Presentation on theme: "Big Idea 15: Diversity and Evolution of Living Organisms"— Presentation transcript:
1 Big Idea 15: Diversity and Evolution of Living Organisms Description A. The scientific theory of evolution is the organizing principle of life science.B. The scientific theory of evolution is supported by multiple forms of evidence.C. Natural selection is a primary mechanism leading to change over time in organisms.
2 Benchmark Number & Descriptor SC.7.L.15.1Recognize that fossil evidence is consistent with the scientific theory of evolution that living things evolved from earlier species.SC.7.L.15.2Explore the scientific theory of evolution by recognizing and explaining ways in which genetic variation and environmental factors contribute to evolution by natural selection and diversity of organisms.SC.7.L.15.3Explore the scientific theory of evolution by relating how the inability of a species to adapt within a changing environment may contribute to the extinction of that species.
4 CHANGE OVER TIME Evolution: Scientists have reason to believe that many species of organisms have changed overtime.Evidence of change is found within the Earth’s crust.
5 FOSSILSEvidence of organisms in the past are based on the following information:Fossil RecordGeographic Distribution of Living SpeciesHomologous Body StructuresSimilarities in Embryology
6 FOSSILS Fossil Record Types of Fossils Helps organize fossils by their ages and similaritiesOlder fossils found may not be around anymore; whereas fossils found in newer layers of Earth’s crust maybe related to today’s organisms.Imprint in a rock of an organism, leaf, or featherCast of an animal track, shell, etc.Petrifaction of bone or woodOrganism frozen in iceInsects/organisms trapped in amber
7 FOSSILS Relative Dating Radiometric Dating Fossils found in lower layers of rock are said to be older than those found near the surface.Comparison of radioactive and non-radioactive elements in a rock can predict age of rock and the fossil in it.Radiometric Dating
8 FOSSILSGEOGRAPHYSimilar animals found in different locations are said to be the product of different lines of descent from the same ancestors
9 OTHER EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURESBody parts that are similar in structure and origin might show a common ancestor between organisms.Example:Bird wing, bat wing, and dolphin flipper each have about the same number of bones and blood vessels
10 OTHER EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION VESTIGIAL STRUCTURESA body part that still exists but has no function for that organismPast ancestors may have had a use for these structures.Examples:Whales have a pelvic bone but no legs.
11 OTHER EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION EMBRYOLOGYThe study of how an organisms embryo developsSimilarities suggest an evolutionary relationship.
12 OTHER EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION DNAA way to see if organisms are related is to study their DNA.Organisms that have similar DNA are said to have similar ancestors.Example:Dogs closest relatives are bears.All primates may have evolved from the same ancestors.
13 PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM SPEED of EVOLUTIONGRADUALISMPUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUMSteady, slow ongoing processEvidence of intermediate forms of species exist.Rapid evolution by mutationNo middle form foundExample:BacteriaChanges quickly to resist medications
14 KNOWLEDGE CHECKHow are fossils important evidence for the theory of evolution?Whose DNA would be closest to matching yours, your parents, or a first cousin? Why?List and give an example of three examples of evolution.Distinguish between the two speeds of evolution.
15 KNOWLEDGE CHECKHow are fossils important evidence for the theory of evolution? They provide evidence of how species have changed over time.Whose DNA would be closest to matching yours, your parents, or a first cousin? Why? Your parents because they are your closest relatives.List and give an example of three examples of evolution. Homologous structures: dolphin flipper, bat wing; vestigial structures: hip bones in snakes; embryology: humans have gill slits and a tail bone during development.Distinguish between the two speeds of evolution. Gradualism – change takes place over time; fossils show intermediate changes.Punctuated Equilibrium – rapid change, no fossil record, bacteria
17 Jean Baptiste de Lamarck IDEAS of EVOLUTIONJean Baptiste de Lamarck1809, created a theory on how species evolve overtimeHe believed offspring receive traits that their parents develop during their lives.Traits that were not used by their parents were lost, and offsprings did not inherit them.Theory of Acquired CharacteristicsExample:If a parent was a weight lifter and gained large muscles from working out, the offspring produced would be born with large muscles.Lamarck’s ideas were rejected.Lamarck believed that the long necks of giraffes evolved as generations of giraffes reached for ever higher leaves.
18 IDEAS of EVOLUTION Charles Darwin Mid 1800’s, Darwin traveled to the Galapagos Islands.Darwin observed that characteristics of many plants and animals vary greatly among the islands.Darwin hypothesized separate species may have arose from an original ancestor.Darwin figures that species with traits best fitted for their natural environment survived and were able to reproduce.Theory of Natural SelectionDarwin wondered why so many different but closely related finches lived on islands just a few miles apart.
19 Theory of Natural Selection Organisms which are better adapted to their environment are able to survive and to reproduce.Main Ideas about Natural Selection:Organisms differ; variation is inherited.Organisms produce more offspring than survive.Organisms compete for resources.Organisms with advantages survive to pass those advantages to their children.Species alive today are descended with modifications from common ancestors.
21 KNOWLEDGE CHECK Compare Lamarck’s and Darwin’s ideas of evolution. Why is reproduction a factor in Natural Selection?
22 KNOWLEDGE CHECK Compare Lamarck’s and Darwin’s ideas of evolution. Lamarck – organisms inherit acquired traits.Darwin – those organisms that survive are able to pass traits off to their offspring.Why is reproduction a factor in Natural Selection?In order for traits to be passed on, reproduction has to occur. The more offspring that are produced, the greater the chance of species survival.
24 SURVIVINGIn order for a species to survive, organisms must adapt to their environment.Adaptations can include:Adapting to huntingInsecticide resistanceCompetition for matesPhysical adaptationsBehavioral adaptationsHey! I’m a walking stick. I look just like a stick you’d find on the ground.
25 SURVIVINGAdaptation to HuntingAFRICAN ELEPHANTSAnimals of a species which are hunted for a specific reason may become extinct, while those animals of the same species who lack what is wanted will survive.These elephants have been hunted for their Ivory tusks. Today, 15% of African elephants do not have tusks. More tuskless elephants have survived and therefore are able to pass the tuskless trait to offsprings.
26 Insecticide Resistance SURVIVINGInsecticide ResistanceTo help control the insect population, many insecticides have been created.This is also true for bacteria and antibiotics.The bacteria and insects become resistant and do not die off and therefore are able to reproduce and pass the resistant traits along.Pesticide application can artificially select for resistant pests. In this diagram, the first generation happens to have an insect with a heightened resistance to a pesticide (red). After pesticide application, its descendants represent a larger proportion of the population because sensitive pests (white) have been selectively killed. After repeated applications, resistant pests may comprise the majority of the population.
27 SURVIVING Competition for Mates Survival of individual organisms does not necessarily mean survival of an entire species.Reproduction has to occur in order for next generations to occur.Many times, organisms will only mate with other organisms that have specific looks.If an organism does not posses these certain traits and mating does not occur, that particular organism may die out.
28 SURVIVING Physical Adaptations Camouflage allows an animal to blend into its environment. Mimicry allows one animal to look, sound, or act like another animal to fool predators into thinking it is poisonous or dangerous. Leaf Butterflies2 Bumble Bees and 2 Robber Flies
29 Behavioral Adaptations SURVIVINGBehavioral AdaptationsInstinctive BehaviorsHappen naturally and do not need to be taughtExamples:Migration:an animal or group of animals moving from one region to another and then back again.Reasons:better climatebetter foodsafe place to livesafe place to raise younggo back to the place they were born
30 EXTINCTIONIf a species cannot adapt to its environment, it may become extinct.All of the organisms of a specific species must die in order to become extinct.Extinction may happen over a long period of time or in an abrupt manner.Mass extinctions have occurred when sudden changes in climate happen, such as the ice age or if a natural disaster occurs, such as a volcanic eruption.
32 KNOWLEDGE CHECKHow is the tuskless trait a survival characteristic for some elephants?Doctors are beginning to see a problem with everyone using antibacterial hand soap. Why?List one physical and one behavioral adaptation.
33 KNOWLEDGE CHECKHow is the tuskless trait a survival characteristic for some elephants? Tuskless elephants are less likely to be hunted; therefore, they will have a better chance to reproduce.Doctors are beginning to see a problem with everyone using antibacterial hand soap. Why? Bacteria are beginning to become resistant to these soaps since they are being used in excess.List one physical and one behavioral adaptation. Physical – camouflageBehavioral - migration