WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? Food System and the Food Cycle Food policy consists of setting goals for the sectors of the food system. Doisy College of Health Sciences Saint Louis University
Doisy College of Health Sciences Saint Louis University
CategoryFood Policy “Old”Food Policy “New” PopulationMostly ruralMostly urban Supply chainsShort – small number of food milesLong – large number of food miles Typical food preparationMostly food cooked at homeHigh proportion of pre-prepared meals, food eaten out PackagingLowHigh Food bought inLocal stalls or shops, open marketsSupermarkets Food safety issuesPesticide poisoning of field workers Toxins associated with poor storage Pesticide residues in food adulteration Bio-safety issues in processed foods (salmonella, listeriosis) Nutrition problemsUnder-nutritionChronic dietary diseases (obesity, heart disease, diabetes) Nutrient issuesMicronutrientsFat and Sugar Food-insecure ‘Peasants’Urban and rural poor Remedy for household food shortage Safety nets, food-based reliefSocial protection, income transfers Fora for food policy Ministries of agriculture, relief/rehabilitation, health Ministries of trade & industry, consumer affairs Food activist groups, NGOs Focus of food policy Agricultural technology, supplementary feeding, food for work Competition and rent-seeking in the value chain, waste management, advertising, health education, food safety Doisy College of Health Sciences Saint Louis University
FOOD DESERT DEFINITION To qualify as a "low-income community”, a census tract must have either: 1) a poverty rate of 20 percent or higher, OR 2) a median family income at or below 80 percent of the area's median family income; To qualify as a "low-access community”, at least 500 people and/or at least 33 percent of the census tract's population must reside more than one mile from a supermarket or large grocery store (for rural census tracts, the distance is more than 10 miles).
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIET AND HEALTH "Substantial current research emphasizes how urban food environments affect health particularly through the abundance of low-cost fast food, the death of supermarkets and fresh food and attendant effects on nutritional status and obesity.” –The Contribution of Urban Foodways to Health Disparities
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIET AND HEALTH -Conceptual Framework: multiple contributing factors to diet and health emphasized in a food desert environment. -Lack of access to nutritious food or the ability to exercise and practice a healthy lifestyle. -Correlation between access to supermarkets and less obesity. -Similar correlation with convenience stores and fast food: more fast food and convenience store, greater risk of obesity. -Increase in healthy options without a limitation of current food options will likely not have a significant effect.
CONCERNS WITH FOOD DESERT AREAS Malnutrition -Obesity paradox – choosing cheaper foods to stretch budget Usually nutrient-poor and energy dense Results in overweight/obesity Increased risk of chronic diseases Diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, some cancers -Lacking key nutrients due to limited food choices -Limited options for physical activity
WHY DOES IT MATTER? IS IT JUST? “The crowds of starving people—children, women, the elderly, immigrants, refugees, and unemployed—raise to us their cry of suffering. They implore us, hoping to be heard.”—Pope John Paul II --We have an ethical obligation to help others in need -- Food and Agricultural Organization estimates that one billion people suffer from hunger with another one billion from undernourishment.
DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Racial Demographic Majority African American About 40% Caucasian Income Food Desert Zip Codes: $25,000-$40,000 Non Food Desert Zip Code:$54,000 Age: 0-4 years old: <10% 15-24 years old: 12%-17% 65+ years old: 10%-25% Education: High School Graduation: 53%-62%
FOOD DESERT VS. NON FOOD DESERT MORTALITY Little variation overall Infant Mortality All food desert zip codes had higher infant mortality rates than the non food desert zip code This could come from a number of birth-related concerns For example: 63110 (17 th Ward) Birth-Related Conerns Mid-high percent for: Teen births Out of wedlock births Mothers using food stamps Mothers with less than 12 th grade education Low birth weight infants 2,500 grams (5.5 #) or less Highest rate for: Infant mortality Teen abortions
FOOD DESERT VS. NON FOOD DESERT HEALTH FACTORS Little variation, but still concerning issues Concerning Health Factors Food Bourne Illness High Birth Weight Influenza and Pneumonia Low Fertility Rate
VISIONING System change keeps the focus on big- picture thinking and is transformative beyond small actions. Creation of a vision of what a healthy St. Louis Regional Foodshed would look like can help lay the pathway to the activities supportive of a regional food policy. Doisy College of Health Sciences Saint Louis University
SOLUTIONS IN MOTION The Healthy Corner Store Project A joint effort by the University of Missouri Extension, City of St. Louis, and the St. Louis Development Corporation aims to tackle the barriers that prohibit access to food retailers and nutritious, healthy foods in local food deserts. “The Old North St. Louis neighborhood was able to open a community-run grocery store but not every neighborhood in the city has the capacity to open grocery stores, nor should they. Another way to address the issue is to work with stores already in our neighborhoods to help people purchase the food necessary to live healthier lifestyles”--Kara Lubischer, community development specialist with UMSL Extension Other Objectives: Encouraging aldermanic interest instituting grassroots marketing campaigns Conducting surveys so researchers can identify what types of produce interest customers most.
OTHER POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS 1.Taxation incentives Lower sales tax on fresh produce Goal: increase profit margins on fresh food Which would in turn encourage businesses to sell more fresh foods 2.Rebates From municipality to businesses based on the types of food they sold For example, if business sold a higher volume of healthy foods, they would receive a larger rebate 3. Financial Incentives Encourage businesses to have a particular business model For example: Save-A-Lot’s business model Exclusive brands: High-quality, low-priced private label assortment Fewer SKUs (stock keeping units) and low prices Neighborhood stores: Locating stores in diverse neighborhoods, hiring from within those communities and stocking product tailored to the neighborhood Shopping experience: Smaller stores average 15,000 sq. ft. and allow for a quick and easy shopping experience
RESOURCES http://www.whyhunger.org/programs/fslc/topics/nutrition/glossary.html https://global.slu.edu/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_tab_group_id=_2_1&url=%2Fwebapps%2Fblackb oard%2Fexecute%2Flauncher%3Ftype%3DCourse%26id%3D_62905_1%26url%3D http://www.thenorthsider.com/2011/05/corner-store-sells-fresh-produce/ Movoto. Movato LLC, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2012.. Asch, David. "The Contribution of Urban Foodways to Health Disparities." N.p., 2010. Web. 27 Nov. 2012.. Sodano, Angelo, and John Paul. "WORLD HUNGER A CHALLENGE FOR ALL: DEVELOPMENT IN SOLIDARITY." N.p., 1979. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. https://global.slu.edu/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_tab_group_id=_2_1&url=%2Fwebapps%2Fbla ckboard%2Fexecute%2Flauncher%3Ftype%3DCourse%26id%3D_62905_1%26url%3D https://global.slu.edu/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_tab_group_id=_2_1&url=%2Fwebapps%2Fbla ckboard%2Fexecute%2Flauncher%3Ftype%3DCourse%26id%3D_62905_1%26url%3D Sundve, Stacy M., and David A. Harvey. "Public Health Understanding Our Needs." (2007): n. pag. Print.