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This presentation is made possible by the support of the American People through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The contents.

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Presentation on theme: "This presentation is made possible by the support of the American People through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The contents."— Presentation transcript:

1 This presentation is made possible by the support of the American People through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The contents of this presentation are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States Government. Pesticide Risks on USAID Projects, Regulation 216 and Market Access Prevention and Mitigation of Pesticide Risks to Human Health, Environmental Resources and Hi-Value Markets

2 Pesticide Impacts Import/Export: Food Shipment Rejections Unintentional poisonings Chronic health affects: cancer, hormone disruption, sterility and birth defects

3 Risk on USAID Projects Why have USAID environmental regulations? –1972-1973: Pakistan malaria reaches epidemic proportions –1974-1975: USAID & WHO launch Malaria Control Program in Pakistan –About 2,800 Pakistani malaria spray personnel poisoned (5 to death) by insecticide mishaps* –USAID sued by environmental groups for not having environmental procedures in place –1975-1976: USAID drafts Regulation 216 (environmental regulations for USAID projects) * Baker, et al. 1978. Epidemic malathion poisoning in Pakistan malaria workers. The Lancet, Volume 311, Issue 8054, Pages 31 – 34.Volume 311, Issue 8054

4 US Government Regulation 216 Pesticides not registered with EPA cannot be promoted, bought or used with USAID resources on USAID projects EPA Restricted Use Pesticides (RUP) cannot be promoted, bought or used with USAID resources on USAID projects Most pesticides that are Class I, carcinogens & known water pollutants are rejected for use with USAID resources on USAID projects

5 What are GAPs (Good Agriculture Practices)? Are consumer-demanded & market- driven Best Management Practices (BMPs) for many crop, livestock and post- production systems Result in safe food/security Promote economic, social & environmental protection Promote sustainability of natural resources (water, soil, biodiversity) First Photo/Logo Credit: Cornell university, http://ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/2206 http://ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/2206

6 GlobalGAP: Certification System benefits Promote sustainable agriculture production Improve on-farm management Add quality value to fruit & vegetables Support the integrity of global accreditation systems Provide small land-holders with access to developed markets Harmonize buyer quality & safety requirements Systematizing Good Agriculture Practices GlobalGAP

7 GlobalGAP: Uses Checklists Certified clean seed and seedlings Site history & management Soil testing, management & fertilizer use  Water quality testing and irrigation  IPM Pesticides safe use & Maximum Residue Levels Keeping records Traceability of food back to farms & farm records Bottom Photo Credit: Queen’s Printer for Ontario 2012

8 GlobalGAP: Safe use includes on-farm pesticide safety practices Use a locked storage shed with shelves This shed is missing a warning sign Use pesticides with lower human toxicity Keep the place neat, clean & organized

9 Best Management Practices for pesticide use Read the label or understand pictograms for toxicity, dosage, pests controlled and safe use Pictogram shows high toxicity & to use gloves for handling

10 GlobalGAP: Farm disposal of leftover pesticides and containers  Use a dedicated pesticide mixing barrel & in-ground carbon trap for wash & leftover pesticide  Use barrels for collecting & holding used containers (for rinsing and recycling or burial)

11 There is a focus on record-keeping to trace farm actions Records are kept on pesticide inventories Records are kept on staff safety training received Field map records are kept for crop and spray histories

12 Types of protective equipment to use for modern agriculture Gloves, Mask Goggles, Boots Overalls or cool Tyvec Outfits After spraying: Use warning signs—do not enter field and keep children out

13 Pesticide Uses As a seed treatment On growing plants

14 Pesticide Uses On stored grain & food pests Spraying a grain storage bin

15 Pesticide Uses Spray-on livestock to control disease- transmitting ticks & flies Pour-on tick/fly control

16 Pesticide store should be: Organized by type, neat, clean, with no pesticide odor No opened bottles No subdividing of pesticides into un- unlabeled bottles

17 Pesticide sub-dividing in Albania shop Pesticides being weighed out and spilled on counter Pesticides were being put into baby juice bottles for re- sale

18 Pesticide store should be: Organized, neat, clean, with no pesticide odor No opened bottles No subdividing of pesticides into un- unlabeled bottles

19 Armenia Pesticide Sector Government list of 449 registered pesticides Seven large input importers/distributors Many small retail stores in farm communities Brand-name products

20 Armenia Pesticide Sector Syngenta products BASF products

21 Armenia Pesticide Sector Armenia laws permit repackaging of pesticides into smaller containers As long as an air exhaust hood is used to take fumes out

22 Armenia Pesticide Sector Repackaging into small bottles loses pesticide label safety and usage information Baggies of pesticide powders have no label information

23 Armenia Pest Management Single-use pesticide sachets—state of the art State of the art greenhouse sprayers

24 Armenia Pest Management Plastic house tomato production Light trap to kill tomato borer adult moths

25 Armenia Pest Management Yellow sticky trap to catch flying pests Pheromone trap to catch adult tomato borer moths

26 Armenia Pest Management Close-up of moth pheromone trap with tomato borer adult moths Pesticides are applied by mixing tank, pump, hose, sprayer lance

27 Armenia Pest Management Cucumber glasshouse Pesticides on shelf in used water bottles with product name label and original bottle

28 Armenia Pest Management Pruning apricot orchard

29 Armenia Pest Management Hard freeze led to cracks and disease entry points Winter mice chew bark from young trees

30 Armenia Pest Management Annual lists of registered pesticides allowed for import and use New 2014 MOA/FAO crop-pest-pesticide management handbook Need resources to produce a handbook on preventive IPM tools/tactics by crop-pest

31 Risks present in the pesticide sector Few resources for extension & enforcement Presence of low quality generic pesticides Limited farmer knowledge of small pests Limited pesticide safety equipment available

32 Risks present in the pesticide sector Very little use of safety equipment Over- and under-dosing with pesticides Pesticides applied at incorrect time of day Incorrect pesticide choices for pest species Backpack sprayers leak, maintenance lacking

33 Risks present in the pesticide sector Pesticides sold in unlabeled containers Improper pesticide and container disposal Inadequate poison control centers & antidotes

34 Pesticide Impact on Environment In the field, some pesticides may kill honeybees & birds In water, some pesticides may kill fish, crabs, frogs, salamanders, shellfish & other organisms

35 Pesticides under GlobalGAP & USAID

36 Pesticides Break Down in Environment

37 Thank you Alan Schroeder, March, 2014


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