Presentation on theme: "Integrated Pest Management Understanding IPM. Warm Up What do all these have in common?"— Presentation transcript:
Integrated Pest Management Understanding IPM
Warm Up What do all these have in common?
Essential Question What is integrated pest management?
I P M Definition: pest management strategy that uses a combination of best management practices (BMP) to reduce pest damage with the least disruption to the environment. Why? – Over time pests become resistant. IPM is able to adapt over time
IPM To keep pest populations below the economic or aesthetic injury level – the point at which plant losses due to the pests are equal to the cost of control. Provide: protection against hazards to humans, domestic animals, plants and the environment.
IPM Ecologically based pest control strategy – Includes natural factors Climate, Natural enemies of pests
IPM Phase 1 Involves pest identificatio n, monitoring, and action thresholds.
Action Threshold The predetermined level at which pest control is needed. ET= Action Threshold Based on $!!
IPM Phase 2 Evaluate all possible control methods If action threshold is met, try out what works until you fix the problem!
IPM use BMPs Best Management Practices (BMP) – practices that combine scientific research with practical knowledge to optimize yields and increase crop quality while maintaining environmental integrity.
BMP Help protect sensitive environmental areas. Examples Currently Used: – Management of surface/subsurface run off Erosion control b. Cultural control of pests c. Soil testing d. Timing and placement of fertilizers e. Controlled release fertilizers f. Irrigation management g. Biological control of pests h. Pesticide selection i. Correct pesticide use
Basic Elements IPM A. People—system devisers and pest managers B. Knowledge and information needed to devise the system and make sound decisions C. Program for monitoring the ecosystem elements D. Pest densities at which control methods are put into action E. Techniques used to manipulate pest populations F. Agents and materials G. Scouting: monitor plants regularly to determine current levels of pest activity
Vocabulary Action threshold Best management practices (BMPs) Economic or aesthetic injury level Integrated pest management (IPM) Scouting
Integrated Pest Management Determining Types of Pesticides
Warm Up Which would you eat?
Essential Question What are the major classifications of pesticides?
Pesticides are the materials used to control pests. Pests are anything that causes injury or loss to a plant. – natural or man-made. – now often done only when absolutely necessary. – must be done safely to reduce potential injury to people and the environment.
Pests Cause Damage! Damage Plant Parts Compete for space and nutrients – Weeds Reduced quality of harvested product – Contamination Decreased production crop
What are the major classifications of pesticides? Insecticides are used to control insects, which are a group of animals with an exoskeleton and three body parts. – Killed by body contact, by swallowing, or through the respiratory system.
What are the major classifications of pesticides? Miticides are used to control mites and ticks. – They are usually killed by coming in contact with the chemical.
What are the major classifications of pesticides? Fungicides are used to control fungal disease. – Prevent a plant from becoming infected. – Applied before the disease is present.
What are the major classifications of pesticides? Herbicides are used to kill unwanted plants. Rodenticides kill rodents, such as rats and mice. – Usually applied as bait. – Eating the chemical poisons the rodents.
What are the major classifications of pesticides? Nematocides kill nematodes, which are tiny hair-like roundworms that feed on the roots of plants. – Usually applied in the form of a fumigant A substance that produces a smoke, vapor, or gas when applied.
What are the major classifications of pesticides? Molluscicides are used to kill slugs and snails. – Applied as bait, which attracts the slugs and snails and poisons them.
Herbicides Herbicides are classified by – selectivity – contact versus translocation – timing – mode of action. Herbicides are classified as being selective or nonselective. – Selective herbicides act on certain plant species and not others. – Nonselective herbicides kill all vegetation.
What are the major classifications of herbicides? Herbicides may act on contact with plants or be translocated in the plant. – Contact herbicides kill the parts of a plant to which it is applied. – Translocated or systemic herbicides are absorbed by the roots or other plant parts and moved throughout the plant by vascular tissues.
What are the major types of herbicides? Growth Regulators: kill weeds by altering growth or metabolic processes. Soil sterilant: a compound that prevents the growth of plants in the soil. – most commonly used along ditch banks and fence rows.
What are the major classifications of herbicides? Timing - stage of the crop or weed development. – Preplanting applications are made before the crop is planted to control annual weeds. – Preemergence applications are made before the crop or weeds emerge. – Postemergence applications are completed after the crop or weeds have emerged.
What are the major classifications of herbicides? Mode of action refers to how herbicides kill weeds. – The mode of action- the effect on metabolic processes or enzyme systems that result in a lethal or toxic action in the plant. – Herbicides may have a single mode of action or a multiple mode of action.
What are the major classifications of insecticides? Insecticides are classified by how they enter an insect’s body. Three general groups – contact, stomach, and respiratory. Contact insecticide is absorbed through the skin or exterior of an insect. The chemical must be applied directly on the insect and is normally used with sucking insects.
What are the major classifications of insecticides? Stomach insecticide is effective when eaten. – Applied to the plant parts, which are eaten by the insect. – Most effective on chewing insects. Respiratory insecticide is an insecticide that enters the respiratory system of the insect. – It is commonly called a fumigant. – Used in enclosed places.
Activities Review Quiz 2 Book Work – Unit 18 – Unit 19 – Unit 20 – Complete Self Eval in Complete Sentences
Integrated Pest Management Using Pesticides Safely
Warm Up What is this? What do we use it for? Where do you find this?
Essential Question What are the 4 types of exposure to pesticides?
Classification of Pesticides Toxicity: degree of poison in a material – Amount of active ingredient and chemical nature determines toxicity Classified into 2 categories – General Use – Restricted Use
Measuring Toxicity (oral and dermal) LD 50+ LD= Lethal Dose - amount necessary to case death 50= 50% of test animals are killed at that dose Lower the LD 50+ the more poisonous the chemical
Measuring Toxicity (inhalation) LC 50+ LC= Lethal Concentration Measured in milligrams per liter Lower the LC 50+ the more dangerous the chemical
General Use Pesticides Widely used Just follow the label Less harmful to the environment No special training required for use
Restricted Use Pesticides More toxic than General Use High risk to humans and environment Must have training to use the poison
Types of Pesticide Exposure Oral Exposure: Through the mouth or digestive system – Wash hands to avoid oral exposure
Types of Exposure Dermal Exposure: Through the skin – Severity depends on: Toxicity, Absorption rate, Size of exposure area, Length of contact time
Types of Exposure Inhalation Exposure: Through nose and respiratory systems – Breathing in vapors, sprays, or dust
Types of Exposure Eye Exposure: Through the eye – Very sensitive – Wear eye protection!
Be Creative! Draw on your own: – An advertisement explaining the different exposures and the dangers of pesticide exposure. – Individual assignment on a separate piece of paper. – Please turn in when finished Eye Exposure: Eyes are VERY sensitive! Wear protective eyewear ! Oral Exposure: Through the mouth. Wash your hands after handling pesticides
Safety Procedures Pesticides are helpful but can be pollutants Must follow simple safety practices Passed Worker Protection Standard – Law that provides a set of rules to help prevent pesticide related injuries
Simple Safety Procedures 1.Only used approved pesticides 2.Know the pesticide 1.Applicator must be informed about the chemical by reading labels 3.Use pesticide with low toxicity 1.Should only perform its job, not too strong 4.Use pesticides only when needed 1.When pests need to be controlled!
Simple Safety Procedures 5.Do not contaminate resources 1.Never dumped into stream etc. 6.Wear protective clothing 1.Rubber gloves, respirators etc 7.Proper Disposal 1.Rinse and send to proper waste facility
Simple Safety Procedures 8. Apply in good weather Wind and rain can carry pesticides 9. Use the right equipment Control spray levels, and keep equipment clean and in working condition 10. Know emergency procedures What will happen in case of an accident?
Integrated Pest Management Understanding Pesticide Labels
Warm Up What information can you gather from this yard label?
Essential Question List information you find on a pesticide label?
Labels Provide info on active ingredient – Active ingredient is what kills the pest Steps to understanding your labels – Read (and reread) the label Before handling the product – Understand the label May require special training – Follow label directions Criminal and Civil charges could result from misuse
Label Break Down Has 2 sides Front side contains the following information 1.Use Classification 1.General or Restricted 2.Trade Brand Name 3.Formulation 1.Ingredients 4.Common Name
Label Break Down 5.Ingredients Inert : inactive but needed for safety 6. Net Contents Lbs, quarts, gallons, etc 7. Signal Words DANGER, WARNING, CAUTION (based on toxicity level
Label Break Down 8. Precautionary Statements First Aide, Potential hazards, Flammability 9. Establishment Number Where the product was made 10.EPA Registration number 11.Name and Address of manufacturer
Label Break Down Back label contains: Hazardous materials Warnings Directions for use – 1. sites which can be treated with the pesticide – 2. target pest(s) the product will control – 3. amount of chemical to use per acre – 4. type of equipment and application methods that can be used – 5. proper mixing procedures – 6. when the pesticides should be applied – 7. reentry limitations – 8. guidelines for storage and disposal – 9. limitations on its use Limitation guidelines
Reading a Label Activity Answer the Following Questions about the label: 1.Is it Restricted or General Use? Define answer 2.What signal word is used? 1.What does this tell you about toxicity levels? 3.What type of pesticide is this? (powder, granular) 4.What % of the ingredients are inert? What % are active? 5.Who makes this product? Where are they located? 6.What is the EPA number of this product? 7.What precautions/warnings are given concerning the product? 8.What is the name of the product? 9.What is the Net contents/weight of the product? 10.What is the active ingredient?
PAY CLOSE ATTENTION As an applicator (user of the pesticide) you should pay special attention to : – the signal words – precautionary statements – directions.
When do you read the label? 1.Before buying the pesticide 2.Before mixing the pesticide 3.Before applying the pesticide 4.Before storing the pesticide 5.Before disposing of your pesticide
Vocabulary Active ingredient Common name Formulation General-use pesticide Inert Restricted-use pesticide Signal words Toxicity Trade (brand) name
Activities Review Quiz 4
Integrated Pest Management Applying Pesticides
Warm Up What safety precautions are being taken while applying these pesticides? Why do you think these precautions are being taken?
Essential Question What are the types of application areas?
Time of Application Definition: when pesticides are applied relative to the stage of growth of the crop Three Types – Preplant – Preemergence – Postemergence
Applications Preplant Application – Before the crop is the planted – Seedbed is prepared then pesticide is applied Preemergence Application – Before the crop has emerged Broken through the soil – Applied during planting or shortly after Postemergence Application – Applied after crops are growing and pests are ID-ed
Area of Application Definition: the extent of coverage of a crop or turf. Areas: – Band Application – Broadcast Application – Directed Application – Spot Application
Areas Defined Band Application: treating narrow strips with pesticides, inches wide, places pesticides close to plants Broadcast Application: treating an entire area, no area is left untouched by pesticides Directed Application: treating only selected plants, apply where pests are present, saves $ Spot Application: treating only certain areas within a field or pasture, target high concentrations of pests, protects environment
Represent Application Areas Follow your worksheet. On a separate piece of paper you can define the different areas of application This will help you on your test. Turn in when finished Don’t forget your name!
Calibrating Pesticides Helps maximize performance! Definition: setting equipment to meter the exact amount of herbicide needed. Purpose: insure that the sprayer applies the correct amount of pesticide uniformly over a given area
Variables that Effect Calibration Nozzle Flow Rate: Changes the size of the nozzle tip and nozzle pressure – Larger tip – larger flow rate – To double flow rate, pressure must increase 4x Ground Speed: rate of travel across the ground – Inversely related to spray application rate – Doubling ground speed decreases application by 1/2 Spray width per nozzle
Vocabulary Area of application Band application Broadcast application Calibration Directed application Economic threshold Emerged Ground speed Injury threshold Postemergence applications Preemergence applications Preplant applications Spot application Time of application
Activities Review Quiz 5
Integrated Pest Management Managing Environmental Impact of Pesticides
Warm Up Projected Pesticide Run Off Where is the highest level of run off? Why is this a major environmental problem?
Essential Question What are the main environmental concerns involved with pesticide use?
Pesticides A major concern Problem Areas – Nontarget Areas – Biodegrading – Disposal
Non target Areas Area where the pesticide was not intended A result of drift – movement of a pesticide through the air Surface Run off Leaching
Biodegrading Ability to be decomposed by biological action Results in accumulation in groundwater, plants or animals (tissues) – Collect Pesticides with these characteristics should be avoided if possible
Disposal Most destructive Easiest to solve! Applicator’s responsibility to make sure pesticides are properly disposed of Where do we find this information!?
Pesticide Persistence Amount of time it takes for a pesticide to biodegrade or break down More persistent a pesticide= more likely to enter groundwater Persistence Classifications – Rapid – Accumulative – Persistent
Rapid Decomposers Break down quickly Remain in target area for short time Little adverse effect on environment – When used properly Should be first option to use as a pesticide
Accumulative Pesticides Build up in the bodies of – Animals, Humans Potentially can build to a dangerous level – Harms the organism – Harms the consumer of that organism
Persistent Pesticides Break down slowly Desirable for long term pest management Do not react to light, heat, or oxygen Slightly water-soluble Do not always accumulate – In organisms
Disposal Quick and proper disposal is a MUST Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) – for the management of hazardous toxic materials and their containers – illegal to store or dispose of pesticides in ways that would likely harm humans or the environment
Disposal Procedures Based on amounts of pesticides needing to be disposed Small amounts: like those found in houses, buried in state-approved landfills Large amounts: considered hazardous waste, disposed by licensed facilities
Triple Rinse Method Recommended procedure as follows –1. Drain the container into the spray tank. Hold container upside down for30 seconds. –2. Add water until the container is about ¼ full then close –3. Shake or roll the container to rinse all interior areas; then drain the remaining liquid –4. Repeat the rinse and drain procedure two more times. –5. Puncture plastic or metal triple-rinsed containers to prevent reuse. –6. Crush the container to reduce volume.
Activities Review Quiz 6 On the back of your review quiz: – Represent the 3 types of pesticide persistent levels in the form of a graph. Each type should be represented by a different color. Provide a KEY for your graph. Label your graph and both axis.
Activities Design a Review Guide Due 1:50 – Table 1: Fill in the Blanks – Table 2: Design a Crossword puzzle Using vocabulary – Table 3: 10 Short Answer Questions – Table 4: 15 Multiple Choice Make a KEY for your study Guide! Keep your key in your notes! Test on Friday!!!!!!!