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Water in Kentucky 90,000+ miles of streams and rivers.

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Presentation on theme: "Water in Kentucky 90,000+ miles of streams and rivers."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Water in Kentucky 90,000+ miles of streams and rivers

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5 Sensitive Areas Where ground water is near the surface or easily accessed (wells, sinkholes, porous soil, etc.) In karst regions, there may be little infiltration into the soil before contaminants reach ground water

6 Karst Regions of Kentucky

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8 Cane Run

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16 Water Quality Goals Streams Meet Designated Uses – Domestic Water Supply – Primary Contact Recreation (PCR) – water is safe for human swimming – Secondary Contact – safe for contact (body not submerged) – Aquatic Habitat – water quality sufficient to promote a healthy population of plants and animals living in the water

17 Impaired Waters 6,985 stream miles impaired (KDOW 2010)

18 What is an impaired stream? An impaired stream does not meet one or more of its designated uses – aquatic life, swimming, wading, drinking water supply use, fish consumption, etc. Impairments caused by – Sediment – Pathogens – Nutrients – Organic enrichment – Chemical contamination

19 USGS Report on Pesticides in U.S. Streams Pesticide contamination based on land use Nearly 2/3 of ag land use streams and nearly ½ of mixed land-use streams exceeded chronic Aquatic Life Benchmarks (ALBs) For urban land use, 90% exceeded a chronic ALB. Fipronil, metolachlor, malathion, cis-permethrin, and dichlorvos exceeded chronic ALBs for more than 10 percent of the streams. Only one stream monitored had pesticide concentration exceeding Human Health Benchmarks Source: Stone, W.W., Gilliom, R.J., and Martin, J.D., 2014, An overview comparing results from two decades of monitoring for pesticides in the Nation’s streams and rivers, 1992–2001 and 2002–2011: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2014–5154, 23 p.,

20 USGS Report on Pesticides in U.S. Streams Across all land-use streams, ALB for fipronil was greater than all other insecticides. Fipronil uses: Termite treatments Flea treatments (Frontline®) Rice pests Source: Stone, W.W., Gilliom, R.J., and Martin, J.D., 2014, An overview comparing results from two decades of monitoring for pesticides in the Nation’s streams and rivers, 1992–2001 and 2002–2011: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2014–5154, 23 p.,

21 Source: Stackelberg, P.E., Barbash, J.E., Gilliom, R.J., Stone, W.W., and Wolock, D.M., 2012, Regression models for estimating concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine in shallow groundwater in agricultural areas of the United States. Journal of Environmental Quality 41(2)

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23 Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone

24 This year: 5,840 sq. miles (3.7m acres/size of Connecticut) Average over last 5 years: 5,176 sq. miles (3.3m acres)

25 2014: 5,052 sq. miles (3.7m acres/size of Connecticut)

26 Best Management Practices (BMPs)

27 Fertilizer Application Apply only what is needed – Use a soil test

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29 Fertilizer Application Apply only what is needed – Use a soil test Sweep up excess – On to lawn, not into water body

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31 Fertilizer Application Apply only what is needed – Use a soil test Sweep up excess – On to lawn, not into water body Watch the weather Consider compost instead

32 Protect Storm Drains Anything that goes down a storm drain, goes to a stream, lake, or river Untreated

33 Don’t blow clippings into street or storm drains

34 Don’t blow leaves into street or storm drains

35 Consider Lawn Alternatives Rain Gardens – Filter and store stormwater runoff – Uptake nutrients – Break down pesticides

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38 Pesticide/Fertilizer BMPs Storage Locate new storage facilities at least 100ft away from wells, springs, cisterns, open channel sinkholes and perennial streams. Store pesticides and fertilizers separately and away from feed. Keep pesticides and fertilizers in original containers. Follow all label requirements.

39 Protect Water Resources from Pesticides Choose pesticides wisely Read pesticide labels – Use pesticides labeled for intended use

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42 Protect Water Resources from Pesticides Choose pesticides wisely Read pesticide labels – Use pesticides labeled for intended use – Follow label instructions/restrictions

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44 Do not mix or load atrazine within 50 ft of any stream or river. Do not apply atrazine within 66 ft of any point where field surface water runoff enters a stream or river.

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46 Protect Water Resources from Pesticides Choose pesticides wisely Read pesticide labels – Use pesticides labeled for intended use – Follow label instructions/restrictions Be cautious with mixing

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48 Protect Water Resources from Pesticides Choose pesticides wisely Read pesticide labels – Use pesticides labeled for intended use – Follow label instructions/restrictions Be cautious with mixing Be cautious with application – Avoid drift

49 Avoid Drift Use a drift retardant Use proper nozzle type and size Avoid windy application conditions Be mindful of your surroundings

50 Protect Water Resources from Pesticides Choose pesticides wisely Read pesticide labels – Use pesticides labeled for intended use Be cautious with mixing Be cautious with application – Avoid drift – Avoid overspray

51 Photo: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food

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57 Container Disposal DO NOT dump or burn containers Triple or pressure-rinse Puncture Recycle or return containers – KY Dept of Agriculture sponsors Rinse and Return programs coordinated through local Cooperative Extension Service offices

58 Riparian Area Protection

59 What are Riparian Buffers? Also called riparian areas, buffer zones, streamside management zones

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61 What does a Riparian Buffer do? Filters runoff water – Reduces sediment entering a stream – Captures/uptakes nutrients in surface and groundwater – Intercepts pesticide runoff from adjacent landscape

62 What does a Riparian Buffer do? Filters runoff water Protects streambanks from erosion – Dissipates energy of water – Vegetative roots hold soil in place

63 Unprotected Streambanks

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66 Protected Streambanks

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69 What does a Riparian Buffer do? Filters runoff water Protects stream banks from erosion Provides wildlife habitat – Enhances in-stream habitat – shading from trees regulates water temperature – Provides vegetative production for wildlife food source – Provides shelter

70 Provides Wildlife Habitat Owl photo courtesy Doug McLaren.

71 Impacts to the Environment Pesticides – Impair watersheds by threatening aquatic life/non- target species – Larval stages of aquatic insects Larvae feed on undesirable pests Provide food source for fish and amphibians Photos by Blake Newton

72 Then we destroy…If we destroy…

73 Case Studies

74 KY Horse Park

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82 Questions? Amanda Gumbert


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