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Pesticide Safety & Toxicity Dave Moorhead Warnell School of Forest Resources University of Georgia.

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Presentation on theme: "Pesticide Safety & Toxicity Dave Moorhead Warnell School of Forest Resources University of Georgia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pesticide Safety & Toxicity Dave Moorhead Warnell School of Forest Resources University of Georgia

2 Pesticides: Chemicals to control unwanted forms of life - Pests Insecticides Nurseries Seed Orchards PlantationsInsecticides Nurseries Seed Orchards Plantations Fungicides Nurseries PlantationsFungicides Nurseries Plantations Herbicides Nurseries PlantationsHerbicides Nurseries Plantations Repellents Worker use Animal useRepellents Worker use Animal use

3 Relative Toxicity Organisms can’t differentiate between “natural” and “synthetic” chemicalsOrganisms can’t differentiate between “natural” and “synthetic” chemicals “Synthetic” does not mean toxic or poisonous“Synthetic” does not mean toxic or poisonous “Natural” does not mean safe or even low risk“Natural” does not mean safe or even low risk Chemicals must be evaluated in their biological context of behavior in organismsChemicals must be evaluated in their biological context of behavior in organisms Mode of action, not source, is the concernMode of action, not source, is the concern Pesticides should be treated with care and proper respect – but so should household cleaners, gasoline and kerosene, bleaches, paints and all other chemicalsPesticides should be treated with care and proper respect – but so should household cleaners, gasoline and kerosene, bleaches, paints and all other chemicals Mistretta USFS R-8

4 “I WANT A SPRAY THAT KILLS EVERYTHING BUT ISN’T DANGEROUS.”

5 Relative Toxicity: Are all substances toxic? YES! All are toxic to some quantifiable degree  All are toxic to some quantifiable degree  Sugar has an LD 50 of 30,000 mg/kg  Ethanol has an LD 50 of only 13,700 mg/kg  Even water has a recognized LD 50 of slightly greater than 80,000 mg/kg greater than 80,000 mg/kg

6 Pesticide Toxicity Toxicity - measure of ability of a chemical to injure /kill Exposure - contact with chemical Hazard - degree of exposure & toxicity level LD 50 - lethal dose to kill 50% of test animals

7 Pesticide Toxicity Acute toxicity - injury/death from one exposure Chronic toxicity - injury/death after long-term exposure Oral toxicity - injury/death from swallowing chemical Dermal toxicity - injury/death from exposure to skin

8 Pesticide Toxicity PPM (parts per million) - 1 oz in 62,500 lbs or 1 tbs in 3,906 gal PPB (parts per billion) times less than ppm - 1 tbs in 3,906,000 gal Half-life - time for 1/2 of initial concentration to be degraded Volatility - ability of a liquid to evaporate

9 Parts per Million ppm 1 liter of water = 1 kg 1 mg / kg = 1 ppm 1mm 3 / liter = 1 ppm 1 mg / liter = 1 ppm

10 One part per million is 1 inch in 16 miles1 inch in 16 miles 1 minute in two years1 minute in two years 1 cent in $10,0001 cent in $10,000 1 ounce of salt in 31 tons of potato chips1 ounce of salt in 31 tons of potato chips 1 bad apple in 2,000 barrels of apples1 bad apple in 2,000 barrels of apples Mistretta USFS R-8

11 One part per billion is 1 inch in 16,000 miles1 inch in 16,000 miles 1 second in 32 years1 second in 32 years 1 cent in $10,000,0001 cent in $10,000,000 1 pinch of salt in 10 tons of potato chips1 pinch of salt in 10 tons of potato chips 1 lob in 1,200,000 tennis matches1 lob in 1,200,000 tennis matches 1 bad apple in 2,000,000 barrels of apples1 bad apple in 2,000,000 barrels of apples Mistretta USFS R-8

12 One part per trillion is 1 postage stamp in the area of the city of Dallas1 postage stamp in the area of the city of Dallas 1 inch in 16 million miles (more than 600 times around the earth)1 inch in 16 million miles (more than 600 times around the earth) 1 second in 320 centuries1 second in 320 centuries 1 flea on 360 million elephants1 flea on 360 million elephants 1 grain of sugar in an Olympic sized pool1 grain of sugar in an Olympic sized pool 1 bad apple in 2 billion barrels1 bad apple in 2 billion barrels Mistretta USFS R-8

13 Remember – For pesticides – less is more when dealing with toxicityFor pesticides – less is more when dealing with toxicity The less you need to cause a toxic effect – the more toxic the substance isThe less you need to cause a toxic effect – the more toxic the substance is Thus an LD 50 of 25 mg/kg is more toxic than is one of 7,000 mg/kgThus an LD 50 of 25 mg/kg is more toxic than is one of 7,000 mg/kg Mistretta USFS R-8

14 Signal Words DANGER “Danger” reflects the highest degree of relative toxicity All pesticides with an LD 50 of less than 50 mg/kg must display this word on their label mg/kg must display this word on their label Pesticides here are classed as “highly toxic” Mistretta USFS R-8

15 Signal Words WARNING “Warning” reflects an intermediate degree of relative toxicity All pesticides with an LD 50 of greater than 50 and less than 500 mg/kg must display this word on their label Pesticides in this category are classed as “moderately toxic” Mistretta USFS R-8

16 Signal Words CAUTION “Caution” reflects the lowest degree of relative toxicity All pesticides with an LD 50 of greater than 500 mg/kg must display this word on their label

17 POISON!!! Legally defined term – not just anything you don’t likeLegally defined term – not just anything you don’t like Any pesticide with an LD 50 of 50 mg/kg or lessAny pesticide with an LD 50 of 50 mg/kg or less Labels must reflect this classificationLabels must reflect this classification Label must have the signal word “DANGER” plus the word “POISON”Label must have the signal word “DANGER” plus the word “POISON” Label also must display the skull and crossbones iconLabel also must display the skull and crossbones icon Mistretta USFS R-8

18 Toxicities of Forest Pesticides

19 Pesticide Toxicity Toxicity decreases when mixed (diluted) with waterToxicity decreases when mixed (diluted) with water 1 gallon of pesticide in 1 gallon of water is 50% less toxic1 gallon of pesticide in 1 gallon of water is 50% less toxic 1 gallon of pesticide in 20 gallons of water is 95% less toxic1 gallon of pesticide in 20 gallons of water is 95% less toxic

20 LD 50 s of field formulations Garlon 4 Garlon 4 --LD50 = 1,419 mg/kgGarlon 4 --LD50 = 1,419 mg/kg Streamline uses a 17% solution of Garlon 4 => 1,419 / 0.17 = 8,347 mg/kgStreamline uses a 17% solution of Garlon 4 => 1,419 / 0.17 = 8,347 mg/kg Foliar spray is normally done as a 3% solution => 1,419 / 0.03 = 47,300 mg/kgFoliar spray is normally done as a 3% solution => 1,419 / 0.03 = 47,300 mg/kg Mistretta USFS R-8

21 Relative Acute Toxicity Garlon 4 1,581 mg/kgGarlon 4 1,581 mg/kg Rainbow trout 0.74 mg/L Bluegill 0.87 mg/L Garlon 3A 2,574 mg/kgGarlon 3A 2,574 mg/kg Rainbow trout 117 mg/L Bluegill 148 mg/L Roundup, Glypro Plus>5,000 mg/kgRoundup, Glypro Plus>5,000 mg/kg Rainbow trout 8.2 mg/L Bluegill 5.8 mg/L Accord, Rodeo>5,000 mg/kgAccord, Rodeo>5,000 mg/kg Rainbow trout>1,000 mg/L Bluegill>1,000 mg/L

22 Tordon RUP? Tordon is a very low-risk herbicide with regard to human health **High risk of off-site movement** Great potential to damage non-target plants over an **extended period of time** Mistretta USFS R-8

23 Picloram PERSISTENCE AND BREAKDOWN Persistent in soil; half-life may be 1 year or more, but it is typically 90 days or less in the South in favorable conditions Breakdown is by photolysis Breakdown is by photolysis Mistretta USFS R-8

24 Picloram SOIL ACTIVITY AND MOBILITY Soil active; highly mobile in soil especially if percolating water is present Tends to be excreted by plant roots; results in soil activity even when applied by injection or other cut-surface treatments Mistretta USFS R-8

25 The Pesticide Label Information & Instructions Precautionary Statements & WarningsPrecautionary Statements & Warnings Application, Storage & DisposalApplication, Storage & Disposal Chemical FormulationChemical Formulation

26 The Pesticide Label Read 4 Times! Before Buying the PesticideBefore Buying the Pesticide Before Preparing the Material for UseBefore Preparing the Material for Use Before Mixing &ApplyingBefore Mixing &Applying Before Storing or Disposing the PesticideBefore Storing or Disposing the Pesticide

27 Handling Herbicides

28 Storage, Transport, & Disposal Storage Approved designated storage area Locked Warning-Pesticides-Keep Out Fire-resistant Containment Ventilation InventoryApproved designated storage area Locked Warning-Pesticides-Keep Out Fire-resistant Containment Ventilation Inventory

29 Storage, Transport, & Disposal Transport Check for damaged containersCheck for damaged containers Transport only needed amountsTransport only needed amounts Do not transport in passenger sectionDo not transport in passenger section Secure containersSecure containers Prevent over-heatingPrevent over-heating

30 Secure herbicide containers when transporting

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33 Storage, Transport, & Disposal Spill Procedures Administer first aidAdminister first aid Contain spillContain spill Contact manufacturerContact manufacturer Dispose of contaminated absorbentDispose of contaminated absorbent

34 Mixing, Handling, & Applying Pesticides Mixing & Handling Handling Concentrated FormsHandling Concentrated Forms Personal Protection Equipment Gloves Eye Protection ClothingPersonal Protection Equipment Gloves Eye Protection Clothing Specific Mixing RecommendationsSpecific Mixing Recommendations

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36 BE CAREFUL WHEN OPENING HERBICIDE CONTAINERS ESPECIALLY HOT ONES

37 If Accidental Exposure Occurs: Immediately Wash Thoroughly With Soap & Water

38 Carry two emergency eye wash bottles

39 What to Do if a Herbicide Accident Occurs Treat injury firstTreat injury first Check eyes for contamination & wash out immediatelyCheck eyes for contamination & wash out immediately Remove contaminated clothing & wash off herbicidesRemove contaminated clothing & wash off herbicides Take a copy of label & Material Safety Data Sheet to DoctorTake a copy of label & Material Safety Data Sheet to Doctor Notify supervisorNotify supervisor

40 Mixing, Handling, & Applying Pesticides Application PPE, Water & DetergentPPE, Water & Detergent Calibration CheckCalibration Check Prescribed Cleaning RinsingPrescribed Cleaning Rinsing Protect Water Supplies!Protect Water Supplies!

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43 Storage, Transport, & Disposal Disposal Estimate job requirementsEstimate job requirements Mix to avoid excess volumeMix to avoid excess volume Triple rinse & dispose/recycle empty containersTriple rinse & dispose/recycle empty containers

44 Protecting the Environment Concerns Off-site applicationOff-site application Off-site movement in airOff-site movement in air Off-site movement in waterOff-site movement in water Pesticide persistencePesticide persistence

45 Off-site Movement Generalizations More clay and organics = less leachingMore clay and organics = less leaching Higher temperature = more volatilizationHigher temperature = more volatilization Lower relative humidity = more volatilizationLower relative humidity = more volatilization Higher wind speed = more volatilization and driftHigher wind speed = more volatilization and drift Nearer to moving water = higher probability of contamination and off-site movementNearer to moving water = higher probability of contamination and off-site movement Finer droplets = more movementFiner droplets = more movement Mistretta USFS R-8

46 Breakdown Generalizations Hotter temperature = faster breakdownHotter temperature = faster breakdown Higher relative humidity = faster breakdownHigher relative humidity = faster breakdown More microbes = faster breakdownMore microbes = faster breakdown pH effect = chemical dependantpH effect = chemical dependant More slope = more runoffMore slope = more runoff Mistretta USFS R-8

47 Georgia’s Forestry BMPs BMPs for Chemical Applications Establish appropriate SMZ along perennial & intermittent streams & flowing bodies of waterEstablish appropriate SMZ along perennial & intermittent streams & flowing bodies of water Consider weather conditions (temperature, wind speed & precipitation) equipment capabilities & pesticide formulations to avoid pesticide drift into the SMZConsider weather conditions (temperature, wind speed & precipitation) equipment capabilities & pesticide formulations to avoid pesticide drift into the SMZ Conduct all on-site pesticide handling, such as tank mixing, loading & rinsing equipment away from streams, ponds, wells, & roadside ditchesConduct all on-site pesticide handling, such as tank mixing, loading & rinsing equipment away from streams, ponds, wells, & roadside ditches

48 Georgia’s Forestry BMPs BMPs for Chemical Applications Dispose of pesticide containers &/or excess pesticides according to local, State & Federal regulations & label requirementsDispose of pesticide containers &/or excess pesticides according to local, State & Federal regulations & label requirements Clean up &/or contain all pesticide spills immediatelyClean up &/or contain all pesticide spills immediately Report spills to GA EPD Emergency Response Program Report spills to GA EPD Emergency Response Program

49 Georgia’s Forestry BMPs Practices to Avoid During Chemical Applications Applying a pesticide directly to water bodies (streams, lakes, and swamps) unless it is specifically prescribed & labeled for aquatic managementApplying a pesticide directly to water bodies (streams, lakes, and swamps) unless it is specifically prescribed & labeled for aquatic management Broadcast applications of pesticides in SMZsBroadcast applications of pesticides in SMZs

50 On-Line References Pesticide Applicator Training Course USDA Forest Service Region 8

51 Information on the Web Bugwoodwww.bugwood.org Forestry Images Invasive Species

52 Arsenal Injection Mix 20% Arsenal AC20% Arsenal AC (25 oz +103 oz water) Apply 1 injection cut for every 3” stem dbh1 injection cut for every 3” stem dbh Spray 1 ml of herbicide into each cutSpray 1 ml of herbicide into each cut Treat August - MarchTreat August - March

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57 Wide –spaced Injection with Arsenal for Hardwood Control 1 quart of Arsenal treats 4,700 3” stems


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