7Calibration is critical How many gallons of mix per acre?Constant walking speed, spray pressure, nozzle typeDifferent people walk different speedsCareful calculation of pesticide per gallon of water depends upon calibration
8Calibration is critical Proper pesticide rate per acre =Enough product to control the pestToo much product can damage trees and waste moneyToo much product is illegalNot enough product wastes money, doesn’t kill the pest, can cause weed escapes
9Pesticide use: IPM Correctly identify the pest Is the pest population above a level of damage concern?Can an early treatment stop the population & reduce the need for repeated applications?Is the pest life cycle at the succeptable time to treat?
10Don’t spray by the calendar. Are you a licensed applicator Don’t spray by the calendar! Are you a licensed applicator? - necessary for purchase & application of Restricted Use Pesticides
11Choosing a Christmas tree pesticide Always read and follow all label directionsThere must be specific recommendations for the site: Christmas treesConifer plantations?Not forestry (Oust XP)Not non-crop
12Modes of Action questions Why does one pesticide control some species but not others?You can tank mix some pesticidesTwo or more herbicides in a tankMix an insecticide + a fungicide
15Herbicide activity types Foliar spray: what stage of plant growth is best for control? Early leaf, bud stage, full extension, late summer?Soil active spray: prevent weed seed germination
16Soil Active Herbicides: Conifers & Plant selectivity Physical selectivity:Soil active – solubility, soil adsorption breakdown half lifeHerbicide location in soil vs. plant rootsGrowth stage selectivity:Weeds actively growing?Seedling weeds?Conifers dormant?
17What does this all mean to the grower on the ground? Mix herbicides with different modes of action can broaden the weed control spectrum:Westar: Oust + Velpar pre-mixMix your own: glyphosate + AtrazineUnderstand the seasons of control by herbicide
18Herbicides and conifer safety Conifer safety depends upon the herbicideDormant conifers are less likely to be damagedDirected sprays reduce tree exposure and damage
19Prevent herbicide resistant weeds! Rotate your herbicide useUse different mode of action herbicidesTank mix with different modes of action herbicides
20Insecticide & miticide use Scout often to watch for insects & mitesWhen do they hatch?What is the population trend?What is the best growth stage for good control?Weather forecast: hot weather can cause a mite population explosion
21Miticide modes of action What life stage does the pesticide kill the insect or mite? Egg, larva, adult?Does the miticide kill the adults or adults and the eggs?Does the pesticide kill beneficial insects too?
22Fungicide useScout your fields for needle discoloration, fungal fruiting bodies from last yearWhen will the trees be harvested?Most fungicide treatments are 2-3 years before harvest. Especially the harvest year!