Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Catalysis Catalysis provides an additional mechanism by which reactants can be converted to products. The alternative mechanism has a lower activation.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Catalysis Catalysis provides an additional mechanism by which reactants can be converted to products. The alternative mechanism has a lower activation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Catalysis Catalysis provides an additional mechanism by which reactants can be converted to products. The alternative mechanism has a lower activation energy than the reaction in the absence of a catalyst. AB v0 vc v0 no catalyst vc -- catalyst present (v 0 = -d[A]/dt with no catalyst) (v c = -d[A]/dt with a catalyst)

2 E a, f Reaction coordinate Potential Energy Energy barrier without catalyst Energy barrier with catalyst ∆E E a,r Products E a,f Reactants  E Not affected by catalyst E a,f and E a,r are lowered bycatalyst

3 Generally a catalyst is defined as a substance which increases the rate of a reaction without itself being changed at the end of the reaction. This is strictly speaking not a good definition because some things catalyze themselves, but we will use this definition for now. Catalyst supplies a reaction path which has a lower activation energy than the reaction in the absence of a catalyst. Catalysis by Enzymes Enzymes may be loosely defined as catalysts for biological systems. They increase the rate of reactions involving biologically important systems.

4 Enzymes are remarkable as catalysts because they are usually amazingly specific (work only for a particular kind of reaction.) They are also generally very efficient, achieving substantial Rate increases at concentrations as low as 10-8 M! Typical enzyme molecular weights are gm/mole (protein molecules)

5 Summary of Enzyme Characteristics 3) Very specific (work only on special types of reactions). General Behavior of Enzyme Catalyzed Reactions If the initial rate of the reaction is plotted versus the initial concentration of substrate S for a constant enzyme concentration, the following behavior is found: 1) Proteins of large to moderate weight ) Extremely efficient (work at 10-8 M) S (substrate) Products

6 InitialRate Substrate Concentration [S] concentration when V i = V S / 2 ViViViVi

7 InitialRate Substrate Concentration (Half maximum initial rate) Maximum initial rate [S] concentration when V i = V S / 2 ViViViVi

8 Explanation: Michaelis-Menten Mechanism E is free enzyme and ES is an enzyme-substrate complex V s is found to be directly proportional to the total enzyme concentration (E o ): V s ~ (E o ) concentration (E o ): V s ~ (E o ) (S) concentration required to reach half maximum initial velocity (V i = V S /2) found to be independent of (E o ). (S) 1/2 = K M (V i = V S /2) found to be independent of (E o ). (S) 1/2 = K M It may generally be assumed that (S) >> (E) since E are so efficient they catalyze reaction at very small concentration.

9 Steady State assumption: k 1 (E) (S) - k -1 (ES) - k 2 (ES) = k 1 (E) (S) - k -1 (ES) - k 2 (ES) Mechanism k 1 E + S  ES Step 1 k -1 k -1 ES  E + S Step 2 k 2 k 2 ES  P+E Step 3 ES  P + E Step 3 All are elementary kinetic steps. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Divide top and bottom by k1 to get  = k1E0/[k1+(k-1+k2)/(S)] Second Order Process First Order Process

10 Bonus * Bonus * Bonus * Bonus * Bonus * Bonus

11 Depends linearly on [S] in region of low substrate concentration. Case III : (S)1/2 is the substrate concentration when the initial rate reaches half its maximum value. VS/2

12 Km is rate at which ES decomposes by two mechanisms (k-1 or k2) divided by rate constant for formation of ES. Large Km  weak binding of E to S Small Km  strong binding of E to S {Lineweaver-Burke Plot} K m = M echanism k kk k1 E + S  ES Step 1 k-1 ES  E + S Step 2 k2 ES  P E EE E S tep 3 Invert this equation to get---

13

14 Application of chemical kinetics to ecological and toxicological problems While extremely beneficial for protection of crops, pesticides can have serious environmental impact Possible deleterious consequences include seepage of these otherwise helpful chemicals into soil and ground water I. Application of enzyme kinetics: Degradation of organophosphate pesticides Degradation of organophosphate pesticides Enzymes can be used to catalyze degradation of pesticides Case study: organophosphate pesticides abundant abundant highly toxic highly toxic “neutralized” via reaction “neutralized” via reaction

15 The same enzyme catalysts which can neutralize these pesticides can also be used to detoxify chemical nerve agents. nerve agents are structurally similar to nerve agents are structurally similar to organophosphate pesticides both contain organophosphate esters both contain organophosphate esters paraoxon Nerve gas used in Japanese subway attack. Degradation product produced in body from parathion General formula for pesticides

16 Recent studies have shown that enzymes, which effectively degrade organophosphates, can be incorporated into polymers -- specifically, foams -- in order to aid in their practical application. One enzyme under current investigation is organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) a.k.a. phosphotriesterase. [derived from Escherichia coli] The degradation reaction of organophosphates works via hydrolysis. Attack by water (yellow in solution)


Download ppt "Catalysis Catalysis provides an additional mechanism by which reactants can be converted to products. The alternative mechanism has a lower activation."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google