2Types of Pesticides INSECTICIDES HERBICIDES FUNGICIDES RODENTICIDES 23.1INSECTICIDESKill insects by blocking reproduction, clogging airways or disrupting nervous systemHERBICIDESKill weeds by disrupting metabolism & growthFUNGICIDESFungus killersRODENTICIDESRat & mouse killers
3What is a Pesticide? First-Generation Pesticides 23.2First-Generation PesticidesInorganic compounds (e.g., lead, mercury)Botanicals (e.g., nicotine, pyrethrin)Pyrethrin is derived from chrysanthemum flowers.
4What is a Pesticide? Second-Generation Pesticides Synthetic botanicals (e.g., pyrethroids)DDT
5MAJOR CLASSES The Major Groups of Insecticides Chlorinated hydrocarbon (e.g., DDT)Organophosphates (e.g., malathion)Carbamates (e.g., carbaryl)
6Table 23-1 Page 520 Table 23-1 Major Types of Pesticides Type InsecticidesChlorinatedhydrocarbonsOrganophosphatesCarbamatesBotanicalsMicrobotanicalsExamplesDDT, aldrin, dieldrin, toxaphene, lindane, chlordane, methoxychlor, mirexMalathion, parathion, diazinon, TEPP, DDVP,mevinphosAldicarb, carbaryl (Sevin), propoxur,maneb, zinebRotenone, pyrethrum, and camphorextracted from plants, synthetic pyrethroids (variations of pyrethrum), rotenoids (variations of rotenone), and neonicotinoids(variations of nicotine)Various bacteria, fungi, protozoaPersistenceHigh (2–15 years)Low to moderate (1–2 weeks), but some can last several yearsLow (days to weeks)Biologically Magnified?YesNo
8What is a Pesticide? The Major Kinds of Herbicides Selective herbicides(e.g., 2,4-D – kills broad-leaved plants)Nonselective herbicides(e.g., glyphosate, aka: Round-UpTM)
9Benefits and Problems with Pesticides Benefit: Disease ControlLocation of malaria
10Benefits and Problems with Pesticides Benefit: Crop productionFarmers save ~$3 - $5 in crops for every $1 invested into pesticides
11Benefits and Problems with Pesticides Problem: Evolution of Genetic Resistance# of species exhibiting genetic resistance to pesticides
12Benefits and Problems with Pesticides Problem: Evolution of Genetic ResistanceCreates a pesticide treadmillKills most pestsResistant surviveNumbers increaseINCREASEPesticide applicationEVEN MORENew population genetically resistant
13Benefits and Problems with Pesticides Problem: Evolution of Genetic ResistanceResistance ManagementCreate a “refuge” (no pesticide applied)Avoid repeated use of same pesticide
14Benefits and Problems with Pesticides Problem: Imbalances in the Ecosystem
15Benefits and Problems with Pesticides Problem: Imbalances in the EcosystemCreation of New Pests
16Benefits and Problems with Pesticides Problem: Persistence, Bioaccumulation, and Biological MagnificationBiomagnification of DDT
17Benefits and Problems with Pesticides Problem: Mobility in the Environment
18Risks of Pesticides to Human Health Short-term Effects of PesticidesHandling of food with pesticide residue
19Risks of Pesticides to Human Health Short-term Effects of PesticidesCase-in-Point: The Bhopal Disaster40 tons of methyl isocyanate gas released600,000 people exposed2,500 immediately killed2,500 more killed through time50,000-60,000 have serious health problems
20Risks of Pesticides to Human Health Long-term Effects of PesticidesPotentially higher risk of cancerSterilityMiscarriage / birth defectsPotentially higher risk for Parkinson’s disease
21Alternatives to Pesticides Using Cultivation Methods to Control PestsInterplant mixtures of plantsStrip cuttingPlanting, fertilizing, and irrigating at proper timeCrop rotation
22Alternatives to Pesticides Biological ControlsUsing naturally occurring diseases, parasites, or predators to control a pestPheromones and HormonesUse pheromones to attract insects to trapsSynthetic hormones induce abnormal developmentReproductive ControlsSterile-male technique – inundate pest population with large numbers of sterile males
23Alternatives to Pesticides Genetic ControlsUsing Genetically Modified plants (GMOs)Case-in-Point: Bt, Its Potential and ProblemsGenetically modified corn to produce Bt toxinPotential problem: may affect non-target species, such as monarch butterflyQuarantine
24Alternatives to Pesticides Integrated Pest Management
25Alternatives to Pesticides Integrated Pest ManagementIPM introducedRice Production in Indonesia
26Alternatives to Pesticides Irradiating FoodsPredominantly used on meatsKills many microorganisms
27FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT (FIFRA) The primary focus of FIFRA was to provide federal control of pesticide distribution, sale, and useEPA was given authority under FIFRA not only to study the consequences of pesticide usage but also to require users to register when purchasing pesticidesEPA is required to make instructional materials concerning integrated pest management (IPM) techniques available to individuals at their requestFederal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)The primary focus of FIFRA was to provide federal control of pesticide distribution, sale, and use. EPA was given authority under FIFRA not only to study the consequences of pesticide usage but also to require users (farmers, utility companies, and others) to register when purchasing pesticides.The EPA is required to make instructional materials concerning integrated pest management (IPM) techniques available to individuals at their request in accordance with the provisions of section 23(c) of this Act.
28Laws Controlling Pesticide Use Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act (1938)Pesticide Chemicals Amendment (1954)Delaney Cause (1958)Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (1947)Estimates of Risk of Cancer from Pesticide Residue
29Laws Controlling Pesticide Use Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act (1938)Pesticide Chemicals Amendment (1954)Delaney Cause (1958)Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (1947)Food Quality Protection Act (1996)
30The Manufacture and Use of Banned Pesticides Some US companies still make banned or seriously restricted pesticides and export the product.This can potentially lead to the importation of food tainted with banned pesticides
31The Manufacture and Use of Banned Pesticides The Global Ban of Persistent Organic Pollutants
32IPM is:A pest management philosophy that utilizes all suitable pest management techniques and methods to keep pest populations below economically injurious levels. Each pest management technique must be environmentally sound and compatible with producer objectives.This is one of many definitions of IPM. We will go through the key points of this definition w/ explanations.Key points of this definition include:It is a philosophy where we try to manage a pest instead of controlling or eradicating a pest. It requires a greater knowledge of the pest, crop and the environment.We will explain the general types of management methods are and give examples.We will define what an Economic Injury Level is and how it should be used in an IPM programWe will also must indicate that all management techniques must be environmentally sound AND that these techniques must be economically feasible for the producer.
33WHAT IS IPM? IPM utilizes a combination of: Preventive measures MonitoringControl techniquesIPM’s goal is to suppress pests by the least toxic measuresIPM does not exclude the use of chemical pesticides, but utilizes them sparingly and only as a last resortWhat Is IPM?Integrated Pest Management, or IPM, is an approach to pest control that utilizes a combination of preventive measures, maintains a regular monitoring program and employs a variety of control techniques.IPM’s goal is to suppress pests by the least toxic measures.IPM does not exclude the use of chemical pesticides, but utilizes them sparingly and only as a last resort.