Presentation on theme: "1 WHO Collaborating Centre for International Drug Monitoring Dr. Mohamed Farah the Uppsala Monitoring Centre."— Presentation transcript:
1 WHO Collaborating Centre for International Drug Monitoring Dr. Mohamed Farah the Uppsala Monitoring Centre
2 WHO Drug Monitoring Programme Founding Members 1968 AustraliaNew Zealand CanadaDenmarkGermanyIrelandNetherlands United States of America United Kingdom Sweden
3 WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring
4 WHO Collaborating Centre the Uppsala Monitoring Centre established as a foundation 1978 based on agreement Sweden – WHO international administrative board WHO Headquarters responsible for policy
5 Signalling Procedure What should be achieved? Signals should not be missed Signals should be found early ‘False’ signals should be kept to a minimum
6 Process for joining WHO Programme 1.Ministry of Health (or equivalent) designates National Centre Ministry of Health National Centre the UMC WHO-HQ Geneva 1 2 3 4 5 2.Ministry of Health sends formal application to WHO- HQ, Geneva 3.National Centre sends sample reports to the UMC 4.UMC notifies WHO-HQ that reports are compatible 5.WHO-HQ advises Ministry of Health of admittance to the Programme
7 Official member Morocco (1992) South Africa (1992) Tunisia (1993) Zimbabwe (1998) Ghana (2001) Nigeria (2004) Mozambique (2005) Associate member Botswana Democratic Republic of Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Madagascar Sierra leone Uganda Zambia Algeria Egypt (2001) Tanzania (1993) Africa -WHO
8 Nomina si nescis, perit et cognitio rerum. (Carl von Linné, Critica botanica) If you do not know the names, the knowledge about the things vanishes as well.
13 Artemisia annuua L. The plant can grown in many places but it may not contain artemisinin. For example: Visitors of the ancient palaces in the forbidden city in beijing can find nice artemisia annua plants pushing left and right as weeds, but these plants do not contain artemisinin
14 Artemisia annua L. but a clone from China could contain up to 1.1 % artemisinin The average artemisinin concentration in plants of European origin range from 0.03 to 0.22 % (dry leaves weight basis) artemisinin,
19 but synthetic compound is unlikely to be economically competitive with the naturally produced compound Artemisinin can be synthesized,
20 Case report WHO Record number: Country: Ghana Type of report: Spontaneous report/Hospital Age: 54 YearsSex: Female Adverse Reaction(s): Face oedema; Oedema periorbital Outcome: Not recovered Suspected Drug:Artesunate Drug administration data: 200 Milligram Oral Total Indication: MALARIA Concomitant Drug(s):Nifedipine 20 Milligram Oral per Day Rechallenge action: Rechallenge Rechallenge outcome: Reaction recurred Nifedipine: 17 Face oedema 29 Oedema periorbital
21 Artemether Total number of reports 44 Agitation 6Headache 9Paroniria Anorexia Hypoplasia cerebellar Stomatitis Ataxia cerebellar FraInsomniaSweating increased 2 ConfusionJaundiceUrine abnormal 2 Confusion Fra Nausea 2Vision abnorma Dizziness 9NeurosisVomiting 2 Eye malformation Zaf
23 Artemisinin and derivatives There is a fear that improper use of artemisinin and its derivatives will spur the malaria parasite to evolve to resist treatment with the compounds, something that has happened to all previous malaria therapies Spread of chloroquine resistance of Plasmodium falciparum
24 Natural Mosquito Repellents *It is ten times more effective than DEET at repelling mosquitoes Agastache cana (Hook.) Woot. & Standl. Azadirachta indica Juss f. Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle Melissa officinalis L. Nepeta cataria L.* Pelargonium citrosum Vanleenii Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. ex Ait.
25 Mosquito’s natural enemy Mosquitofish Bat 600/h
26 If you think you're too small to be effective, you have never been in bed with a mosquito!