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Practice Test Questions

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1 Practice Test Questions
Evolution Review Practice Test Questions

2 1. Homologous structures are defined as anatomical structures originating from the same structure in ancestral form. For instance, a bird's wing and the front flippers of a seal are examples of homologous structures. Which of the following does the presence of homologous structures in vertebrates suggest? A All vertebrates developed internally. B All vertebrates have a common ancestor. C All vertebrates evolved from different animals. D All vertebrates probably developed at the same rate.

3 1. Homologous structures are defined as anatomical structures originating from the same structure in ancestral form. For instance, a bird's wing and the front flippers of a seal are examples of homologous structures. Which of the following does the presence of homologous structures in vertebrates suggest? A All vertebrates developed internally. B All vertebrates have a common ancestor. C All vertebrates evolved from different animals. D All vertebrates probably developed at the same rate.

4 2. The embryos of fish, chickens, and pigs have gill slits and a tail
2. The embryos of fish, chickens, and pigs have gill slits and a tail. The presence of these features suggests that — A pigs and chickens are closely related. B all these animals can swim. C gill slits and tails are required for embryonic development. D these animals had a common ancestor.

5 2. The embryos of fish, chickens, and pigs have gill slits and a tail
2. The embryos of fish, chickens, and pigs have gill slits and a tail. The presence of these features suggests that — A pigs and chickens are closely related. B all these animals can swim. C gill slits and tails are required for embryonic development. D these animals had a common ancestor.

6 3. A researcher recently discovered a new species of bacteria in the body of a tubeworm living near a hydrothermal vent. He compared the DNA of this new bacterial species to the DNA of four other species of bacteria, as shown below. The DNA sequences came from the same part of the bacterial chromosome of all four species. According to this data, the unknown bacterial species is most closely related to — A species I. B species II. C species III. D species IV.

7 3. A researcher recently discovered a new species of bacteria in the body of a tubeworm living near a hydrothermal vent. He compared the DNA of this new bacterial species to the DNA of four other species of bacteria, as shown below. The DNA sequences came from the same part of the bacterial chromosome of all four species. According to this data, the unknown bacterial species is most closely related to — A species I. B species II. C species III. D species IV.

8 4. In the diagram below, B, C, and D represent organisms that currently exist. These organisms have very similar skeletons. Letter A most likely represents — A an acquired characteristic. B geographic distribution. C a homologous structure. D a common ancestor.

9 4. In the diagram below, B, C, and D represent organisms that currently exist. These organisms have very similar skeletons. Letter A most likely represents — A an acquired characteristic. B geographic distribution. C a homologous structure. D a common ancestor.

10 5. While on an excavation, an archaeologist uncovers some bones
5. While on an excavation, an archaeologist uncovers some bones. He suspects that they belonged to an early ancestor of today's modern horse. What is the best method to use to test this belief? A Create a linkage of bones from similar burial sites B Perform a cytochrome C comparison of the two subjects C Perform a DNA comparison of the two subjects D Create a model showing the two organisms side by side

11 5. While on an excavation, an archaeologist uncovers some bones
5. While on an excavation, an archaeologist uncovers some bones. He suspects that they belonged to an early ancestor of today's modern horse. What is the best method to use to test this belief? A Create a linkage of bones from similar burial sites B Perform a cytochrome C comparison of the two subjects C Perform a DNA comparison of the two subjects D Create a model showing the two organisms side by side

12 6. The diagrams to the right show the forelimbs of four different organisms. A comparison of these organisms' forelimbs indicates that these organisms evolved — A from a common ancestor in the past B from different adaptations for similar functions C in similar ways over time D unique characteristics in different environments

13 6. The diagrams to the right show the forelimbs of four different organisms. A comparison of these organisms' forelimbs indicates that these organisms evolved — A from a common ancestor in the past B from different adaptations for similar functions C in similar ways over time D unique characteristics in different environments

14 7. The diagrams to the right show the forelimbs of four different organisms. These organisms are ___________ structures. A vestigial B analogous C homologous D binomial

15 7. The diagrams to the right show the forelimbs of four different organisms. These organisms are ___________ structures. A vestigial B analogous C homologous D binomial

16 8. Which of the following most likely shows that two different organisms have a relatively recent common ancestor? A They are the same size. B They have similar amino acid sequences. C They live in the same type of ecosystem. D They reproduce during the same time of year.

17 8. Which of the following most likely shows that two different organisms have a relatively recent common ancestor? A They are the same size. B They have similar amino acid sequences. C They live in the same type of ecosystem. D They reproduce during the same time of year.

18 9. Scientists compared the fossil remains of a species that lived 5,000 years ago to members of the same species living today. Scientists concluded that the species changed very little over this period of time. Which statement best accounts for this lack of change? A The environment did not change significantly, and those offspring expressing new characteristics did not survive. B The environment changed significantly, but the species had no natural enemies for a long period of time. C The environment changed significantly, and those offspring without favorable characteristics died. D The environment did not change significantly, and those offspring expressing new characteristics survived their natural enemies.

19 9. Scientists compared the fossil remains of a species that lived 5,000 years ago to members of the same species living today. Scientists concluded that the species changed very little over this period of time. Which statement best accounts for this lack of change? A The environment did not change significantly, and those offspring expressing new characteristics did not survive. B The environment changed significantly, but the species had no natural enemies for a long period of time. C The environment changed significantly, and those offspring without favorable characteristics died. D The environment did not change significantly, and those offspring expressing new characteristics survived their natural enemies.

20 10. The rock strata were excavated in an area as illustrated above and the fossil remains examined. According to this information, the most likely scenario is that A Layer I is the oldest, followed by Layer II, III, and IV. B Fish suddenly appeared on Earth at the time of Layer III. C A marine environment gradually filled with sediment and became a terrestrial environment. D A terrestrial environment was covered by a shallow sea for a period of time.

21 10. The rock strata were excavated in an area as illustrated above and the fossil remains examined. According to this information, the most likely scenario is that A Layer I is the oldest, followed by Layer II, III, and IV. B Fish suddenly appeared on Earth at the time of Layer III. C A marine environment gradually filled with sediment and became a terrestrial environment. D A terrestrial environment was covered by a shallow sea for a period of time.

22 11. Natural selection operates extremely rapidly to develop advantageous traits in —
populations that are interested in becoming resistant to harmful bacteria. B individuals that are struggling to survive under harsh conditions. C populations that are facing a change in environmental conditions. D individuals that are developing into sexually mature adults.

23 11. Natural selection operates extremely rapidly to develop advantageous traits in —
populations that are interested in becoming resistant to harmful bacteria. B individuals that are struggling to survive under harsh conditions. C populations that are facing a change in environmental conditions. D individuals that are developing into sexually mature adults.

24 12. Natural selection produces change by allowing beneficial genes to recombine in —
individual organisms during their lifetime. B individual organisms as they develop in the embryo. C only the first generation of offspring. D successive generations of offspring.

25 12. Natural selection produces change by allowing beneficial genes to recombine in —
individual organisms during their lifetime. B individual organisms as they develop in the embryo. C only the first generation of offspring. D successive generations of offspring.

26 13. Which of the following outcomes would you predict for a population of mosquitoes exposed to a new pesticide? A Over several generations, the mosquitoes would become resistant to the pesticide. B Over several generations, the mosquitoes would evolve into several new species. C Over several generations, the mosquitoes would all be killed and become extinct. D Over several generations, the mosquitoes would be more susceptible to the pesticide.

27 13. Which of the following outcomes would you predict for a population of mosquitoes exposed to a new pesticide? A Over several generations, the mosquitoes would become resistant to the pesticide. B Over several generations, the mosquitoes would evolve into several new species. C Over several generations, the mosquitoes would all be killed and become extinct. D Over several generations, the mosquitoes would be more susceptible to the pesticide.

28 14. Differences between the members of a population will most likely be passed on to future generations if they are — A due to genetic changes and result in unfavorable variations. B due to genetic changes and result in favorable variations. C not due to genetic changes and result in favorable variations. D not due to genetic changes and result in unfavorable variations.

29 14. Differences between the members of a population will most likely be passed on to future generations if they are — A due to genetic changes and result in unfavorable variations. B due to genetic changes and result in favorable variations. C not due to genetic changes and result in favorable variations. D not due to genetic changes and result in unfavorable variations.

30 15. Which process increases inheritable variations?
Active transport B Synthesis of proteins C Mitotic cell division D Recombination of genes

31 15. Which process increases inheritable variations?
Active transport B Synthesis of proteins C Mitotic cell division D Recombination of genes

32 1. Canadian squirrels are responding to global warming by breeding earlier in the year. This gives them more time to find and store food for the upcoming winter. How will natural selection produce changes in the population of Canadian squirrels? A Natural selection will act only upon the Canadian squirrels that have reproduced before winter comes. B Natural selection will act upon all of the Canadian squirrels as they compete with one another. C Natural selection will act only upon the female Canadian squirrels. D Natural selection will act upon all of the Canadian squirrels which cannot reproduce.

33 1. Canadian squirrels are responding to global warming by breeding earlier in the year. This gives them more time to find and store food for the upcoming winter. How will natural selection produce changes in the population of Canadian squirrels? A Natural selection will act only upon the Canadian squirrels that have reproduced before winter comes. B Natural selection will act upon all of the Canadian squirrels as they compete with one another. C Natural selection will act only upon the female Canadian squirrels. D Natural selection will act upon all of the Canadian squirrels which cannot reproduce.

34 2. Natural selection produces change in —
individuals during their reproductive years, as hormonal imbalances affect the genotypes of each member of a population. B populations over multiple breeding cycles, as mutations affect the reproductive fitness of different individuals. C individuals during their lifespan, as developmental changes affect the phenotypes of each member of a population. D populations over a single breeding cycle, as advantageous traits affect the supply of environmental resources of different individuals.

35 2. Natural selection produces change in —
individuals during their reproductive years, as hormonal imbalances affect the genotypes of each member of a population. B populations over multiple breeding cycles, as mutations affect the reproductive fitness of different individuals. C individuals during their lifespan, as developmental changes affect the phenotypes of each member of a population. D populations over a single breeding cycle, as advantageous traits affect the supply of environmental resources of different individuals.

36 3. A wildlife biologist wants to set up an experiment to determine how natural selection produces change. Which experiment is most likely to show how natural selection operates? A An experiment that involves finding the relationship between the number of seeds that a soapberry bug population consumes and the number of offspring that a soapberry bug population produces over three generations B An experiment that involves observing which adaptations undertaken by a soapberry bug population in one generation prove to be successful C An experiment that involves estimating the number of individuals in a soapberry bug population that will be affected by environmental shifts that occur over two generations D An experiment that involves calculating the distribution of an advantageous gene in a soapberry bug population after six generations

37 3. A wildlife biologist wants to set up an experiment to determine how natural selection produces change. Which experiment is most likely to show how natural selection operates? A An experiment that involves finding the relationship between the number of seeds that a soapberry bug population consumes and the number of offspring that a soapberry bug population produces over three generations B An experiment that involves observing which adaptations undertaken by a soapberry bug population in one generation prove to be successful C An experiment that involves estimating the number of individuals in a soapberry bug population that will be affected by environmental shifts that occur over two generations D An experiment that involves calculating the distribution of an advantageous gene in a soapberry bug population after six generations

38 4. After the Industrial Revolution, dark-colored moths outnumbered light-colored moths in certain regions of England. Within the past 40 years, factories in these regions have added scrubbers and air purifiers to their smokestacks. The relative number of light-colored moths has increased. The probable reason for this increase is that — A overpopulation occurred and most of the light-colored moths died, leaving only dark-colored moths to reproduce. B the environment favored the survival of light-colored moths over dark-colored moths. C the allele for light color became dominant over the allele for dark color. D the dark color of certain moths faded in direct sunlight.

39 4. After the Industrial Revolution, dark-colored moths outnumbered light-colored moths in certain regions of England. Within the past 40 years, factories in these regions have added scrubbers and air purifiers to their smokestacks. The relative number of light-colored moths has increased. The probable reason for this increase is that — A overpopulation occurred and most of the light-colored moths died, leaving only dark-colored moths to reproduce. B the environment favored the survival of light-colored moths over dark-colored moths. C the allele for light color became dominant over the allele for dark color. D the dark color of certain moths faded in direct sunlight.

40 5. According to the theory of natural selection, why are some individuals more likely than others to survive and reproduce? A Some individuals are better adapted to their environment than others. B Some individuals pass on to their offspring new characteristics they have acquired during their lifetimes. C Some individuals do not pass on to their offspring new characteristics they have acquired during their lifetimes. D Some individuals tend to produce fewer offspring than others in the same environment.

41 5. According to the theory of natural selection, why are some individuals more likely than others to survive and reproduce? A Some individuals are better adapted to their environment than others. B Some individuals pass on to their offspring new characteristics they have acquired during their lifetimes. C Some individuals do not pass on to their offspring new characteristics they have acquired during their lifetimes. D Some individuals tend to produce fewer offspring than others in the same environment.

42 6. Duck feet are especially well-adapted for life in the water
6. Duck feet are especially well-adapted for life in the water. Sharp claws allow them to better navigate the wet, slippery environment and webbed toes aid in their swimming ability. These adaptations probably came about as a result of A one duck developing these favorable traits over its lifetime and passing them to its offspring B variation in the duck population; ducks born with one or more of these traits were more reproductively successful C nature selecting against these adaptations D selective breeding of ducks with these favorable traits over many generations

43 6. Duck feet are especially well-adapted for life in the water
6. Duck feet are especially well-adapted for life in the water. Sharp claws allow them to better navigate the wet, slippery environment and webbed toes aid in their swimming ability. These adaptations probably came about as a result of A one duck developing these favorable traits over its lifetime and passing them to its offspring B variation in the duck population; ducks born with one or more of these traits were more reproductively successful C nature selecting against these adaptations D selective breeding of ducks with these favorable traits over many generations

44 7. In an area in Africa, temporary pools form in wetlands
7. In an area in Africa, temporary pools form in wetlands. Some fish have developed the ability to use their ventral fins as "feet" to travel on land from one temporary pool to another. Fish without this ability die when the pools dry up. What can be expected to happen in this area after many years? A All varieties of fish will survive and produce many offspring. B The number of fish using ventral fins as "feet" will increase. C "Feet" in the form of ventral fins will develop on all fish. D All fish will develop the ability to walk on their ventral fins.

45 7. In an area in Africa, temporary pools form in wetlands
7. In an area in Africa, temporary pools form in wetlands. Some fish have developed the ability to use their ventral fins as "feet" to travel on land from one temporary pool to another. Fish without this ability die when the pools dry up. What can be expected to happen in this area after many years? A All varieties of fish will survive and produce many offspring. B The number of fish using ventral fins as "feet" will increase. C "Feet" in the form of ventral fins will develop on all fish. D All fish will develop the ability to walk on their ventral fins.

46 8. A trait that an organism expresses during its lifetime will only cause its species to become better adapted if the trait — A is caused by the genetic code that is present in the gametes of the organism. B causes a change in the environment surrounding the organism. C decreases the number of genes in the body cells of the organism. D results from isolation of the organism from the rest of the population.

47 8. A trait that an organism expresses during its lifetime will only cause its species to become better adapted if the trait — A is caused by the genetic code that is present in the gametes of the organism. B causes a change in the environment surrounding the organism. C decreases the number of genes in the body cells of the organism. D results from isolation of the organism from the rest of the population.

48 9. Rabbits normally eat some grass as a food source
9. Rabbits normally eat some grass as a food source. In a habitat, a new species of grass is introduced that out-competes most of the original species of grass. The new species of grass contains a chemical that is usually toxic and fatal to most rabbits. Assuming that all rabbits in this habitat will eat some of the new species of grass, how will the presence of the new grass most likely decrease the diversity of the rabbit population in this habitat? A Only rabbits that eat less grass will survive. B Only rabbits that eat more grass will survive. C Only rabbits that can find old grass to eat will survive. D Only rabbits that are resistant to the chemical will survive.

49 9. Rabbits normally eat some grass as a food source
9. Rabbits normally eat some grass as a food source. In a habitat, a new species of grass is introduced that out-competes most of the original species of grass. The new species of grass contains a chemical that is usually toxic and fatal to most rabbits. Assuming that all rabbits in this habitat will eat some of the new species of grass, how will the presence of the new grass most likely decrease the diversity of the rabbit population in this habitat? A Only rabbits that eat less grass will survive. B Only rabbits that eat more grass will survive. C Only rabbits that can find old grass to eat will survive. D Only rabbits that are resistant to the chemical will survive.

50 10. Darwin's theory that evolution was caused by natural selection explains the sequential nature of groups in the fossil record. The idea that earlier, simpler species have been replaced by later, more complex species explains the diversity of fossils and their absence in modern times. Darwin's theory of evolution — A is one of several scientific explanations of the fossil record and modern biodiversity and has not been tested by any scientists. B is one of many scientific explanations of the fossil record and modern biodiversity and has been tested by several scientists. C is the only scientific explanation of the fossil record and modern biodiversity and has been tested by many scientists. D is one of two scientific explanations of the fossil record and modern biodiversity and has been partially tested by several scientists.

51 10. Darwin's theory that evolution was caused by natural selection explains the sequential nature of groups in the fossil record. The idea that earlier, simpler species have been replaced by later, more complex species explains the diversity of fossils and their absence in modern times. Darwin's theory of evolution — A is one of several scientific explanations of the fossil record and modern biodiversity and has not been tested by any scientists. B is one of many scientific explanations of the fossil record and modern biodiversity and has been tested by several scientists. C is the only scientific explanation of the fossil record and modern biodiversity and has been tested by many scientists. D is one of two scientific explanations of the fossil record and modern biodiversity and has been partially tested by several scientists.


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