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Safety Food The Environment. Definition Before the industrial revolution Ancient Jordanian cultures climate and agriculture Pollution Paleothic Period.

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Presentation on theme: "Safety Food The Environment. Definition Before the industrial revolution Ancient Jordanian cultures climate and agriculture Pollution Paleothic Period."— Presentation transcript:

1 Safety Food The Environment

2 Definition Before the industrial revolution Ancient Jordanian cultures climate and agriculture Pollution Paleothic Period Neolothic Period Chlacolithic Period Early Bronze age Conclusion Air pollution Causes Effects Water pollution Causes Effects Soil pollution Causes Effects Solutions Go to references F FIINNIISSHHIINNGG F FIINNIISSHHIINNGG

3 The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally on Earth or some region The concept of the natural environment can be distinguished by components: -Complete ecological units that function as natural systems without massive human intervention, including, soil, rocks, atmosphere and natural phenomena that occur within their boundaries. -Universal natural resources and physical phenomena that lack clear-cut boundaries, such as air, water, and climate One of the massive problem that the world has been facing since after world war II is the environmental pollution, it is the contaminants in a natural environment that causes instability, disorder or harm to the ecosystem. Back

4 Ancient Jordanian cultures climate P aleolithic Period (500,000-17,000 BC) The climate during this period was considerably wetter than today, which includes us. Jordan has been affected by the global warming through ages. And therefore large areas of modern-day desert were open plains ideal for a hunting and gathering subsistence strategy. An old painting from the Paleothic Period

5 N eolithic Period (8500-4500 BC) From the basic shifts in settlement patterns was prompted by the changing weather of the eastern desert. The area grew warmer and drier, gradually becoming virtually uninhabitable throughout much of the year. The distinction between the desert to the east and the "sown" areas to the west dates back to this watershed climatic change, which is believed to have occurred from around 6500-5500 BCE. Human presence during the Neolithic period (6000-3000 B.C.) Back

6 C halcolithic Period (4500-3200 BC) Chalcolithic man relied less on hunting than in Neolithic times, instead focusing more on sheep and goat-breeding and the farming crops that grow in warm environments such as: wheat, barley, dates, olives and lentils. Sheep and goat breeding in the Chalcolithic Period

7 Early Bronze Age (3200-1950 BC) A sharp climatic change at this time resulted in less rainfall and higher temperatures across the Middle East. The predominant theory is that many of these Early Bronze Age towns were victims of changes in climate and political factors which brought an end to a finely-balanced network of independent Back An ancient bronze pot from The Early Bronze Age

8 EE arth's axial tilt is the main cause of the seasons. The earth’s axial tilt is not a fixed quantity but changing over time in a cycle with a period of 41,000 years Milankovitch theory describes the collective effects of changes in the Earth's movements upon its climate which lead to an ice age, but the 20th century instrumental temperature record shows a sudden rise in global temperatures attributed to greenhouse gas emissions. DD ue the 498,050 years from the Paleolithic Period to Early bronze age the climate has changed a lot and by the mentioned records the climate became more drier by ages. Back

9 The environment before the industrial revolution Industrial Revolution is a double-edged sword, it improved the quality of human life and caused damages progressively to the environment The Industrial Revolution began in England in the middle of the 18 th century. A variety of ingenious inventions paved the way for machines to be used in production. Agriculture was also affected by industrialization. More advanced machines and techniques for farming became available. These new methods caused the soil to degenerate and increased the amount of land used in farming - ruining animal habitats. Back

10 Forms of pollution A ir pollution Causes Combustion of fuel is one of the major causes of air pollution in urban areas. Burning of fossil fuels such as natural gas and gasoline leads to the emission of carbon dioxide and other gases Increased level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is one of the prime causes of air pollution The chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), a class of synthetic chemicals used in refrigerants and aerosol propellants, have caused hole in Earth's ozone layer. Increased road and air traffic is another reason related to the high level of air pollution. Air pollution is partially caused by the particulates formed by a variety of substances, such as dust, pollen and other organic materials. Back

11 Air pollution Effects on plants Air pollution injury to plants can be evident in several ways. Injury to foliage may be visible in a short time and appear as necrotic lesions (dead tissue), or it can develop slowly as a yellowing or chlorosis of the leaf. There may be a reduction in growth of various portions of a plant. Plants may be killed outright, but they usually do not succumb until they have suffered recurrent injury. Air pollution Effects on human beings oIoI rritation of eyes, nose, mouth and throat oAoA sthma attacks oRoR espiratory symptoms such as coughing and wheezing oRoR educed energy levels oHoH eadaches and dizziness oDoD isruption of endocrine, reproductive and immune systems oNoN eurobehavioral disorders oCoC ancer

12 W ater pollution Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water without enough treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution affects, plants, and organisms living in bodies of water such as rivers, oceans and lakes. Causes of water pollution -P-Pathogens (such as: bacteria, fungi and algae) -C-Chemical and other contaminants, it contains organic and inorganic substances (organic such as: food processing waste, trees and bushes. And inorganic such as: chemical waste, fertilizers and heavy metals) -T-Thermal pollution: it’s the rise or fall in the temperature of a natural body of water caused by human influence. It results in a change in the physical properties of water and it decreases the oxygen level in water (which can kill fish) moreover it affects ecosystems.

13 Water pollution effects on plants The effect would include acid rain. Sulfuric and nitric acid rain washes nutrients out of the soil, damages the bark and leaves of trees and harms the fine root hairs of many plants which are needed to absorb water. Effects on human beings o Typhoid o Amoebiasis o Giardiasis o Ascariasis o Hookworm Back

14 Definition: Soil is composed of particles of broken rock that have been altered by chemical and environmental processes that include weathering and erosion. Soil formation greatly depends on the climate, Seasonal and daily temperature fluctuations affect the effectiveness of water in weathering parent rock material and affect soil dynamics. It is used in agriculture, where it serves as the primary nutrient base for plants. Soil material is a critical component in the mining and construction industries. Soil serves as a foundation for most construction projects. Massive volumes of soil can be involved in surface mining, road building and dam construction. Move to Causes Back

15 Soil pollution causes Industrial wastes, such as harmful gases and chemicals, agricultural pesticides, fertilizers and insecticides are the most important causes of soil pollution. Ignorance towards soil management and related systems. Unfavorable and harmful irrigation practices. Improper management and maintenance Leakages from sanitary sewage. Acid rains, when fumes released from industries get mixed with rains. Fuel leakages from automobiles, that get washed away due to rain and seep into the nearby soil. Unhealthy waste management techniques, which are characterized by release of sewage into the large dumping grounds and nearby streams or rivers. Back to previous slide

16 Effects of Soil Pollution on plants Decrease in soil fertility and therefore decrease in the soil yield Loss of soil and natural nutrients present in it. Generally crops cannot grow and flourish in a polluted soil. Yet if some crops manage to grow, then those would be poisonous enough to cause serious health problems in people consuming them. Effects of Soil Pollution on human beings Cancer Kidney and Liver Disease Brain and Nerve Damage Malaria Cholera and Dysentry Headaches, nausea, fatigue, eye irritation and skin rash Back

17 Soil management Soil Management, the basis of all scientific agriculture, which involves several essential practices: Tillage The purpose of tillage is to prepare the soil for growing crops. This preparation is traditionally accomplished by using a plow that cuts into the ground and turns over the soil. This removes or kills any weeds growing in the area and loosens and breaks up the surface layers of the soil. Maintenance of organic matter Organic matter is important in maintaining good physical conditions in the soil. It contains the entire soil reserve of nitrogen and significant amounts of other nutrients, such as phosphorus and sulfur. More Practices Back

18 Nutrient supply Among soil deficiencies that affect productivity, deficiency of nutrients is especially important. The nutrients most necessary for proper plant growth are nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, iron, calcium, sulfur, and magnesium, all of which usually exist in most soils in varying quantities ( Next slide shows the primary, secondary and micro-nutrients).Next slide Soil pollution The increasing amounts of fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals applied to soils since World War II, plus industrial and domestic waste-disposal practices, led to increasing concern over soil pollution. Soil pollution is the buildup in soils of persistent toxic compounds, chemicals, salts, radioactive materials, or disease-causing agents, which have adverse effects on plant growth and animal health Pesticide residues The effectiveness of a pesticide as well as the hazards of harmful residues depend largely on how long the pesticide remains in the soil. Back to previous slide

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