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Current Insect Problems on Landscape Woody Ornamentals Catharine Mannion UF/IFAS Tropical Research and Education Center April 2014 Photos: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS.

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Presentation on theme: "Current Insect Problems on Landscape Woody Ornamentals Catharine Mannion UF/IFAS Tropical Research and Education Center April 2014 Photos: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Current Insect Problems on Landscape Woody Ornamentals Catharine Mannion UF/IFAS Tropical Research and Education Center April 2014 Photos: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

2 The Landscape A Reservoir of Pests Also a reservoir of natural enemies

3 Proper identification of The problem The pest CRITICAL for successful management

4 Invasive Pests are one of our biggest pest problems Due to mild climate and diversity of plants, new insects become easily established Approximately 1-2 new pests introduced each month

5 Pest Damage Photos by Glenn, UF

6 Do not always blame insects for damage. Other critters can also cause damage! Photos by Glenn, UF

7 Who did this? Photos: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

8 Eggs Pupae/cocoons Cast skins Webs Frass Secretions Galls

9 Same insect ? Scale – females and males YES Photos: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

10 Same insect ? YES Photos: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

11 ADULT PUPA (NYMPH) Whiteflies Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS Photos: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

12 Same insect ? YES Photos: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

13 What is this? All the same insect – Lobate lac scale Photos: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

14 In addition to recognizing pests, you need to recognize the “good guys”

15 Pest ? YES NO Photos: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

16 Pest ? YES NO

17 Pest ? YES NO Photos: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

18 Pest ? YES NO Photos: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

19 Which snail is the pest? Which snail is endangered? Photos: Bill Frank,, D. G. Robinson, APHIS, Amy Roda, USDA Stock Island tree snail Giant African land snail

20 Is it a Pest ? No physical characteristics that define a pest Need to look at where it is and what it is doing Need to be familiar with the common pests/natural enemies Invasive pests are difficult –When in doubt – send to a proper authority

21 Awareness of new pests is very important. Of 150 species introduced into Florida during 1986-2002, 57% were first found in Monroe, Miami- Dade, Broward, or Palm Beach Counties. 27 new pests were reported for 2009-2010

22 The Biggest Invaders Hemiptera (Suborder Sternorrhyncha) –Psyllids, whiteflies, aphids, scales, mealybugs –Often cover themselves in wax or froth Photos: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

23 2012Honeysuckle whitefly 2011Bondar’s nesting whitefly 2010Passionvine mealybug Ash whitefly 2009Rugose spiraling whitefly Nipaecoccus viridis (mealybug) 2008Croton scale 2007Ficus whitefly 2002Pink hibiscus mealybug Bamboo mealybug 1999Lobate lac scale 1996Cycad aulacaspis scale Giant whitefly

24 The Biggest Invaders Coleoptera (beetles) 2012Asiatic garden beetle 2009Ambrosia beetle (Xyleborinus andrewesi) 2005Redbay ambrosia beetle 2000Sri Lankan weevil P. Skelley, A. E. Mayfield III, M. C. Thomas, FDACS DPI; J. Hulcr, MSU,; H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

25 The Biggest Invaders Thysanoptera (thrips) 2006Holopothrips tabebuia 2005Chilli thrips 2003Weeping ficus thrips H. Glenn and L. Osborne, UF/IFAS

26 The Biggest Invaders Mites 2013Phyllocoptes fructiphilus (vectors/associated with rose rosette virus) 2007Red palm mite 2001Eutetranycus sp. (spider mite)

27 Hemipteran Pest Damage (aphids, whiteflies, scales, mealybugs) Changes in foliage –Discoloration, spots, stippling, yellowing, bronzing) Defoliation and branch dieback Overall plant decline Plant death –Prolonged infestations –Secondary stress

28 Signs of Infestation by Hemipteran Pests Cast skins Mummies Wax Tar spots Honeydew Sooty mold Photos: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

29 Management Hemipteran Pests Early detection –Often cryptic; not noticed until populations are high Many have waxy secretions/coverings that provide protection Wash with water Insecticidal soaps and oils – need good coverage/repeat application Biological control Insecticides - systemic vs. contact

30 Management of Pests with Systemic Insecticides Several application methods and formulations –Soil application (drench, granular, pellets, injection) –Trunk application (basal spray, injection) –Foliar application Excellent tools for pest control –Can provide long term control –Prone to overuse

31 Drench Injection Granular Trunk spray

32 Whitefly Management Ficus, Rugose Spiraling and Bondar’s Nesting Whiteflies Neonicotinoids (MOA 4A) Active Ingredient Trade Names Professional Use AcetamipridTriStar (no soil application) ClothianadinArena, (Aloft – no longer available in Florida) DinotefuranSafari, Zylam ImidaclopridMerit, Marathon, Coretect, Discus, Allectus, several generic labels ThiamethoxamFlagship, Meridian

33 Pest Groups Targeted Hemiptera – Adelgids – Aphids – Bugs – Leafhoppers – Mealybugs – Psyllids – Scales – Whiteflies Coleoptera – Beetles – Weevils Others – Ants – Fungus gnats – Craneflies – Leafminers – Thrips

34 Using Neonicotinoid Insecticides There is no “best” a.i. or method - take advantage of the different methods and formulations Fit the method(s) of application for the site The site and method needs to be on the label Consider the methods that gets the needed result with the least negative impact on the environment/non-targets

35 Neonicotinoid Applications Applied to the soil Applied to the trunk Movement of the insecticide is upwards Applied to the foliage

36 Application to coconuts (or fruits) –Landscape: ornamental vs edible plant Effects on pollinators (particularly bees) –Toxic to bees –Systemic applications –use lowest effective dose –Avoid use on tree species highly attractive to pollinators; Use after bloom –Impact of other types of insecticides EDIS ENY-162 Minimizing Honey Bee Exposure to Pesticides Neonicotinoid Insecticides

37 Honey Bee Health USDA and EPA 2013 There are multiple factors playing a role in honey bee colony decline Forces impacting honey bee health are complex –Parasitic Varroa mite – major factor –Bee viruses – major factor –Poor genetic diversity –Poor nutrition among honey bee colonies –Need to determine actual pesticide exposure and effects to bees in the field


39 Insecticide Resistance Resistance to insecticides - not a new problem neonicotinoids Ongoing efforts with pyrethroids and neonicotinoids, the two biggest selling classes of insecticides Repeat application (particularly in multiple generations) Exposure to sublethal (less than optimal) pesticide rates How does systemic use affect resistance?

40 Arthropods Prone to Resistance Development Mites, aphids, whiteflies, and thrips –Many generations per year –Exposure of multiple generations to a pesticide –Produce many offspring –Limited dispersal –Exposure to sublethal (less than optimal) pesticide rates

41 Resources on Insecticide Resistance Managing Insecticide and Miticide Resistance in Florida Landscapes - Management of Insect and Mite Resistance in Ornamental Crops - A Dresser Drawer Method of Managing Insect and Mite Resistance in Ornamentals - IRAC’s Insecticide Mode of Action classification -

42 Biological Control Natural first line of defense Conservation of natural enemies –Everything you do has some impact –Reduce negative impact Release natural enemies –Requires knowledge of both the pest and natural enemy

43 Pest GroupNatural Enemies AphidsAphid midge, lady beetles, lacewings, minute pirate bug, parasitic wasps, microbial insecticides Broad mitesPredaceous mites MealybugsWasp parasites, lacewings, beetle predators (mealybug destroyer) Scale insectsLady beetles, wasp parasites Spider mitesLacewings, predatory mites ThripsWasp parasites, lacewings, microbial insecticides, minute pirate bug; predatory mites WhitefliesLacewings, wasp parasites, predaceous beetle larvae, microbial insecticides

44 Integration of Biological Control and Pesticides Most broad spectrum insecticides are toxic to arthropod natural enemies Fungicides are toxic to many entomopathogens Acaracides and pyrethroids – most harmful to predatory mites Pyrethroids – selective on most lacewings; mixed results on other predators and parasites

45 Integration of Biological Control and Pesticides Organophosphates – toxic to most arthropod natural enemies Botanicals – mixed effect on natural enemies; some selection Growth regulators – usually more specific; some selection Neonicotinoids – low to moderate (depends on application)

46 Impact of “Lower Risk” Pests Risk of spreading into production areas High visual or local impact Public, press and politic pressure Yet, not considered national risk (lack of funding or resources) Could be more problematic in isolated areas Reliance on pesticides

47 Established Pest Populations These pests are not going away Expect populations to go down (takes years) May always have “hot spots” Diverse landscapes –Overplanting anything (including native plants) can create a problem Select trees with less problems (but this is dynamic and can change; i.e. ficus) Strive for biologically based, long-term pest management

48 Pest Alerts –University of Florida ( –DOACS ( pest-alert.html) Web Resources

49 Whitefly Update Photos: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

50 Ficus Whitefly Photo: H. Glenn,, UF/IFAS

51 Photos: W. Schall, Palm Beach County Extension Ficus Whitefly Only feeds on ficus Causes leaf yellowing, leaf drop and branch dieback

52 A Word About Ficus Overplanted Increased problems – Plants not recovering – Planted in poor locations – Heavily pruned – Under/over maintained – Cumulative stress ? Many new pests – Ficus thrips (2003); Leaf gall wasp (2003); Ficus whitefly (2007); Fig wax scale outbreaks (2007); gall midge (2008); Bondar’s nesting whitefly (2011) and others (lobate lac scale, croton scale)

53 Ficus Whitefly Update Can be difficult to see whitefly building up until damage is apparent Damage is most obvious in late summer and fall Typically populations go down in the winter Appears to be getting worse in many areas since last year. Photos: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

54 Rugose Spiraling Whitefly Photos: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

55 Rugose Spiraling Whitefly Makes a big mess Produces white, waxy flocculent substance Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

56 Rugose Spiraling Whitefly Excretes a sticky, clear substance called honeydew Sooty mold grows on the honeydew Photos: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

57 Rugose Spiraling Whitefly More than 90 different plant hosts reported Favorites: – Gumbo limbo – Coconut – Bird of Paradise – Calophyllum spp. – Various other palms Christmas Alexander Montgomery Adonidia Photos: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

58 Rugose Spiraling Whitefly Update Populations naturally go down in the winter Populations are decreasing overall – Management – Natural enemies – 3 parasitic wasps and one predatory beetle identified but one is very active (Encarsia noyesii) – Martin, Miami-Dade, and Broward Counties all reporting decline of this whitefly Photo: S. Taravati, UF/IFAS

59 Bondar’s Nesting Whitefly Photos: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

60 Bondar’s Nesting Whitefly Not known as economic pest Often seen with other whiteflies Other species known in Florida Photos: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

61 Catharine Mannion Research and Extension Specialist Ornamental Entomology University of Florida, IFAS Tropical Research and Education Center 18905 SW 280 th Street Homestead, FL 33031 305-246-7000

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