T HE P LAYERS Martin Luther King, Jr. (MLK) Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) Malcolm X Nation of Islam Black Panthers Supporters of Non- Violent Methods Supporters of Violent- Methods
S TOKLEY C ARMICHAEL : African Americans should use their economic and political muscle to gain equality
T HE P USH FOR V OTING R IGHTS Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee “ Freedom Summer” 1,000 volunteers folld Mississippi to register African Americans to vote. Southern Christian Leadership Conference “March in Selma” Pressured gov’t to enact a voting rights act. Heavily armed troopers attack marchers. SNCC, 1960 SCLC, 1957
V ICTORIES Ø more literacy tests Ø more poll taxes Voting Rights Act, 1965 24th Amendment, 1964
L OSSES … April 4, 1968. In the wake of his murder Congress passed the Fair Housing Act, which banned discrimination in housing.
W OMEN ’ S R IGHTS M OVEMENT The theory of political, social & economic equality for men and women. Rights gained in the civil rights movement Discrimination against women Unsatisfying roles Workforce limitations & discrimination Feminism Causes for the movement
W OMEN ’ S M OVEMENT Betty Friedan Pres. of NOW “The Feminine Mystique” Gloria Steinem Ms. Magazine Phyllis Schlafly Conservative Political activists Denounced women’s lib as an “assualt on the family, on marriage, and on children. ProponentsOpponents
NOW NOW : N ATIONAL O RGANIZATION FOR W OMEN Established by Betty Friedan Sought to win equality for women Tried to get passage of ERA =Equal Rights Amendment Worked to protect a woman’s right to an abortion
R OE V W ADE Passed in 1973 Gave women the right to legal abortions
T HE E NVIRONMENTAL M OVEMENT April 22, 1970=1 st “Earth Day” EPA formed=Environmental Protection Agency. Clean Air Act (1970) Clean Water Act (1973) Endangered Species Act (1973) Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, 1962
R ACHEL C ARSON & S ILENT S PRING Published in 1962 Inspired much environmental activism Describes deadly impact of pesticides on wildlife Eventually compelled Congress to restrict use of pesticide DDT.
C OUNTER C ULTURE OF THE 60 S -70 S Grew out of the beatnik movement Emphasis on freedom from materialism Influenced by civil rights movement Questioned traditional values
HIPPIES…HIPPIES… Youth generation Non-Judeo –Christian spirituality Peace, love, freedom Recreational drug use Open sexual relationships Rock n’ Roll
C OUNTER C ULTURE Generation gap: Rebellion & misunderstanding between older & younger generations Communes: lived together Haight-Ashbury: Center of the counter-culture in district of San Francisco. Experimented with drugs Listened to Rock n’ Roll & speeches made by Timothy Leary Encouraged youths to ““tune in,” “turn on” to drugs and “drop out” of mainstream society.