Presentation on theme: "Dying Bees: Harbingers of the End Times or Opportunity Buzzing?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Dying Bees: Harbingers of the End Times or Opportunity Buzzing? Jim Frazier, Chris Mullin& Maryann FrazierPenn State UniversityDepartment of EntomologyCenter for Chemical Ecology &Center for Pollinator ResearchAmerican Beekeeping FederationAnaheim, CAJanuary 2015
2 The Penn State Pesticide Team, Spring 2012 SaraChrisStephanieMaryannJingJimWanyiTimDanThe Penn State Pesticide Team, Spring 2012Collaborators: Dave Biddinger, Diana Cox-Foster, Tim Reluga,Dennis vanEngelsdorp, Jeff Pettis, Peter Teal, Gloria DeGrande-Hoffman22
5 PHILOSOPHICAL BASIS FOR THIS TALK REARED IN OHIO DIARY FARMING COUNTRY46 YEARS AS AN AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTACADEMICS-AGCHEM INDUSTRY- ACADEMICSBIRTH OF IPM, CHEMICAL ECOLOGY, GMO’S“THOSE WHO DO NOT LEARN FROM HISTORY AREBOUND TO REPEAT ITS MISTAKES”THREE QUESTIONS TO ASCERTAIN PROBLEMSIN A SYSTEM/ORGANIZATIONWHAT’S IMPORTANT AROUND HERE?HOW WELL ARE WE DOING?HOW DO YOU KNOW HOW WELL WE ARE DOING?
6 Inform Agitate Empower Are Dying Bees Harbingers or Opportunities ? Pesticides in the LandscapeInformAgitateEmpowerBees, Pesticides andOur Food SystemOpportunities as Agentsof Change
7 What is the Landscape View of Honey Bee foraging? Evan Leeson
8 How Far Do Honey Bees Forage ? 6 Km (3.7 miles)Foraging 95%113 Km2 = 27,932 Acres !Stress10 Km ( 6.2 miles)314 Km2 = 77,440 Acres !DynamicHighest Reward ForageAverage of 2 hrs(After Seeley, 1995)
9 US “Pesticide” Landscape Different from other Countries United Kingdom Registered ai’sFrance Registered ai’sMost European CountriesUS > 1200 ai’s - sold as 18,000 products
11 Pre bloom Applcns Insecticides Fungicides Reduced Risk Block Bee Bread Assail - AcetamipridDithane - MancozebVanguard - CyprodinilIndar - FebuconazoleConventional BlockCalypso -ThiaclopridWarhawk - ChrlorpyrifosDithane - MancozebVanguard - CyprodinilBee BreadAcetamipridThiaclopridCiprodinilMancozebChlorpyrifosFebuconazole+ 12 more not appliedC C C3** ** **C C C3** ** **Osmia PollenC117428971( **Coumaphos )482150228
12 Percent Apple Pollen in Trapped Pollen During Pollination of 3 PA Grower Orchards Year#ColoniesOrchardsMean% AppleRangePotentialMultipleFactor2009254166 - 476.2521102882 - 2212.52011101313.25 gm random sampled pollen pellets sorted into 6 colors
13 Field Study of Pesticide Exposure During Apple Pollination WHC
14 Conclusions from Apple Pollination and Migratory Studies 2007-2012 We have developed a good field testing protocol for measuring sub-lethal impacts of pesticides on bee colonies during a single generation reared on contaminated pollen.We have a new population dynamics model of colony development that can be used to predict potential consequences of pesticides in diets and help design future experiments.Bees collect pesticide residue while pollenating apples that reflects orchard sprays, but also contains added pesticides from outside the orchard- Landscape RulesTotal pesticide load in pollen varies widely from colony to colony and from one grower orchard to another- Polylectic Nature Rules
15 Conclusions from Apple Pollination and Migratory Studies 2007-2012 Nurse bees from larvae reared on pollen from a single apple pollination event have longevity reduced by ca. 50% and hypertrophied hypopharyngeal glands with unknown colony impactsColonies fed Migratory beekeeper levels of pesticides, herbicides and fungicides show multiple sub-lethal impacts using methods of finer precision than typically used to manage bee coloniesSimulation modeling of colony population dynamics with pesticide feeding indicates that sub-lethal impacts on social dynamics may be more important than lethality for multiple year impacts
26 Multi- residue Pesticide Analysis on US Beehive Samples Up to 39 different pesticides per sample, 6+ averageOnly 7% of over 1100 samples incl. controls lacked detectionsFound 131 different pesticides and metabolites18 organophosphates, 16 pyrethroids, 8 carbamates, 7 neonicotinoids,7 chlorinated cyclodienes, 5 organochlorines, 4 insect growth regulators,31 fungicides, 17 herbicides, 3 synergists, 2 formamidines, 13 misc.51 of these are systemic or partially systemic pesticidesOnly 35% of the total pesticides analyzed for were not found.Frazier, M. et al Amer. Bee J. 148(6):Mullin et al PLoS ONE 5(4) e9754.26
28 “Our Stolen Future” More Important than “Silent Spring” Endocrine Disruption byPesticides in VertebratesKnown since 1990”sSub-lethal effects ofPesticides binding tohormone receptors atthe wrong time for normalfunctioning yields abnormalConsequences at VERY LOWDOSESWe are just beginning toMeasure these in Bees-But should not be surprisedthey occur
30 Summary 1: Pesticides in the (bee) Landscape Pesticide residues are largely unknown for most terrestrial environments relative to ag, urban, forestry use (CA ***)Pesticide residues in water systems in ag areas where measured have significant frequencies above toxic thresholdsand mixtures are the normMany unknowns in quantifying pesticide exposure by bees of all types, thus all studies are relevant until proven otherwiseLab Studies measure the intrinsic action of a chemical on the biological system under controlled conditions thus all results are importantAquatic studies of pesticide mixtures far exceeds terrestrial level studies and offers model approaches on many levels, thus current EPA pesticide program refusal to deal with mixtures has no factual basis
31 Overall samples 33% toxic to amphipod: 12% to Midge 98 samples evaluated : trace elements,PAH, PBC, OC’sOverall samples 33% toxic to amphipod: 12% to MidgeBifenthrin (PYR) exceeded threshold in 14% of samplesMean probable effect concentration quotients (PECQs)for groups of compounds improved toxic classificationover that of single compounds
32 WARP-MP models use Atrazine model + adjustment factor for each pesticide- further refinements needed112 Pesticides modeled nationwide; 25% of these gavegreater than 50% probability of exceeding 1 or more speciestoxic thresholds in 1 or more streamsMany streams in corn belt had 1 or more pesticides exceedingaquatic life benchmarks indicating vulnerability in this area
33 How well are we doing in the Environment? Bees as Environmental Indicators tell us pesticide mixtures are prevalent in pollen and thus in plants of all typesNo pesticide or formulation or industrial chemical monitoring in terrestrial environment only CA has recordsAreas of intensive ag production have highest environmental loads and highest human health consequences- and highest bee colony impactsEPA goal of preventing “undue risks” or societal goals of preventing a degraded environment have not been metDisruption of the biological complexities of environment, ag ecosystems systems largely unknown
34 What’s Important about our Food System? We want abundant, uncontaminated, nutritious and affordable food supply of a wide varietyProduction system that is sustainable and in harmony with multiple types of environmentsProduction system that preserves biological diversity, soil productivity, water purityProducers entrusted with major environmental conservation, so should be recognized and supportedProducers with rewarding and sustainable lifestyles
35 How well are we doing?Industrial Revolution Paradigm since early 1900’sEconomy of scale for production of “widgets” cost focusedAg Research focused on increased farm productivityFence row to fence row farming + chemicals to manage risk – Landscape and watersheds ignoredReal costs to Environment largely IgnoredEnvironmental Conservation Roles and Farmer Lifestyles largely Ignored as a Major Societal Value
36 How Do We Know How Well We are we doing? Shift of small Family Farms to Larger Farms to Factory FarmsEconomy of scale leads to decreased quality and increased environmental costs both of which are largely ignoredWhen environmental impacts of waste disposal extend beyond the borders of the farm, it is a “community safety issue” not a “right to farm” issue (current policies flawed in PA)Corporate farms relegate farmers to surf statusWhile grains may be justified as commodities, the majority of our food does not fit the same model of productionChemically Free Nutritious Food is not a Specialty Item !
38 Alternative Model for Food Production Organic Ag- Minimize Chemical Usage through IPMMajor focus on healthy soil = healthy plantsLocally grown and locally consumed ( vs miles)High priority of sustainability of environment and of those engaged in food productionHigh personal innovation in increasing efficiency of productionRecent study confirms less than 10% decrease in production vs. conventional ag ( Kremen Group)
39 How well is this alternative model is working? Consumers have been voting approval with their purchases at 20% increase /year for over 20 yearsFastest Growing Sector of most food marketsFarmer’s Markets Reappearing across the USOrganic/Sustainable Farms Growing Rapidly in the East - PASAPreferred quality of food, environmental impacts and lifestyles producedHigh innovation in new approaches: pasture dairy, grass fed beef, high tunnel season extension, pick your own, farm toursVT and PA only states with Raw Milk Marketing
40 IPM: a Proven Method with Minimal Chemical Inputs Cotton Production “ Poison Them Bugs”Precise sampling- spray only when neededReduced sprays from to 15 or lessSimulation modeling of crop plants and pest dynamicsBoll Weevil Eradication ProgramRevolutionized cotton production/pesticide reductionResistance Management to Break Treadmill Approach
41 2015: GMO Plants with Seed Treatments 96 % Seed Treatment goes into environment for potential non-target impactsSystemic pesticide single MOA available all season leads to maximal rate of resistance development in target pestGlyphosate continual use leads to maximal resistance development in all major weed speciesSwitch to another herbicide only fulfills the chemical treadmill approach proven wrong by IPMExtent of Environmental costs currently unknownDoubled glyphosate sales in last 10 years- who has benefited and who is paying?
42 How Do We Know How Well are We Doing in Our Food System? 1970 when DDT was banned it was found in fatty tissue and mothers milk throughout US population2014 Survey of 1600 publications on glyphosate concludes that “ most biologically disruptive chemical in our environment”Failure to monitor environment for chemicals does not mean they are absent and exerting no impactsHow can anyone claim to have rational chemical regulation and safety if no one knows what is out there?Unacceptable Situation
43 What’s Important in the Politics of Pesticide Public Policy? Public policy that prevents undue risk to people and the environment from chemical usagePublic policy that monitors and reacts aggressively to infractions of specified use and unintended impactsConflicting values of those making and using pesticides balanced with those impacted by themA sustainable system that manages risks according to the best interests of society
44 The Iron Triangle of“Power in Washington The “functional way” that things get done yields “favoritism”
45 How well we are doing in Pesticide Regulation? 25 Year employee reveals history ofcompromised regulatory decisionsfavoring Chemical IndustriesPolitical influences outweigh scientificrealities in many EPA decisions2014 Boone et al. EPA decisions onAtrazine counter to 3 sets of science advisorsconfirms above history70% Pesticides Registered as “Conditional”Incident Reporting by States Broken butno action to fix it in last 6 yearsEntire Registration Risk Assessment notopen to scientific or public scrutiny
46 Pollinator Risk Assessment Improvements through 2011 International ConferenceSeparate Tier Testing for SystematicPesticides vs. SprayedAdded Adult Bee Chronic ToxicityAdded larval Bee Feeding ToxicityAdd Selected Native PollinatorsSub-Lethal Impacts, Formulations,Pesticide Mixtures not consideredDynamics of Making Changes AreToo Slow To be Meaningful, but AllowProfits to Keep Flowing to Registrants
47 Pesticides and Public Policy Impacting Bee Health Kellogg Fellow at National Center for Food & Ag Policy- D.C. for 6 weeksHow does the food system policy system work?Overwhelming lack of science in most of the discussion and thinking- its all about the $$Most people involved are not trained in science
48 How to Impact Public Policy The larger the voter base, the louder the voiceMake an economically justified caseCoalitions around common goals have become the norm for Ag & Environmental issuesEffectively lobby the process or sue individual entities to force decisionsPartnering with organizations that have experience and connections in D C makes good senseGarnering public support for one’s agenda is a huge undertaking ( but doable e.g. MADD!!)
49 What is the Case for the Bee Crisis? Bees the 3rd most important animal in US AgPollination an essential component of US Ag $20 B5.6 M colonies lost since 2006 = $1.12 Billion cost to beekeepers – UNACCEPTABLE SITUATIONLoss of 200 colonies - 5 crops not pollinated = $4.8 M loss of food production to growersResources to replace 30% annual losses depletedWill pollination needs exceed supply in 2015?
50 How Do We Know How Well We are Doing? Pesticide regulatory actions in critical need of revisionPolitical influences currently favoring those with the most money and thus the loudest “voices”NHBAB has made very significant advancements in getting seats at the right tables to be heardCoalitions with others who support Conservation and clean Environments are a necessityRegardless of the Iron Triangle in D CPublic Outcry can CHANGE EVERYTHING
51 6-5-14 “Moms to EPA: Recall Monsanto’s Roundup” (Huff Post Blog)Mothers Across America + Thinking Moms Revolution10,000 phone calls to EPA in 3 days – Face to Face MeetingUnsafe levels of Glyphosate in drinking water,breast milk, children’s urineMultiple testimonies of organic diets eliminating symptomsof gastrointestinal disorders, autoimmune conditions,anxiety and depressionStack of scientific studies
52 and incidence and prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, autism, R. Mason Glyphosate: Destructor of Human Health and Biodiversity (Submitted to Scottish Government)High significant correlations with glyphosate use on corn/soybeans is USand incidence and prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, autism,Altzheime’rs , thyroid and liver cancers and moreEFSA has agreed to 2 year feeding studies instead of 90 daysSamsel & Seneff, Glyphosate Suppression of Cytochrome P450 andGut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases. Entropy 15:Exhaustive literature review yields “Glyphosate is likelypervasive in our food supply, and contrary to being essentially nontoxic,It mAy in fact be the most biologically disruptive chemical in our environment”Thongprakaisang et al Glyphosate induces human breast cancer cell growth via estrogen receptors Food and Chem. Tox 59:129
53 The most important Agent of Change is the Educated Consumer ! You vote for change or for no changeevery time you buy FoodThe collective Impacts cannot be ignored!
54 Dying Bees: Harbingers of the End Times or Opportunity Buzzing? BothEnvironmental Loads of Chemicals Far Beyond our Current RealizationsHealth Consequences for Bees and for US areCriticalOur Food System Paradigm Needs a ShiftOur Regulatory System Needs ImprovementsOpportunities are Many to Change Things for our Grandchildren
56 THANKSCOLLABORATORSDavid J. Biddinger PSU Fruit and Extension Labs, Biglerville, PADiana L. Cox-Foster PSU Department of Entomology, University Park,PAJeff Pettis USDA Bee Research Lab, Beltsville, MDRoger Simonds USDA-AMS National Science Lab., Gastonia, NCDennis vanEngelsdorp Pa Department of Agriculture, Harrisburg, PATim Reluga PSU Department of Mathematics, University ParkFUNDING SOURCESNational Honey Board and California Almond BoardCollege of Agricultural Sciences, Penn StateUSDA Critical Issues, NRI-CAP, NIFANC508 Sustainable Solutions to Problems Affecting Honey Bee HealthHaagen-Daz, Jasper Wyman & Sons, and other Private DonorsProject Apis melliferaFoundation for the Preservation of Honey BeesBeekeeping Associations (Florida State and Tampa Bay)56