1960s as a descaling agent [used to remove mineral residues inside dishwashers, vents and the like]. It was only by coincidence that it got spilled and it killed the weeds it contacted. It was subsequently purchased by Monsanto, and the rest is history. Steinrucken HC, Amrhein N The herbicide glyphosate is a potent inhibitor of 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1980, 94,

33 Chelation: to combine a metal ion with a cation to form a ring. Weak Strong A weak chelator can increase the availability of plant nutrients, prevent leaching and the formation of precipitates, and decrease the toxicity of metal ions. A strong chelator can decrease the availability of plant nutrients rendering them unavailable for plant uptake. In particular, – Copper, Iron, Zinc and Manganese Cakmak, I, Yazici, A, Tutus, Y, and Ozturk L. Glyphosate reduced seed and leaf concentrations of calcium, magnesium, manganese, and iron in non-glyphosate resistant soybean.

34 Copper – An effective natural fungicide – Vital in the synthesis of lignin Lignin is recognized as a partial barrier to the penetration of pathogens such as powdery mildew. – Functions as a cofactor for a variety of oxidative enzymes These oxidative enzymes allow the plant to produce auto- immune response to plant pathogens. Micronutrient Functions Copper deficiency appears as chlorosis of young leaves; tips appear withered and will eventually die. Hopkins WG, Hüner NP Introduction of Plant Physiology. 3rd Edition. John Willy and Sons, Inc. USA

35 Iron – Required by plants in the largest amounts. – Required for the synthesis of chlorophyll. Involved in photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and respiration. – Iron deficiencies lead to a simultaneous loss of chlorophyll and degeneration of chloroplast structure. Micronutrient Functions Iron deficiencies appear as young leaves with interveinal chlorosis and a sharp distinction between veins and chlorotic areas. Hopkins WG, Hüner NP Introduction of Plant Physiology. 3rd Edition. John Willy and Sons, Inc. USA

36 Zinc – An activator for a large number of enzymes. These enzymes drive many metabolic reactions in the plant. Growth and development would stop if these metabolic reactions did not take place. – Needed in small quantities. Micronutrient Functions Zinc deficiencies are expressed as stunted growth and middle leaves with interveinal chlorosis. Young and/or old leaves become chlorotic in the later stages of the deficiency. Hopkins WG, Hüner NP Introduction of Plant Physiology. 3rd Edition. John Willy and Sons, Inc. USA

37 Manganese – Required as a cofactor for a number of enzymes. Plays a critical role in the respiratory carbon cycle. – Best known for its role in the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) during photosynthesis Micronutrient Functions Manganese deficiency causes a spotty appearance and may cause extreme chlorosis between the leaf veins as wells as discoloration and deformities in legume seeds. Hopkins WG, Hüner NP Introduction of Plant Physiology. 3rd Edition. John Willy and Sons, Inc. USA

38 Manganese, the OEC and Water Use Efficiency compbio.ucdenver.edu

39 Responsible for the splitting (oxidation) of water Electrons supplied by a Mn and Ca cluster are the catalysts for the direct solar splitting of water for hydrogen production. Oxygen Evolving Complex Hopkins WG, Hüner NP Introduction of Plant Physiology. 3rd Edition. John Willy and Sons, Inc. USA

40 Manganese ions are directly responsible for the splitting of water and the plants efficiency of water use (Water Use Efficiency). The availability of Manganese in the soil is vital to the plants ability to efficiently use water in times of stress. Cakmak, I, Yazici, A, Tutus, Y, and Ozturk L. Glyphosate reduced seed and leaf concentrations of calcium, magnesium, manganese, and iron in non- glyphosate resistant soybean. Zobiole LHS, Silverio de Oliveira RS Jr, Kremerb RB, Constantina J, Bonatoc CM, Muniz AS. Water use efficiency and photosynthesis of glyphosate- resistant soybean as affected by glyphosate. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 20120, 97, Zobiole LHS, Bonini EA, Oliveira RS Jr, Kremer RJ, and Ferrarese-Filho O. Glyphosate affects lignin content and amino acid production in glyphosate- resistant soybean. Acta Physiologiae Plantarium 2010, 32, Sirinathsinghji E. US drought destroys GM corn. Science in Society 56 (to appear) 2012.

41 So.... If you are applying glyphosate (a strong chelator) to your crop, will your crop use water efficiently?

42 During a drought, organic dramatically outperforms industrial agriculture. Due to an increased Water Use Efficiency (WUE). Photo and caption: Rodale Institute Sirinathsinghji E. US drought destroys GM corn. Science in Society 56 (to appear) 2012.

43 And that is why we now have this… Are we correcting the cause….or simply reacting to the symptom? Coming in 2013….

44 Take Home Message: Look at what has changed? Work to correct the cause…not the symptom

45 Vertical Integration Describes a style of management control, where vertically integrated companies are united through a common owner. Each member of the supply chain produces a different product or service, and the products combine to satisfy a common need.

46 Relationships Among Monsanto Company, Pharmacia Corporation, Pfizer Inc., and Solutia Inc. Prior to Sept. 1, 1997, a corporation that was then known as Monsanto Company (Former Monsanto) operated an agricultural products business (the Ag Business), a pharmaceuticals and nutrition business (the Pharmaceuticals Business) and a chemical products business (the Chemicals Business). Former Monsanto is today known as Pharmacia. Pharmacia is now a wholly owned subsidiary of Pfizer Inc., which together with its subsidiaries operates the Pharmaceuticals Business. Today’s Monsanto includes the operations, assets and liabilities that were previously the Ag Business. Today’s Solutia comprises the operations, assets and liabilities that were previously the Chemicals Business. “….We have a responsibility to consider not only how our business can benefit consumers, farmers, and food processors, but how it can protect the human rights of both Monsanto’s employees and our business partners’ employees.” -Monsanto

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