Presentation on theme: "Integrated Pest Management"— Presentation transcript:
1Integrated Pest Management By C. KohnBased on Pest Management for Retail Greenhouses and Garden Centers by Leanne Pundt
2Why Integrated Pest Mgmt (IPM)? Over 90% of flowering plants and 75% of crops depend on insect pollinatorsPollinators are an integral component of natural ecosystems that make the natural energy flow and nutrient cycling necessary for crop production possible.Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices have been developed to improve pest control while minimizing impacts on beneficial species, such as pollinators.
3What is IPM?Definition: A long-term pest control technique that relies on combinations of crop rotation, cultural practices, biological controls, and pesticidesPesticides are used only as a last resort and according to strict guidelinesKey words: long term ; combination
4Benefits of IPM Minimizes loss of pollinators, which… Increases plant productivityReduces economic lossesMinimizes health risks (what kills an insect in small doses kills pets and animals in large doses)Decreases risk of pesticide resistanceProtects the environment, which…Increases plant productivity and reduces economic lossesFinally – It’s more effective!
5BackgroundPlants often come to retailers and eventually to you through large supply chains.This increased transportation of living plants increases the spread and depth of an insect infestationNutshell: it’s pretty much impossible to buy plants completely free of insectsIf you have bought plants, you will have insectsIf you raise plants from seed, the risk is lower but still substantial.
6PrinciplesThe basic principals of successful integrated pest management (IPM) include:Inspecting incoming plantsRegular, consistent monitoringSound cultural practices (crop rotation, spacing, etc.)Accurate identification of insects, diseases and cultural issuesPrompt, timely pest management decision-makingGood communication between all members involving in this decision-making process including scouts, pesticide applicators, managers, owners etc.
7Inspection of PlantsThe most important aspect of IPM is inspection of plants on arrival.The entire plant from leaves to roots should be carefully observed.DO NOT purchase or accept plants that…Have rotting rootsHave viral or bacterial diseases (spotting, mosaic patterns, ringed circles, blotchy spots)Have nematodes (microscopic root worms)Just plain do not look right!Quarantine and treat plants on arrival before moving them with others
8Prevention Select insect-resistant plants Keep records of what varieties have done the bestConsult extension agents to determine if a plant is considered resistantSanitation (next slide)
9Prevention - Sanitation Cleanliness is a key element of prevention.Remove all dead or dying plant material immediatelyA hospital does not leave dead bodies and cut-off limbs in the hallway; neither should a garden or greenhouseKeep floors clean, swept, and sprayed downPrevent standing water (which would encourage the growth of fungus, algae, and some insects)Regularly disinfect materials and equipment, as well as greenhouse floorsSoap is very effective
10Prevention - Monitoring Have a weekly monitoring program in placeHang sticky-cards above your plants to trap insects for identificationUse indicator plants (plants that are more susceptible and will show symptoms earlier)Inspect plants while caring for them (watering, fertilizing, etc.)Scotch tape analysis can help for smaller pestsStick a piece of scotch tape to the underside of the leaf and examine with a magnifying glass
11Prevention - Record Keeping Keep track of all decisionsApproximate pest numbers and locationsApproximations do not have to be exactE.g. you can make up your own scale based on previous experience – mild, moderate, extremeRecords will help you to determine if treatments are effective, if pests are recurring, and if pesticides are necessary.
12Cultural PracticesMost plant health problems come from poor management, not from insect infestationsI.e. poorly trained humans are a worse problem than insectsWatering tends to be a big issue – avoid overwatering or underwateringLarge amounts of water infrequently is better than daily small amountsThe soil should be allowed to slightly dry in-between waterings to prevent pests.Overwatering or too-frequent watering increases the risk of mold, fungus, and pathogenic algae
13Cultural Practices – Water, Fert. Watering should occur earlier in the dayLate-day watering increases the risk of foliar (leaf) disease (water sits on the plant surface overnight, encouraging pathogen growth)Time of standing water should be minimizedFertilization is also a major contributor to plant health problemsOver-fertilization increases plant susceptibility to insect predationUnder-fertilization will reduce plant growth and reduce the plant’s ability to ward of predation
14Cultural Practices – Temp, Air Temperature –Too-cool temperatures can increase rot, blight, and dampening off diseasesToo-warm temperatures can increase the risk of drought and water-loss, reducing a plant’s ability to fight predationAirflow –Good airflow is necessary to allow for transpiration and reduce moisture build-up that encourages mold and fungal growth
15Cultural - Sanitation Discard diseased plants once they are found. Isolate questionable plants and return them with the rest if nothing is found.Remove all debris, dead plant matter, and weeds that can harbor insectsKeep all dead plant matter in sealed plastic bags until they are ready to be disposed ofDispose of dead plant material as soon as possible
16Cultural – Mechanical, Rotation Mechanical controls can include the use of screens, nets, fences, or traps.These can be as effective as nearly any other treatment for a specific pest.Crops should be rotated regularly so that their respective pests are able to die out during off- years.Pruning and thinning can also reduce infestations.
17Biological ControlIf pests are a problem, biological control may be an effective alternative to chemical pesticidesBiological control is the use of predators of pests to manage pest levels.E.g. predatory mites, ladybugs, green lacewings or host specific parasitic waspsNatural predators of pests do not work quickly; they are best used as preventative measuresBiological control cannot be used with pesticides (the pesticides would kill both the pest and the predators)Insecticide residues can affect predators up to 3 mo’s after application.
18Pesticides Pesticides should only be used as a last resort Pesticides can be a part of IPM, but only if all other measures failThe term pesticide refers to insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and various other substances used to control pests.A pest, by this definition, is a living organism that can cause damage to a desired plant, animal, or structureThis could be insects as well as weeds and even animals such as rodents or deer
19Classes of Pesticides Two major groups of pesticides exist – 1. Restricted use: to use and apply these kinds of pesticides, you must undergo training and certification in most statesUnclassified/General Use: the equivalent of over-the- counter; anyone can purchase and use theseAll pesticides should be considered dangerous! All pesticides should be applied according to directions and with care!Pesticides should only be applied as needed.
20Pesticide application IPM promotes calculated and targeted applications of pesticides that are more specific to the pest species.Plants should be monitored after pesticide application to determine the effectiveness of the treatment and whether or not an additional treatment is necessaryRecords should be kept of the effectiveness and cost of the pesticide application.
21Choice of PesticidesChoosing the correct pesticide to control the pest(s) in your home, lawn, or garden requires a certain amount of planning.Many types of pesticides exist to treat a specific pest, and a variety of pesticide formulations are available to the consumer.
22Pesticide Considerations 1. Is the pesticide appropriate for your specific pest?2. Can you use this pesticide, or is a professional needed?3. Have you tried all other non-chemical options and have they all failed?4. Is this the least-toxic pesticide option?5. Have you read the label thoroughly and understand the instructions?6. Do you have a place to keep a record in case of medical, veterinary, or environmental problems?
23Pesticide LabelsThe label provides information about the active ingredient, how to mix and apply the product, when and where to apply the product, how to store and dispose of the product, as well as safety and environmental precautions and first aid instructions.The pesticide label is a legal document, and misusing a pesticide product is a violation of the law.
24Components of a Pesticide Label Trade & Brand NameIngredientsUse statement (restricted or general)Emergency Phone NumberRegistration NumberCautionary words – Caution, Warning, Danger, and Danger: Poison – reflect the risk of injury from the productHazards, Storage, DisposalDirections for Use
25Final Comments on Pesticides Always wear protection!Shorts, sandals, and t-shirts are NOT adequateClothes should cover all extremitiesClothes should be washed after applicationWashers should be allowed to run an additional cycle while empty after washing pesticide-affected clothes.Pesticides must be stored in their original container (federal law) in a cool, dry areaPesticides must be disposed through special programsIngested pesticides should be diluted with water (do not induce vomiting unless instructed); poison control should be called immediately.