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Source Water Protection 101 www.sourcewatercollaborative.org 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Source Water Protection 101 www.sourcewatercollaborative.org 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Source Water Protection

2 2 A Healthy Watershed Means Healthy Drinking Water Photo credit: Strafford Rivers Conservancy of Dover, NH

3 Presentation Outline 1. What is Source Water and Source Water Protection? 2. What are the benefits associated with source water protection? 3. What are potential threats to sources of drinking water? 4. What are tools & techniques to protect drinking water sources? 5. How can your community protect sources of drinking water? 3

4 What is SOURCE WATER? Why is it so important? Source Water = Drinking Water Drinking water sources: – Surface water (rivers, streams, lakes and reservoirs) – Ground water (aquifers and springs) – Public and Private wells Vibrant community economies and public health depend on good local water quality 4

5 Evapotranspiration Pumping Well Recharge Aquifer Ground Water / Surface Water Interaction Stream Lake Precipitation Plant Uptake Lake Surface Runoff 5

6 What is SOURCE WATER PROTECTION? Protect drinking water sources: provide clean, safe water that minimizes treatment expenses, protects public health, and sustains communities. Many partners: public water systems, community leaders, land-use decision-makers, agricultural & forestry leaders, and the public. Voluntary actions and requirements at local, state, and federal levels that together can keep contaminants from entering sources of drinking water. State source water programs - based on each state’s water resources and drinking water priorities. 6

7 MONITORING & COMPLIANCE COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT SOURCE WATER PROTECTION reduce contaminant threats TREATMENT Safe Drinking Water Act Multiple-Barrier Approach 7

8 Potential Pathways of Contamination Surface Water – Urban/rural runoff (e.g., stormwater, livestock operations, farm fields, lawns) – Ground water infiltration – Direct discharge to water bodies (animal feces, boating, dumping) Ground Water – Infiltration (e.g., pesticide spills, fertilizer from row crops, animal production, improperly located or maintained septic systems) – Injection of contaminants – Naturally occurring substances (e.g., arsenic, radon) 8

9 What Information is Available to Protect Sources of Drinking Water? Source water protection areas: geographic areas around drinking water sources, used to identify and help protect from potential sources of contamination Potential contaminants/sources: States identified most prevalent, most threatening – Source Water Protection (SWP) Plans: Some localities have used this information to develop & implement SWP plans 9

10 Source Water Protection Area for Surface Water-Based Drinking Water Systems 19

11 Source Water Protection Area for Ground Water- Based Drinking Water Systems 10 year time of travel wells 2 year time of travel 20

12 COMMON POTENTIAL SOURCES of CONTAMINATION to DRINKING WATER Wastewater Systems  Municipal Sanitary Waste Treatment & Disposal  Large-Capacity Septics  Sewer Collection  Septic (on-site) Sewage Disposal Systems Wastewater Systems  Municipal Sanitary Waste Treatment & Disposal  Large-Capacity Septics  Sewer Collection  Septic (on-site) Sewage Disposal Systems Commerce/Industrial  Gas Stations  Chemical and Petroleum Storage  Dry Cleaners  Mining  Improper Waste Disposal Agriculture  Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations  Crop Production  Fertilizer/Pesticide Application  Agriculture Irrigation, Irrigation Wells, Agricultural Artificial Drainage Residential  Septic Systems  Lawn/Garden Care  Underground and Aboveground Storage Tanks  Fertilizer/Pesticide Application 12

13 State/Local Actions to Protect Sources of Drinking Water Update source water assessments, refine information about potential contaminants/sources Identify priority contaminants and sources Provide information for inspection and enforcement programs Develop voluntary partnerships to protect water quality: State Conservationists (NRCS/USDA), conservation districts, watershed groups, recreation groups 13

14 Actions that Protect Sources of Drinking Water Identify land use management and other measures that may be needed – Preserve land uses that protect water supply Regular septic system care Agricultural best conservation practices, e.g. fencing livestock out of streams & providing an alternate water source, fertilizer and manure management, conservation buffers, conservation tillage & crop rotation, drainage water management, efficient irrigation, integrated pest management Forestry best management practices to protect forests that preserve water quality 14

15 Costs of Contamination Direct Costs Treatment and Remediation Water Supply Replacement Public Information Campaigns Indirect Costs Health Costs Lost Productivity Reduced Revenue for Businesses that Depend on Clean Water: Tourism & Recreation, Food Processing Lost Economic Development Opportunities Lost Consumer Confidence Loss of Property Value and Tax Revenue 15

16 Urgency Time ProactiveReactive t f U (t) = P x C x $ x A

17 The Costs of Prevention Vary based on the prevention measures selected Responding to contamination can be much more costly than prevention Remsen, Iowa spent over $700K to purchase farmland for conservation to protect its drinking water from high nitrate levels, vs. over $2M projected cost for new nitrate treatment system " More than 117 million Americans (over 1/3 of the total US population) get some or all of their drinking water from waters that are not clearly protected right now. Some communities have found that every dollar spent on source water protection saves about $8 to $27 in water treatment costs.“ Geographic Information Systems Analysis of the Surface Drinking Water Provided by Intermittent, Ephemeral and Headwater Streams in the U.S. Performed by U.S. EPA July, 2009, 17

18 Potential Partners Federal and State Government – State source water programs, Clean Water programs, USDA agriculture and forestry programs, underground storage tank programs, hazardous waste programs (RCRA, Superfund), USGS, Bureau of Land Management County/Local Level – Public water systems – Planning departments – Public health programs – USDA county offices: Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), Farm Service Agency (FSA), Cooperative Extension – Conservation districts Non-Governmental Organizations – Watershed Groups – Trust for Public Land – The Nature Conservancy – Sporting groups, including Pheasants Forever, Ducks Unlimited Technical Assistance Providers: – Rural Water Associations, Rural Community Assistance Partnership 18

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20 Source Water Protection: Online Tips for Partnering with State Conservationists 20 Salmon Falls Watershed Collaborative Honored with 2012 U.S. Water Prize

21 Additional Resources 21 Mapping tool to identify priority areas for nutrient reduction: epa.gov/nutrientpollution/npdat Another useful map resource, MyWATERS Mapper: To customize your own source water pamphlet: Source Water Stewardship: A Guide to Protecting and Restoring Your Drinking Water at guide-protecting-and-restoring-your-drinking-waterhttp://www.cleanwaterfund.org/publication/source-water-stewardship- guide-protecting-and-restoring-your-drinking-water Example of local collaboration: Source water protection lessons for high school students: https://www.ffa.org/drinkingwater Speaker contact information:

22 "Do unto those downstream as you would have those upstream do unto you." ~ Wendell Berry 22


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