3Essential QuestionWhat is integrated pest management?
4I P MDefinition: pest management strategy that uses a combination of best management practices (BMP) to reduce pest damage with the least disruption to the environment.Why?Over time pests become resistant. IPM is able to adapt over time
6IPMTo keep pest populations below the economic or aesthetic injury levelthe point at which plant losses due to the pests are equal to the cost of control.Provide: protection against hazards to humans, domestic animals, plants and the environment.
17IPM use BMPs Best Management Practices (BMP) practices that combine scientific research with practical knowledge to optimize yields and increase crop quality while maintaining environmental integrity.
18BMP Help protect sensitive environmental areas. Examples Currently Used:Management of surface/subsurface run offErosion controlb. Cultural control of pestsc. Soil testingd. Timing and placement of fertilizerse. Controlled release fertilizersf. Irrigation managementg. Biological control of pestsh. Pesticide selectioni. Correct pesticide use
19Basic Elements IPM A. People—system devisers and pest managers B. Knowledge and information needed to devise the system and make sound decisionsC. Program for monitoring the ecosystem elementsD. Pest densities at which control methods are put into actionE. Techniques used to manipulate pest populationsF. Agents and materialsG. Scouting: monitor plants regularly to determine current levels of pest activity
20Vocabulary Action threshold Best management practices (BMPs) Economic or aesthetic injury levelIntegrated pest management (IPM)Scouting
21Activities Review Quiz Book work Pg 159 Read Chapter Define vocabulary Complete Self Eval Questions COMPLETE SENTENCES
25Essential QuestionWhat are the major classifications of pesticides?
26What are the major classifications of pesticides? Pesticides are the materials used to control pests.Pests are anything that causes injury or loss to a plant.natural or man-made.now often done only when absolutely necessary.must be done safely to reduce potential injury to people and the environment.
27Pests Cause Damage! Damage Plant Parts Compete for space and nutrients WeedsReduced quality of harvested productContaminationDecreased production crop
28What are the major classifications of pesticides? Insecticides are used to control insects, which are a group of animals with an exoskeleton and three body parts.Killed by body contact, by swallowing, or through the respiratory system.
29What are the major classifications of pesticides? Miticides are used to control mites and ticks.They are usually killed by coming in contact with the chemical.
30What are the major classifications of pesticides? Fungicides are used to control fungal disease.Prevent a plant from becoming infected.Applied before the disease is present.
31What are the major classifications of pesticides? Herbicides are used to kill unwanted plants.Rodenticides kill rodents, such as rats and mice.Usually applied as bait.Eating the chemical poisons the rodents.
32What are the major classifications of pesticides? Nematocides kill nematodes, which are tiny hair-like roundworms that feed on the roots of plants.Usually applied in the form of a fumigantA substance that produces a smoke, vapor, or gas when applied.
33What are the major classifications of pesticides? Molluscicides are used to kill slugs and snails.Applied as bait, which attracts the slugs and snails and poisons them.
34Herbicides Herbicides are classified by selectivitycontact versus translocationtimingmode of action.Herbicides are classified as being selective or nonselective.Selective herbicides act on certain plant species and not others.Nonselective herbicides kill all vegetation.
35What are the major classifications of herbicides? Herbicides may act on contact with plants or be translocated in the plant.Contact herbicides kill the parts of a plant to which it is applied.Translocated or systemic herbicides are absorbed by the roots or other plant parts and moved throughout the plant by vascular tissues.
36What are the major types of herbicides? Growth Regulators: kill weeds by altering growth or metabolic processes.Soil sterilant: a compound that prevents the growth of plants in the soil.most commonly used along ditch banks and fence rows.
37What are the major classifications of herbicides? Timing - stage of the crop or weed development.Preplanting applications are made before the crop is planted to control annual weeds.Preemergence applications are made before the crop or weeds emerge.Postemergence applications are completed after the crop or weeds have emerged.
38What are the major classifications of herbicides? Mode of action refers to how herbicides kill weeds.The mode of action- the effect on metabolic processes or enzyme systems that result in a lethal or toxic action in the plant.Herbicides may have a single mode of action or a multiple mode of action.
39What are the major classifications of insecticides? Insecticides are classified by how they enter an insect’s body.Three general groupscontact, stomach, and respiratory.Contact insecticide is absorbed through the skin or exterior of an insect.The chemical must be applied directly on the insect and is normally used with sucking insects.
40What are the major classifications of insecticides? Stomach insecticide is effective when eaten.Applied to the plant parts, which are eaten by the insect.Most effective on chewing insects.Respiratory insecticide is an insecticide that enters the respiratory system of the insect.It is commonly called a fumigant.Used in enclosed places.
42Activities Review Quiz 2 Book Work Unit 18 Unit 19 Unit 20 Complete Self Eval in Complete Sentences
43Integrated Pest Management Using Pesticides Safely
44Warm UpWhat is this? What do we use it for? Where do you find this?
45Essential QuestionWhat are the 4 types of exposure to pesticides?
46Classification of Pesticides Toxicity: degree of poison in a materialAmount of active ingredient and chemical nature determines toxicityClassified into 2 categoriesGeneral UseRestricted Use
47Measuring Toxicity (oral and dermal) LD50+ LD= Lethal Dose - amount necessary to case death 50= 50% of test animals are killed at that dose Lower the LD50+ the more poisonous the chemical
48Measuring Toxicity (inhalation) LC50+LC= Lethal ConcentrationMeasured in milligrams per literLower the LC50+ the more dangerous the chemical
49General Use Pesticides Widely usedJust follow the labelLess harmful to the environmentNo special training required for use
50Restricted Use Pesticides More toxic than General UseHigh risk to humans and environmentMust have training to use the poison
51Types of Pesticide Exposure Oral Exposure: Through the mouth or digestive systemWash hands to avoid oral exposure
52Types of Exposure Dermal Exposure: Through the skin Severity depends on:Toxicity, Absorption rate, Size of exposure area, Length of contact time
53Types of ExposureInhalation Exposure: Through nose and respiratory systemsBreathing in vapors, sprays, or dust
54Types of Exposure Eye Exposure: Through the eye Very sensitive Wear eye protection!
55Be Creative! Draw on your own: Eye Exposure: Eyes are VERY sensitive! Wear protective eyewear !Be Creative!Draw on your own:An advertisement explaining the different exposures and the dangers of pesticide exposure.Individual assignment on a separate piece of paper.Please turn in when finishedOral Exposure:Through the mouth. Wash your hands after handling pesticides
56Safety Procedures Pesticides are helpful but can be pollutants Must follow simple safety practicesPassed Worker Protection StandardLaw that provides a set of rules to help prevent pesticide related injuries
57Simple Safety Procedures Only used approved pesticidesKnow the pesticideApplicator must be informed about the chemical by reading labelsUse pesticide with low toxicityShould only perform its job, not too strongUse pesticides only when neededWhen pests need to be controlled!
58Simple Safety Procedures Do not contaminate resourcesNever dumped into stream etc.Wear protective clothingRubber gloves, respirators etcProper DisposalRinse and send to proper waste facility
59Simple Safety Procedures 8. Apply in good weatherWind and rain can carry pesticides9. Use the right equipmentControl spray levels, and keep equipment clean and in working condition10. Know emergency proceduresWhat will happen in case of an accident?
62Integrated Pest Management Understanding Pesticide Labels
63Warm UpWhat information can you gather from this yard label?
64Essential QuestionList information you find on a pesticide label?
65Labels Provide info on active ingredient Active ingredient is what kills the pestSteps to understanding your labelsRead (and reread) the labelBefore handling the productUnderstand the labelMay require special trainingFollow label directionsCriminal and Civil charges could result from misuse
66Label Break Down Has 2 sides Front side contains the following informationUse ClassificationGeneral or RestrictedTrade Brand NameFormulationIngredientsCommon Name
67Label Break Down5.Ingredients Inert : inactive but needed for safety 6. Net Contents Lbs, quarts, gallons, etc 7. Signal Words DANGER, WARNING, CAUTION (based on toxicity level
68Label Break Down 8. Precautionary Statements First Aide, Potential hazards, Flammability9. Establishment NumberWhere the product was madeEPA Registration numberName and Address of manufacturer
69Label Break Down Back label contains: Hazardous materials Warnings Directions for use1. sites which can be treated with the pesticide2. target pest(s) the product will control3. amount of chemical to use per acre4. type of equipment and application methods that can be used5. proper mixing procedures6. when the pesticides should be applied7. reentry limitations8. guidelines for storage and disposal9. limitations on its useLimitation guidelines
70Reading a Label Activity Answer the Following Questions about the label:Is it Restricted or General Use? Define answerWhat signal word is used?What does this tell you about toxicity levels?What type of pesticide is this? (powder, granular)What % of the ingredients are inert? What % are active?Who makes this product? Where are they located?What is the EPA number of this product?What precautions/warnings are given concerning the product?What is the name of the product?What is the Net contents/weight of the product?What is the active ingredient?
77Warm UpWhat safety precautions are being taken while applying these pesticides? Why do you think these precautions are being taken?
78Essential QuestionWhat are the types of application areas?
79Time of ApplicationDefinition: when pesticides are applied relative to the stage of growth of the cropThree TypesPreplantPreemergencePostemergence
80Applications Preplant Application Preemergence Application Before the crop is the plantedSeedbed is prepared then pesticide is appliedPreemergence ApplicationBefore the crop has emergedBroken through the soilApplied during planting or shortly afterPostemergence ApplicationApplied after crops are growing and pests are ID-ed
81Area of ApplicationDefinition: the extent of coverage of a crop or turf.Areas:Band ApplicationBroadcast ApplicationDirected ApplicationSpot Application
82Areas DefinedBand Application: treating narrow strips with pesticides, inches wide, places pesticides close to plantsBroadcast Application: treating an entire area, no area is left untouched by pesticidesDirected Application: treating only selected plants, apply where pests are present, saves $Spot Application: treating only certain areas within a field or pasture, target high concentrations of pests, protects environment
83Represent Application Areas Follow your worksheet.On a separate piece of paper you can define the different areas of applicationThis will help you on your test.Turn in when finishedDon’t forget your name!
84Calibrating Pesticides Helps maximize performance!Definition: setting equipment to meter the exact amount of herbicide needed.Purpose: insure that the sprayer applies the correct amount of pesticide uniformly over a given area
85Variables that Effect Calibration Nozzle Flow Rate: Changes the size of the nozzle tip and nozzle pressureLarger tip – larger flow rateTo double flow rate, pressure must increase 4xGround Speed: rate of travel across the groundInversely related to spray application rateDoubling ground speed decreases application by 1/2Spray width per nozzle
86Vocabulary Area of application Band application Broadcast application CalibrationDirected applicationEconomic thresholdEmergedGround speedInjury thresholdPostemergence applicationsPreemergence applicationsPreplant applicationsSpot applicationTime of applicationVocabulary
88Integrated Pest Management Managing Environmental Impact of Pesticides
89Warm Up Projected Pesticide Run Off Where is the highest level of run off? Why is this a major environmental problem?
90Essential QuestionWhat are the main environmental concerns involved with pesticide use?
91Pesticides A major concern Problem Areas Nontarget Areas Biodegrading Disposal
92Non target Areas Area where the pesticide was not intended A result of driftmovement of a pesticide through the airSurface Run offLeaching
93Biodegrading Ability to be decomposed by biological action Results in accumulation in groundwater, plants or animals (tissues)CollectPesticides with these characteristics should be avoided if possible
94Disposal Most destructive Easiest to solve! Applicator’s responsibility to make sure pesticides are properly disposed ofWhere do we find this information!?
95Pesticide Persistence Amount of time it takes for a pesticide to biodegrade or break downMore persistent a pesticide= more likely to enter groundwaterPersistence ClassificationsRapidAccumulativePersistent
96Rapid Decomposers Break down quickly Remain in target area for short timeLittle adverse effect on environmentWhen used properlyShould be first option to use as a pesticide
97Accumulative Pesticides Build up in the bodies ofAnimals, HumansPotentially can build to a dangerous levelHarms the organismHarms the consumer of that organism
98Persistent Pesticides Break down slowlyDesirable for long term pest managementDo not react to light, heat, or oxygenSlightly water-solubleDo not always accumulateIn organisms
99Disposal Quick and proper disposal is a MUST Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)for the management of hazardous toxic materials and their containersillegal to store or dispose of pesticides in ways that would likely harm humans or the environment
100Disposal ProceduresBased on amounts of pesticides needing to be disposedSmall amounts: like those found in houses, buried in state-approved landfillsLarge amounts: considered hazardous waste, disposed by licensed facilities
101Triple Rinse Method Recommended procedure as follows 1. Drain the container into the spray tank. Hold container upside down for30 seconds.2. Add water until the container is about ¼ full then close3. Shake or roll the container to rinse all interior areas; then drain the remaining liquid4. Repeat the rinse and drain procedure two more times.5. Puncture plastic or metal triple-rinsed containers to prevent reuse.6. Crush the container to reduce volume.
102Activities Review Quiz 6 On the back of your review quiz: Represent the 3 types of pesticide persistent levels in the form of a graph. Each type should be represented by a different color. Provide a KEY for your graph. Label your graph and both axis.
103Activities Design a Review Guide Due 1:50 Table 1: Fill in the BlanksTable 2: Design a Crossword puzzleUsing vocabularyTable 3: 10 Short Answer QuestionsTable 4: 15 Multiple ChoiceMake a KEY for your study Guide! Keep your key in your notes!Test on Friday!!!!!!!